View All Currently Funded Student Research Projects (total=992)

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1. Computer-automated program for the calibration of optical tweezers

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Alexander Mandarino Physics Brooke Hester Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Jul 30, 2014
Project Description: An optical tweezers system uses highly focused laser radiation in order to confine small particles and typically are used to study biological systems or materials. The measurement of the ability to trap a particle, known as trap stiffness, requires accurate knowledge of the particle's position in the trap. A position sensing detector is used to track particle motion and outputs voltages corresponding to the lateral positions of the particle. To properly calculate trap stiffness, the optical tweezers system must be calibrated to convert the measured position data from voltages to distance. The calibration process is time-consuming and must be repeated every time the user wants to collect data. Computer automation of the calibration process will reduce the amount of time required for researchers to take data and will increase the accuracy of future measurements. We are currently developing a LabView program that automates trap stiffness calculation through the use of computer-controlled mirrors and motors. To take data with any optical tweezers system, it is necessary to produce microscope slides that contain the sample that will be examined. Typically, slides consist of two glass coverslips with a rubber spacer in between, where the sample is placed. Access to a range of different size spacers will allow us to compare results and reproducibility among different size samples, which will in turn improve the automation program by better suiting it for universal sample sizes. We plan to present our findings at the Annual Celebration of Student Research and Creative Endeavors.

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2. The Impact of Regional Accreditation Requirements on Higher Education Policies and Practices: A Community College Perspective

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Star Brown Ed.D Leadership Licensure Jennifer McGee Education Curriculum and Instruction Jul 29, 2014
Project Description: The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between regional accreditors and higher education institutions, more specifically two-year institutions (community colleges). The purpose of the research is to determine the impact of regional accreditation requirements on higher education policies and practices at community colleges, with particular interest in understanding how faculty and staff are engaged in the accreditation process. When determining the impact of accreditation, impact is defined as an observed or quantified change in attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors as a result of the accreditation process and requirements. The goal of the research is to increase the understanding of the complex accreditation environment in order to improve the perceptions and practices related to accreditation. This study will make an effort to rectify those weaknesses by collecting data from personnel primarily responsible for the execution of accrediting regulations. These personnel, typically accreditation liaisons, can provide a unique perspective or insight into the benefits and detriments of institutional accreditation. Insight provided by those closest to the accreditation process and responsible for its completion would be beneficial to either confirm or disclaim whether accreditation is achieving its intended purpose. Thus, direct evidence of attitudes toward the effectiveness of accreditation standards demonstrating or resulting in institutional quality and improvement will be revealed through interviews with accreditation liaisons at participating North Carolina community colleges. The interview responses will serve as the foundation for the development of a future online survey to be deployed to a larger population (all accreditation liaisons in the southern region). The Pilot Study represents the qualitative portion of the mixed methods research study. Data from this pilot study will be used to inform future studies. Funds from this research grant will help offset the expenses associated with the travel to the participating North Carolina Community Colleges.

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3. The Effects of Musical Tempo and Dynamic Range on Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Adults

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Chelsea Stith Music Therapy Cathy McKinney School of Music Music Jul 29, 2014
Project Description: This study examines the effects of musical tempo and dynamics on heart rate variability. Very little research has been done that attempts to isolate the important characteristics of the music used and their influence on psychophysiological measures of arousal. Greater knowledge of how music affects the body will better inform music therapy practice and allow music therapists to provide more effective relaxation techniques for their clients, as well as make more effective clinical decisions regarding the well-being of their clients. This study features a within-subjects design. Participants will listen to four selections of music with tempo and dynamic range digitally manipulated to two different levels. The researcher will use random order of presentation to control for order effects. Heart rate variability will be compared across the different music samples to determine the effects of specific musical elements on this variable. A power analysis based on information from a previous study indicates that a sample size of N = 40 is necessary to detect the expected differences. Participants will be recruited from students enrolled general education music classes at Appalachian State University in an effort to sample participants with a realistic variety of music interests and levels of experience. This researcher requests funding to provide compensation for participants’ time. A financial incentive of $10.00 per participant will greatly assist in recruiting the necessary sample size. Professors currently teaching general education music classes have been approached about the possibility of providing extra credit as an incentive, but unfortunately it will not be possible to provide this equitably for all participants. A financial incentive, therefore, is being sought as an alternative to compensate participants for their time.

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4. Verifying Organic Anion Transport Chanel Function with Fluorescence Anisotropy

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Sam Migirditch Physics Dr. Brooke Hester Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Jul 29, 2014
Project Description: Novobiocin is thought to inhibit organic anion transport channels (OATs). These channels regulate the ability of many compounds to diffuse across the cell membrane. By better understanding the functional mechanism behind OAT inhibitors, like novobiocin, we aim to make progress towards better control of drug interactions in vital organs such as the brain, lungs, kidneys and liver. This goal will be accomplished through the use of a technique called fluorescence anisotropy analysis. This technique works by taking particles known as fluorophores, which absorb, retain, and then emit light a brief time later. The benefit of these particles is the fact that they preserve the polarization of the light which they absorb. If the fluorophore rotates while it is excited, its emitted light will have a new polarization. When fluorophores are attached to the OAT, we expect to observe a change in the measured polarization when novobiocin is introduced. The XF2007 dichroic is an optical filter which is necessary to ensure the light emitted from the sample is reaching the highly sensitive detectors, while the excitation source intensity is blocked. The dichroic square holder is necessary to hold the XF2007 filter. The 405 notch filter is needed to isolate the correct excitation wavelengths from the diode we use as an illumination source and allows us to save money by avoiding the purchase of a mode-locked laser. We plan to present this research at Creative Endeavors 2015.

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5. Automation of determining the axial position of trapped bead in an optical tweezer system

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
James Dienst Physics Brooke Hester Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Jul 29, 2014
Project Description: The goal of the project is to automate a method of determining the axial position of a bead trapped in optical tweezers. The axial equilibrium of the trapped particle is described by two distances: the distance between the chamber cover slip and the trapped particle and the distance between the beam waist and the trapped particle. Using a 975nm trap laser and a 635nm detection laser, a microscopic bead can be manipulated and observed by the optical tweezer system. The overall goal will be to create an automated program that carries out the distance measurement in a user friendly way. When completed, this program will be included as part of a large software package being developed by Dr. Hester and her students in the ASU Biophysics and Optical Sciences Facility (BiyOSeF). An earlier version of this project was presented at Creative Endeavors 2014 and the current project will be presented at Creative Endeavors 2015, among other conferences. The silica beads are needed for data acquisition to determine the validity of the above procedure. Silica sticks to the glass cover slip easier than polystyrene, allowing for less trials with better results. The two different sizes of beads are to ensure the accuracy of the procedure by comparing the results to each other.

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6. Monitoring of phenology and population demographics in a recently invaded alpine pollinator community

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kimberly Bowman Environmental Science Jennifer Geib Arts and Sciences Biology Jul 29, 2014
Project Description: Much recent attention has been focused on the plight of pollinators in agriculture and native ecosystems and the consequences for pollinator dependent plants. Many pollinator populations in the US and abroad have been experiencing significant declines, especially commercial honeybees and native bumble bees. However, recent research has also shown other drastic shifts in the species present in some pollinator communities. Alpine habitats in the Colorado Rockies, for example, have experienced invasion by lowland bumble bees over the last ten years, drastically increasing species diversity and potentially increasing competition for floral resources. The overarching goal of my project is to monitor the demographics and phenology of a shifting alpine pollinator community on Pennsylvania Mountain, Park County, CO. There is a long history of plant-pollinator research on Pennsylvania Mountain, and the area has recently been designated as a protected research area, in collaboration with Park County Tourism and the Mountain Area Land Trust. Invasive subalpine bumble bees have been observed in increasing frequencies above treeline since 2008. The specific objectives of my project are to assess species richness and abundances for all castes (queens, workers, and drones) within each species throughout the 2014 flowering season. This will be the first study of the phenology (timing) of the bumble bee community since the 1980s. Other researchers are conducting complementary studies of the floral phenology of the area. My research methods will primarily involve weekly surveys, conducted by walking transects in sites of high flower density. All bees observed will be caught with a net, cooled on ice to reduce their stress, then marked and released. The surveys will occur from the emergence of the first bumble bee queens in June through production of new reproductive bees in late July and early August. These surveys will occur over an elevational gradient at four sites: two sites at the transition zone between subalpine and alpine, one site just above treeline, and one site high above treeline. My faculty advisor will cover housing costs, but research funds are needed to cover the costs of travel between Appalachian State University and the research station in Fairplay, CO.

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7. Growth and physiological responses of Fraser fir Christmas trees along an elevational gradient

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Scott Cory Biology Howard Neufeld Arts and Sciences Biology Jul 07, 2014
Project Description: For my Master’s thesis, I am studying growth and physiology of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) Christmas trees at a range of elevations in Western North Carolina to evaluate how this species will respond to global warming. North Carolina ranks second nationwide in number of Christmas trees harvested, and the $100 million per year industry is crucial for local economies. My research involves collaboration with local farmers and the NC Cooperative Extension to provide useful information to farmers and agriculture researchers about the potential effects of global warming on their industry. Native populations of Fraser fir grow above 1370 meters, but Christmas trees are grown as low as 610 meters, where temperatures are warmer. For my thesis research, I am monitoring trees from seven field sites at approximately 610, 1070, and 1370 meters (2000, 3500, and 4500 feet). Ecologists frequently employ elevation as an in situ surrogate for warming to predict how plant species will respond to warming and climate change. I am testing the following hypotheses: H1: Due to an extension of the favorable growing season at low elevations, trees will begin growth sooner and cease physiological activity later than trees at higher elevations. H2: Net photosynthetic rates will be reduced at lower elevations due to higher temperatures that cause an increase in dark respiration rates, resulting in less carbon gain compared to trees at higher elevations. H3: Cumulative irradiation (total amount of sunlight per season) is lower at high elevations due to frequent cloud cover, resulting in physiological adaptations in photosynthetic characteristics. At each of the seven field sites, timing and magnitude of tree growth is measured weekly during the growing season by recording phenology (timing of seasonal biological events; e.g. when new needles grow) and by installing dendrometers to measure annual growth increments and timing of trunk expansion. Net carbon gain and physiological functioning are measured weekly using a Li-Cor 6400 portable gas-exchange system. I am requesting assistance to offset the cost of travel to field sites. Each site is ~15 miles away from my laboratory and is visited 1-3 times per week. At $0.30 per mile, $500.00 will cover approximately one third of travel costs associated with research in the field. Results of this study will be submitted for publication in Global Change Biology and presented to local Christmas tree farmers as part of our outreach efforts.

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8. Insider vs. Tourist within the works & life of Ernest Hemingway: A comparative research

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Elijah Stroud English Carl Eby Arts and Sciences English Jul 01, 2014
Project Description: Within the works of Ernest Hemingway, there runs a trend of the aficionado or insider which contrast heavily with the character of the tourist. This project entails a comparative cultural study of the regions featured most heavily within his works i.e. France, Spain and Italy. This ideology is centered around the cultural values and predominant sociological themes within a specific ethnic region. Through the interview of various departments of tourism, and first hand research, a consensus will be pursued. The shifting/rooted values of a specific region, such as the city of Ronda (which will be visited) will allow for an understanding of the nature of "insider" within the life and texts of Ernest Hemingway. Through the simultaneous interviews of individuals with expert experience such as H.R Stoneback (who will be at the final Hemingway conference in Venice that will be attended), who have first hand or in-depth understanding of the subject matter a deeper understanding will be reached, which will contribute to a final thesis.

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9. Raman Spectroscopy of Biofilms

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Zachary Jenkins Physics Jennifer Burris Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Jul 01, 2014
Project Description: The Biophysics and Optical Science Facility (BiyOSeF) at ASU is using Raman spectroscopy to study the structure of heterogeneous biofilms, such as Vibrio Cholera. The project is in collaboration with the Department of Biology. BiyOSeF is one of the largest research groups on campus. Students in the group routinely present their findings at local, regional, and national meetings and multiple peer-reviewed papers have been written that include student authors. Raman spectroscopy is a technique used to identify materials and study the molecular structure of a specimen, via the collection of Raman scattering. Raman scattering occurs when light of a known energy interacts with a material. The incident light excites the molecules in a specimen to a higher vibrational energy state by adding energy to the molecule. When the molecules relax to a vibrational energy state other than the original state, they release the excess energy in the form of light of a different energy than the incident light. Biofilms are assemblages of microbes that predominately grow on surfaces embedded in a complex matrix. Biofilms are believed to be the primary mode of the existence of bacteria in their natural environments; therefore, understanding all aspects of biofilm formation and structure is essential to understanding bacterial physiology and ecology. Biofilm bacteria are the cause of many problems across different fields. In industry, they attach to metallic surfaces and cause damage on the nano and micro scale by etching the metal, leading to corrosion. In medicine, biofilm bacteria have a very high resistance to antimicrobial compounds and can commonly cause diseases that are difficult, if not impossible, to treat. Furthermore, biofilms of food-borne pathogens formed on surfaces of food or packaging have been known to cause outbreaks of food borne illness. A more thorough understanding of the structure and composition of biofilms have the potential to result in new strategies to prevent biofilm-associated problems for all these cases. For this project to succeed, we will need to change our current laser source from 785nm to 514nm, as literature has suggested. The (NB1-J10) Ar Ion laser mirror will allow us to use the recommended laser and deliver the necessary power to the sample to induce the Raman effect and collect Raman spectra. The overall objective of this project is to successfully collect and use Raman signal to both identify naturally occurring, heterogeneous biofilms and to study the molecular structure of the biofilms. Specific Aims: Optimize the system to achieve maximum Raman signal and accurate spectral information Successfully collect spectra on various biofilms and understand the structure in which they form Present the research at student research events such as the Celebration of Student Research and Creative Endeavors at Appalachian State University and State of North Carolina Undergraduate Research and Creativity Symposium.

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10. Identification of Microorganisms in Alcohol Fermentation

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
William Giduz Physics Jennifer Burris Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Jul 01, 2014
Project Description: The Biophysics and Optical Science Facility (BiyOSeF) at Appalachian State University is currently working on a project in collaboration with the Fermentation Science Program that involves the use of Raman spectroscopy for the identification and classification of microbes in the fermentation process. Raman spectroscopy is a technique used to identify materials and study the molecular structure of a specimen, via the collection of Raman scattering. The Raman scattering phenomenon occurs when light of a known energy (or wavelength) interacts with a material. The incident light excites the molecules in a specimen to a higher vibrational energy state by adding energy to the molecule. When these molecules relax to a vibrational energy state other than their original state, they release the excess energy in the form of light. The light that is emitted from the molecules will have a different energy (or wavelength) than the incident light. Raman spectroscopy can be used to identify unfamiliar samples because every substance yields its own unique Raman fingerprint. Using this technique, we will collect Raman spectra of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae is a specimen of yeast that is commonly used in beer and wine fermentation. In order for our project to be successful, a stable light source with a known wavelength (laser) is required. Based on relevant literature, we have decided to terminate the use of our current laser diode unit to allow for the use of our Argon gas laser in the excitement of our S. cerevisiae sample. The Argon laser emits light at a wavelength of 515 nm, whereas the diode we have previously been using emits light at a wavelength of 785 nm. Since our system is currently set up to excite a sample of S. cerevisiae using 785 nm light, it is necessary that we obtain new optical pieces that are manufactured for use with 515 nm light instead. If an incorrect wavelength of light is delivered to an optical mirror, this wavelength will transmit through the mirror instead of reflecting off of it. This results in a loss of power to our sample. On average, the Ar-Ion Laser Mirror (458-528 nm) reflects 99.5 percent of light that falls in the range of 458-528 nm. Recall that our laser operates at 515 nm, which falls soundly into the reflectivity range of the mirror. The reason we have requested two is because it takes two mirrors to align the laser line into a straight path to our sample.

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11. Effects of Gender Bias and Verbal Ability on Accuracy of Describing a Criminal Offender

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Bethany Poff Psychology Paul Fox Arts and Sciences Psychology May 22, 2014
Project Description: This was a senior honor's thesis aimed determining whether gender bias and verbal ability affects an individual's ability to describe a criminal offender. In accordance with earlier research that establishes a cross-racial bias, my study examined whether cross gender identification might also be an issue of concern. A 2 (gender of perpetrator) x 2 (gender of participant) factorial design was used to assess the accuracy of descriptions of a perpetrator in a video-taped burglary. I also examined verbal ability (anagram task) and verbosity (word count of descriptions) to shed light on what might account for gender differences. The study was hosted on Qualtrics through M-Turk and results were hand-scored. I found that females provided more accurate descriptions and performed better on the anagram measure of verbal ability than males. There was no difference in word count. Results were discussed within the context of eyewitness identification accuracy.

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12. Fostering Community, Creativity, and Independence through Art Therapy Techniques

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Hannah Cartner Psychology Robert Bringle Arts and Sciences Psychology May 22, 2014
Project Description: To ascertain the effectiveness of art therapy as a means for increasing creativity, community, and autonomy in the visually impaired population.

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13. Process Series: Post-Digital Experiments

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Nicholas Burkhalter Graphic Design Tricia Treacy Fine and Applied Arts Art May 22, 2014
Project Description: To ensure that no details and creative decisions go unnoticed I require the necessary documentary tools. This collection will shed light on the development of ideas into existence. During my summer research assistantship I'll have the opportunity to work an assortment of projects, including and not limited to, collaborating with writers, editors and artists to meet the needs of a publisher. I will compile an audio/visual record of each collaborator’s submission to the final product, demonstrating the group effort required to bring a concept to fruition. I'll assist with theTechno Graphics project (www.technographic.org), an educational experience culminating in a two-day workshop at the 2014 TypeCon in Washington DC. Designers will take part in the creation of wood type using digital fabrication tools including the design and production of their own fabricated type-high contemporary glyphs to be create visual compositions. In addition to workshop assistance and documentation, I will conduct interviews with the instructors and participants. This research, in the form of interviews, will establish each contributor's background and chart their progress through the fabrication workshop. The journey from abstract concept to physical form will be a vital supplement to the final product, not just for the contributing members but also the intended audience. Inspiration for this research stems in part from the work of filmmaker Hillman Curtis. His Artist Series videos underline the creative process of influential designers. My research will highlight the evolving nature of the design process by showing how ideas grow to suit the needs of a client. Given the diversity of assignments I’ll be working on I will not always be able to remove myself from my workflow in order to document my process. Having a documentary tool prepared and on hand precludes the need to stop work. The portable design of the GoPro and the Tascam Recorder facilitate an ongoing record of my work while remaining unobtrusive. Secondary digital storage will allow for high-speed storage of documentation as well as a secure backup. Digital storage space is essential to a constructive workflow. Similar services are offered via cloud-based storage yet require an internet connection and do not offer the storage space to accommodate larger audio and video files. When the design process is recorded with care then the final product will be that much more successful. Details of each project’s trajectory will become part of the Process Series: Post-Digital Experiments documentary. This will then be put on display for my peers to evaluate at the Annual Celebration of Student Research and Creative Endeavors. Its one thing to admire successful work, it is another thing entirely to appreciate the creative effort and input that produces successful work. The results of my research and documentation will cultivate an informed understanding of the necessary steps taken to produce effectual design.

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14. Effects of watermelon supplementation on metabolism and insulin resistance in overweight, postmenopausal women

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Thomas Jurrissen Exercise Science Kevin Zwetsloot Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science May 22, 2014
Project Description: The aim of this study is to determine the metabolic effects of a 6-week watermelon supplementation regimen in overweight, post-menopausal women. This grant will enable the analysis of blood glucose and insulin levels to determine HOMA scores, a surrogate measure for insulin sensitivity. These analyses are in addition to other measures already being performed as part of a larger, externally-funded project performed by Drs. Shanely and Zwetsloot. Blood will be drawn by a phlebotomist and samples will be sent to Watauga Medical Center for analysis. There will be two blood draws, pre and post-supplementation. This particular OSR grant is requesting funding to perform the analyses on pre-supplementation blood samples only. After the baseline fasting blood draw, subjects will consume 24oz of watermelon supplementation per day for 6-weeks. After the 6-week supplementation period, another fasting blood draw will be obtained for post-supplementation measurements. There will be 50 subjects in total, with each analysis costing $10 to determine glucose and insulin levels. Improvements in glucose and insulin levels with watermelon supplementation could lead to an alternative treatment for weight management and better glucose control. Obesity has been shown to be a major risk factor for type II diabetes. If this supplementation can initiate satiety, or a feeling of fullness, earlier, compared to control, then this could lead to weight loss. Weight loss, especially a return to healthy body mass index, would decrease the risk of type II diabetes and other diseases associated with obesity.

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15. Quantification of Prolamin Content in Beer

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Taylor Smith Chemistry Brett Taubman Arts and Sciences Chemistry May 01, 2014
Project Description: Gluten-free beers are becoming increasingly popular as more people are being diagnosed with gluten allergies. The Food and Drug Administration released a new rule in August 2013 providing a standard definition of “gluten-free” for food labeling which requires that, in order for a food or beverage to be labeled as “gluten-free,” it must contain less than 20 parts per million of gluten, which makes it safer for Coeliac patients to consume. Gluten-free beers can be made with cereals such as rice or sorghum, which do not contain a sufficient concentration of gluten to trigger autoimmune responses in Coeliac patients, or by introducing proteases to break down the prolamin proteins of barley and wheat during fermentation. For this study, the RIDASCREEN® Gliadin competitive enzyme immunoassay was used for the analysis of multiple commercially available beers including a light lager, an IPA, a wheat beer, a “gluten-free” red lager made with sorghum, a “gluten-free” blonde ale made with sorghum, and a “gluten-free” pale ale made with barley in which the gluten was degraded during fermentation. Results for the “regular” beers ranged from 72 ppm to >135 ppm of gluten while the “gluten-free” beers ranged from <5 ppm to 13 ppm of gluten. Four ferments were undertaken in the lab, including two sorghum ferments and two barley ferments which had gluten concentrations ranging from 17 ppm to 212 ppm. The goal of the project is to quantify the gluten concentration of multiple varieties of gluten-containing and gluten-free beers and to experiment with different gluten-free grains in the brewing process to see if/how the gluten proteins are broken down and the composition they exist in the final product.

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16. Legal Decisions

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Lindsay Marshall Psychology Andrew Smith Arts and Sciences Psychology Apr 30, 2014
Project Description: This project is a Master's thesis in the General Experimental Psychology program. The goal of this project is to assess how people interpret information and then use this information to make a decision. Previous research has found that people tend to interpret new information to be consistent with their previously held beliefs. In our study, we will be investigating how people interpret information about a criminal trial and then use this information to make a verdict. Specifically, we will describe a hypothetical case concerning an employee accused of stealing a sum of money from the company where he works. After people read the background information, they will be presented with bits of evidence one at a time and will evaluate this information as if they were jurors concerning the extent that it favors the prosecution or defense in the trial. Some people will see the evidence from the prosecution first while other people will see the evidence from the defense first. After all the pieces of evidence have been presented, the participants will make a verdict decision as to the guilt/innocence of the defendant. We are predicting that people who see the information from the defendant first will start to form an impression that the defendant is not guilty. Then, when they see the information from the prosecution, they will interpret this information in a biased way so they will continue to believe the defendant is not guilty. On the other hand, people who see information from the prosecution first will form an impression that the defendant is guilty, when they see information from the defense they will process this in a biased way so they will continue to believe the defendant is guilty. The findings from our study will help us understand how people interpret information as it is presented to them from persuasive sources and how this process affects final choices. The budget is needed to compensate participants from a non student sample so that conclusions about perceptual processes may be generalized to a larger population. Non student samples are next to impossible to collect data from without compensation. The requested budget will be used to this end. Collecting from a non student sample may not be possible without funding.

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17. Female sex offenders: Effect of gender and legal history

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Eguono Akpoduado Psychology Twila Wingrove Arts and Sciences Psychology Apr 29, 2014
Project Description: The purpose of the present study is to examine public attitudes towards female sex offenders in comparison to male sex offenders. We have a limited knowledge on female sex offenders especially those involving a victim of the same sex. Previous research on this subject is limited, therefore it is clear that there is more to be understood about female sex offenders. We used a 2(counselor gender: male, female) x 2 (camp participant gender: male, female) x 2(Camp counselor past offender: Yes, no) x 2(Camp participant past offender: yes, no) between subjects factorial design. Participants’ attitudes towards the offender was measured through their perception of blame, guilt and victim want; while participants’ judgment about the case was measured with the amount of sentence length that each participant gave to the offender. Participants belonged to age groups ranging from 18 to 24. Participants were gathered through the university’s psychology department’s sona system and were given credit for participation. Procedure: The participants were asked to read one of twelve randomly assigned vignettes involving a sexual interaction between a camp counselor and a camp participant. After which, participants were asked to fill out a 13-item questionnaire to assess participants’ opinion and legal judgments. Justification: I will be presenting my research on a poster and I will also be traveling to Charlotte, NC to present my research at the north Carolina Psychological Association conference for 2014

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18. Turning a Prison Inside-Out: Louisiana State Penitentiary through the Lens of Positive Criminology

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Ellison Mullis Criminal Justice Barbara Zaitzow Arts and Sciences Government and Justice Studies Apr 29, 2014
Project Description: For centuries, criminologists have established theoretical explanations pertaining predominantly to the mechanisms that enable crime commission. However, similar to the relatively new field of positive psychology, positive criminology (not to be confused with the 18th-century positivist school of criminology) explores the means of preventing crime, rehabilitating offenders, and aiding the desistance of offending. “Positive criminology provides individuals with an innovative experience of being in a positive and inclusive world with the hope that it might enhance an experience of positively being in the world” (Ronel & Segev, 232). Mechanisms that facilitate this experience include providing human closeness, avoiding self-centeredness, fostering strengths and talents, evaluating challenges, and enabling social inclusion and support. While most of America’s prisons serve the purpose of keeping criminals “in,” Louisiana State Penitentiary (LSP), under the leadership of Warden Burl Cain, opens its gates to thousands of people in the free society for the sake of the morale of prisoners along with the financial benefits that allow improvements to be made within the prison. LSP operates under the philosophy of a ‘hard day’s work makes you a better person’ and most of the daily operations are the responsibility of the inmate population. The 18,000-acre facility houses over 5,000 inmates - most of whom will die there as a result of lengthy prison sentences - and offers a variety of programming opportunities for the men who reside there including educational, vocational, and religious study, a prison radio program, the Angolite newspaper, and a hospice program that is run by inmates. The institution also operates a golf course for members of the free community to use, dozens of acres of farmland for crops and cattle to be harvested for prison-use, and hosts an annual inmate rodeo and art show. The purpose of the present investigation is to assess existing literature on the history of Angola prison, through the theoretical lens of positive criminology, and compare the historical analysis with a more contemporary inside glimpse of the management, operation, and treatment of both the prisoners and staff of LSP based on personal observations and discussions with as many representatives from both domains (prisoners and staff) during a 2-day visit to the prison. The short duration of the prison visit is viewed as a starting point for the further investigation of the carceral experience and the potential for additional reinforcement initiatives. The ultimate goal is to understand human beings’ responses to the incarceration experience and to continue to question the generalizability of theories and policies that relate to imprisonment. My proposed budget is necessary given the distance the research is taking me. This preliminary research will foster an extended endeavor to expand existing literature on positive criminology. CITI Human Subjects is completed.

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19. Case-Related Attitudes and Legal Decisions

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Hannah Carlan Psychology Twila Wingrove Arts and Sciences Psychology Apr 29, 2014
Project Description: This project is based on sharing research. It will allow the presenters to learn more about the process of research as well as communicating this with others. The poster is mandatory for our research presentation. Without the poster, we will be unable to show our research as a whole.

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20. Analysis of Protein and Trace Mineral Content of North Carolina Hay Varieties

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Nick Zangardi Chemistry Michael Hambourger Arts and Sciences Chemistry Apr 29, 2014
Project Description: Several methods for determining protein content and nitrogen compounds in various feedstocks have been employed including the Van Slyke method, the Kjeldahl method, and CHN analysis. Our focus will be on the implementation of CHN elemental analysis coupled with gas chromatography, as well as the Bradford assay procedure to identify protein amounts in varieties of locally grown hay. Macronutrients alone are insufficient in fulfilling a wholesome diet for livestock (namely goat and cattle), so an analysis of feed for trace minerals, specifically copper and selenium, will be performed via inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The overall goal of the project is to acquire valuable information regarding hay that may help agriculturists and farmers in our region improve the nutritional content of their feed.

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21. Calibration of GC-TOF

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Ryan Cook Chemistry Brett taubman Arts and Sciences Chemistry Apr 29, 2014
Project Description: This prohject will include the setup of the GC-TOF currently in the separations Instrumental lab and the calibration for later research projects. The above solvents are necessary for this calibration setup. Future projects can include studies of hyrdocarbons and pesticides.

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22. Effects of genotypic diversity at different spatial scales on the associated pollinator community of Solidago altissima

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Julie Ragsdale Biology Ray Williams Arts and Sciences Biology Apr 29, 2014
Project Description: The purpose of my project is to investigate the effects that genotypic diversity at different spatial scales has on the associated pollinator community of tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima. Previous research has demonstrated the influence that genotypic diversity, as well as geographic scale, have on the associated arthropod community. However, pollinators have received less attention, so the mechanisms of pollinator choice in host plant remain unclear. Five sites (fields of S. altissima) will be chosen for similar environmental conditions in Watauga County, North Carolina. Each site (large scale) will have 4 discrete patches (small scale). I will compare pollinator and phytochemistry data between patches within sites. Insect pollinators will be visually surveyed for 5 minutes 3 times throughout the blooming period (September through October). Pollinators will be identified to the lowest possible taxonomic category. To prevent an excess of terpene induction, patches will be swept at the conclusion of surveying. Sweepnetting will allow me to catch specimens and will facilitate identification. Three soil cores will be taken from each patch to analyze carbon and nitrogen content to note any correlation between these elements and terpene production or pollinator visitation. Terpene analysis will be conducted in the laboratory of Dr. Ray Williams at Appalachian State University. I will collect inflorescences from each patch observed and immediately place in a plastic bag and cooler for transport to the lab. Flowers will be removed from the calyx, placed into 15 mL pentane and refrigerated at 4°C for 4 to 6 weeks to extract the terpenes. I will filter the samples then concentrate the extract to 5mL by gently bubbling with nitrogen gas. A 1?L sample of the concentrated extract will be introduced into a Shimadzu 14-A gas chromatograph with FID detector. Unknowns will be identified using GC/MS and known standards. Studying community genetics is crucial to understanding the role of genetic diversity in plant-insect interactions. Terpene production could vary by genotype, in which case pollinators will be attracted to certain genotypes over others. Comparing the effect between patches (small scale) and distant sites (large scale) will provide insight into to the importance of landscape variation. Any correlation between terpene compounds and pollinator abundance and visitation may indicate that pollinators choose a host plant based on the presence or absence of certain terpenes.

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23. Jury prejudice in sentencing decisions.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Michael Simmons Psychology Twila Wingrove Arts and Sciences Psychology Apr 29, 2014
Project Description: Our goal is to better understand what factors affect Juries when they decide on sentences and if there are certain prejudices that will cause them to choose larger or smaller sentences.

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24. Short-term temporal trends in gene expression in sensitive and tolerant soybean cultivars exposed to ozone

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Tongji Xing Biology Howard Neufeld Arts and Sciences Biology Apr 29, 2014
Project Description: Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the four major global food crops and is particularly sensitive to ozone (O3). Considerable genetic variation in sensitivity to O3 exists between different cultivars, but the mechanistic bases for this variation remain poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that elevated O3 causes upregulation of antioxidant genes and downregulation of photosynthetic genes, and their relative differential regulation may contribute to O3 sensitivity in plants. However, such research is still in its beginning stages, and few studies have yet been done on soybeans. Our goal is to examine the molecular bases for tolerance to O3 among tolerant (Fiskeby III) and sensitive (Mandarin Ottawa) soybean genotypes. In particular, we want to test two hypotheses: H1: Tolerant genotypes upregulate defensive genes sooner and/or to a greater extent than sensitive genotypes, and, H2: Sensitive genotypes, conversely, downregulate photosynthetic genes sooner and/or to a greater extent than tolerant genotypes. Genomic studies have been done using RNA-seq to provide a preliminary gene list from which we will select 7 candidate genes for further investigation. Each genotype has been exposed to either charcoal-filtered air (25 ppb O3), or high O3 (75 ppb O3) using CSTR exposure chambers. For each genotype, we sampled and flash-froze one leaf at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 hrs after exposure. Leaf mRNA were extracted and will be transcribed into cDNA. Expression patterns for each of our 7 candidate genes will then be determined using quantitative real-time PCR. This study is one of the first to follow short-term temporal patterns of gene expression for targeted genes in tolerant and sensitive soybean genotypes and may serve as the basis for more extensive studies of the molecular aspects of ozone tolerance in this important crop species. Ethanol, chloroform and phenol will be used to purify the RNAs that have been isolated. RNA to cDNA Kit will be used to reverse transcribe the RNAs into cDNAs for quantitative PCR analyses. Taq DNA Polymerase will be used to test the quality of the cDNAs.

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25. Visual Fixations on Images of Female Athletes: Implications for Body Image

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Alison Cooke Psychology Doris Bazzini Arts and Sciences Psychology Apr 29, 2014
Project Description: An abundance of previous research has been devoted to examining how media impacts women in terms of body dissatisfaction and self-objectification. Although many studies have shown that exposure to the the thin ideal for beauty has a detrimental impact on women’s perceptions of self, some research has demonstrated that more powerful images of women may actually have beneficial influences. For example, Daniels (2009) demonstrated that women who had viewed images of professional female athletes while engaged in their sport expressed more physicality and less beauty statements when describing themselves relative to those who had seen sexualized images of female athletes. What has not been researched extensively, is the more perceptual elements of why these sorts of effects occur. That is, when women view images that are (what Daniels termed) “powerful” or “sexual,” to what do they visually attend? Do they fixate visually on different elements of these images? This study will assess the eye fixations (using an eye tracker) of women on performance-oriented or sexualized images of the same female athletes and then assess standard measures of self-objectification, social physique anxiety and exercise behaviors.

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26. Effects of Brief Cognitive Restructuring and Acceptance-Based Interventions on Pain Tolerance

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Breckyn Ely Psychology Josh Broman-Fulks Arts and Sciences Psychology Apr 29, 2014
Project Description: By creating a poster, I will be able to present the results of my research at the Student Research Celebration, the Psychology Honors Research Day, and represent Appalachian State at the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies Convention in November. All of the grant would go to printing the poster that costs $60.

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27. Environmental and genotypic effects in Solidago altissima on colonization of the specialist aphid (Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum)

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Brian Bonville Biology Ray Williams Arts and Sciences Biology Apr 29, 2014
Project Description: Investigating the effects of both interspecific genetic diversity and environment in a foundational plant species is important for understanding effects on associated arthropods. I will examine the environmental effect of nitrogen addition and its potential interaction with genotype on the colonization of a specialist aphid, Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum in the plant Solidago altissima. This plant species has well known genetic variation and contains an array of terpene compounds. Though the exact roles of these chemicals in the plant are still poorly understood, they may serve as a possible mechanistic explanation for host plant choice. Terpenoids have been shown to vary between genotypes and growing conditions, therefore it is insightful to investigate how genotype (G) and environment (E) and their possible interaction (G X E) could explain aphid abundance and its relationship to phytochemicals. My first hypothesis is that nitrogen fertilization will lead to lower terpenoid levels and higher levels of aphid colonization, as these plants will allocate more energy towards growth and less towards carbon-based defensive chemicals like terpenes. My second hypothesis is that mixtures of genotypes will have higher aphid abundance due to a greater range of chemical diversity among the plants, such that more aphid-preferred genotypes will be present. I also expect that the insect response in mixtures will be influenced by nutrient addition related to my first hypothesis. Six individual plants will be planted in 65 liter containers in a common garden design that uses two nutrient treatments; ambient, which consist of soil medium mixed with clean sand, and a nutrient addition treatment consisting of the soil medium and sand with a slow release nitrogen fertilizer.Genetic mixtures will include monotypic plots, and polycultures of two and four genotypes in two different treatment sets. There will be two replicates of each monoculture treatment and three replicates of each planting in the polyculture treatmentes Aphid abundance will be assessed visually on a daily basis. At the time of aphid maximum abundance, six to eight leaf samples per plot will be taken to quantify terpenes, nitrogen, carbon and water. At the end of the growing season (October), plants will be harvested and biomass calculated. Though previous studies find evidence for the importance of plant genetic variation and environmental effects on associated insects, a key understanding between the individual and potentially interactive effects of G, E and G X E in mono- and polycultures is missing. Furthermore, few if any studies have identified potential mechanisms of host plant choice. If my hypothesis is supported, this will be the first community genetics study to draw connections between environmental factors such as nutrients and its interaction with genotypes on the effects of key phytochemicals and insect abundance.

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28. An Analysis of Compositional Methods and Motivic Development in Zivkovic’s Concerto No. 2 for Marimba, Op. 25

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Alex Sidwell Music Performance Jennifer Snodgrass School of Music Music Apr 29, 2014
Project Description: The goals of this project are to analyze the compositional methods and motivic development in the first movement of Zivkovic’s Concerto No. 2 for Marimba. The development of each motive will be traced throughout the movement, and the utilization of a few specific motives will then be traced throughout the concerto. Certain analytical and reduction techniques, such as harmonic analysis, the use of set theory analysis, and Schenkerian analysis, will be used to achieve these goals. The compositional methods that Zivkovic uses to develop these motives will also be analyzed. The full orchestral score is needed to analyze both the solo part and the orchestral accompaniment. The research will then be presented in a lecture recital format, at which the full composition will be performed after the presentation of the analytic study. In order to perform the piece conveniently, a piano reduction is required so that I may perform the piece with only piano accompaniment. The piano reduction will also aid in analysis, as a reduced score will make some sections easier to grasp and comprehend. A professional recording of Zivkovic’s concerto, released and performed by the composer himself, will show how Zivkovic interprets his own piece, which will aid in analysis. Musical examples that show specific motives and their development will be created through the use of Finale 2014 Music Notation Software. These musical examples will help in the creation of a clear and concise presentation of the analysis for dissemination.

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29. Internal and External Anatomy of the Blastoidea (Echinodermata) Using Data From Acetate Peels and Synchrotron Imaging

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Bonnie Nguyen Exercise Science Johnny Waters Arts and Sciences Geology Apr 29, 2014
Project Description: My research is a part of a project entitled "Assembling the Echinoderm Tree of Life". Our goal at ASU is to study the evolutionary relationship between the Blastoids (an extinct class of echinoderms) to other extinct and living classes. To do this we are studying the internal and external morphology of blastoid species. I have been responsible for making external 3D models of blastoids using the laser scanner and reconstructing internal and external models of blastoids using data collected from the Swiss Light Source synchrotron. The program I use to make 3D models of the exterior is NextEngine. It allows me to scan the surface of the fossil by using several lasers. It creates a mesh using millions of points picked up by the lasers and then this mesh is analyzed for any errors before it is sent off to the 3D printer to print. For the data collected from the synchrotron however, a different program is used, called SPIERS. In SPIERS, I will take thousands of 2D images which contain the slices of both the internal and external information of the blastoids, and align them so that as each slice sits on top of the other, it builds a 3D reconstruction of the specimen from bottom to top, inside and out. Through the SPIERS program, I am then able to specify which part of the specimen I want to reproduce and save as an object file, another type of file that can be read by 3D programs and printers. The goal of having these 3D reconstructions is to present them at the North American Echinoderm Conference in Pensacola, FL at the beginning of June. We need to bring several of these physical models to the conference to showcase what can be done with the dataset that has been gathered on these fossils. These models will be an addition to our presentation.

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30. Internal Organ Reconstructions of the Blastoidea (Echinodermata)

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Lyndsie White Industrial Technology Johnny Waters Arts and Sciences Geology Apr 29, 2014
Project Description: Using Photoshop/Illustrator and Rhino 3d modeling software, I have been able to make virtual composites of the internal organ systems of blastoids, an extinct class of echinoderms. In order to fully understand and see the internal organ systems of these structures, I have been creating 3D printable models. Currently I am working on printing several Echinoderm’s internal structures three dimensionally in ceramic powder and plastic. I will be bringing these prints to the North American Echinoderm Conference in June. This will be the second scientific meeting where I have presented the results of my research. However it will be the first time I am able to show touchable 3D printed models for other echinoderm workers to examine and discuss in a scientific gathering.

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31. De-protection of alkoxyalkynes for a Sonogashira poymerization

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Daniel Forrest Chemistry Pamela Lundin Arts and Sciences Chemistry Apr 29, 2014
Project Description: The purpose of this project is to test the protection and subsequent de-protection of monomers used in a Sonogashira coupling polymerization with polar protecting groups. Polar protecting groups attached to the the monomers will aid in the monomers purification through column chromatography. The polymers made through this method have applications as organic semi-conducters. The monomer to be protected is 1-ethnyl-4-pentylbenzene. The nature of optimizing the protection reaction requires a relativley large amount of material which is why ten grams was selected. Testing different groups for their efficient attatchment and removal requires its own methods and purification. Methods include first the sythesis of the protected monomer using relevant literature as a guide. Protection of terminal alkynes is fairly limited when compared to other functional group protection especially with the requirement that the protecting group be polar. This will likely mean that more novel means of protection will have to be studied. After the protection of the alkyne is confirmed via NMR spectroscopy, the compound will be purified through flash crhomotography In any organic chemistry laboratory, running flash chromatography columns is almost an everyday procedure. When running flash columns, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) plates are used extensively for a general idea of the elution time of the wanted product through the column. It is easy to go through a large amount of TLC plates in a short time due to the amount of columns run on a weekly basis. The expected results for this research will produce an efficient protection of the monomer which will lead to better purification. This better purification will then lead to greater yields of the end polymerized product.

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32. Annual drought impacts on pollinator communities and benefits to host plants: Testing predictive models at environmental extremes

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Leigh Rimmer Biology Jennifer Geib Arts and Sciences Biology Apr 29, 2014
Project Description: Annual drought impacts on pollinator communities and benefits to host plants: Testing predictive models at environmental extremes Plant-pollinator mutualisms are essential interactions within many ecosystems. Some angiosperms require pollinators for sexual reproduction by transferring pollen between individual plants. Pollinators benefit by receiving nutrient rewards from the plant in the form of pollen or nectar. Recent work has quantified these relationships along a continuum of bumblebee abundance, producing predictive models relating pollinator population density and benefits to the host plants (Geib & Galen, 2012). In 2012, much of the US experienced severe drought. At our research site (Pennsylvania Mountain, Park County, CO), dry conditions were further magnified by geographic features producing a rain shadow effect. Significant reductions in foraging bumblebee densities were observed in the summer of 2012 compared to previous years, and almost no Bombus reproductive were seen at the end of the growing season. My lab returned to Pennsylvania Mountain May-August 2013 to examine carry-over impacts from the 2013 drought. Due to geographic isolation of alpine bumblebee populations living on mountaintop “islands”, I predict effects of the drought are likely to carry over to 2013 and create local extirpation of alpine bumblebee communities. Hypothesis 1: I hypothesize that bumblebee forager and colony abundance estimates of native alpine bumblebees will be lower than those from surveys in past years, and that genetic bottlenecking has occured. In past years (1970s-2012), four Bombus species have dominated the alpine pollinator community at the Pennsylvania Mountain site. To assess forager abundance at the habitat scale and collect genetic data for colony abundance estimations, worker bees of all Bombus species present were captured on Pennsylvania Mountain in mid August. DNA was extracted and amplified at 10 microsatellite loci using 9 primers. Alleles will be scored using Peak Scanner software. Sibships among same-species workers will be assigned using COLONY (ver.) software. Furthermore, estimates of heterozygosity at each loci will be made and compared to data collected in 2008 and 2010. We will measured observed and expected heterozygosity, and calculate departure from Hardy-Weinburg equilibrium. If there are no significant carryover effects of population decline from 2012 on the composition of the 2013 bumble bee community, we will gain insights into mechanisms buffering bumblebee populations from environmental extremes such as metapopulation dynamics. This study has implications to test models that may be able to predict changes in pollination mutualisms in normal and extreme ecological spectrums and help us to understand meta-population dynamics for bees in “island” mountaintop locations that may or may not be acting as genetic barriers.

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33. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extracts

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Sabrena Gautam Biology, Pre-professional Nathan Mowa Arts and Sciences Biology Apr 29, 2014
Project Description: Moringa is a plant that is known for its various antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities and has been used for centuries in Asia, particularly in India, including by the ancient Pharaohs of ancient Egypt to cure a variety of illnesses. Here, I intend to determine whether a plant extract, Moringa could block bacteria-induced expression of inflammatory markers. Specifically, I will simulate infection by using Lipopolysaccaride (LPS) produced by E. coli bacteria and measure tissue levels of major inflammatory markers in the cervix and determine whether the extracts of Moringa will be able block bacterial infection. Pro-inflammatory factors will be measured using real time PCR. Various solvents were used to extract Moringa, including methanol, hydro-ethanol, water, and butanol.

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34. Quantification of Prolamin Content in Beer

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Taylor Smith Chemistry Brett Taubman Arts and Sciences Chemistry Mar 28, 2014
Project Description: The goal of the project is to quantify the gluten concentration of multiple varieties of gluten-containing and gluten-free beers and to experiment with different gluten-free grains in the brewing process to see if/how the gluten proteins are broken down and the composition they exist in the final product.

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35. Summertime Measurements of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons in Western North Carolina

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Ryan Cook Chemistry Libby Puckett Arts and Sciences Chemistry Mar 28, 2014
Project Description: This project will allow for me to present my research at NCUR in April. This will be beneficial for improving my abilities to discuss my research and further exposing me to the scientific community. This will be vital to my future chemical career. This grant will enable me to print the poster necessary for me to present at this conference.

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36. Factors Affecting Food and Nutrition Choices in Rural Appalachian People

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Lauren Keaton Nutrition and Healthcare Management Melissa Gutschall Health Sciences Nutrition and Healthcare Management Mar 28, 2014
Project Description: To determine factors affecting food and nutrition choices in a rural Appalachian population by interviewing dietetic interns and registered dietitans who work in rural Appalachia, as well as adult representatives of rural Appalachia. The poster displaying the results from this research has already been designed, but the printing costs $70.00.

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37. Raman Spectroscopy of Biofilms

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Ben Migirditch Physics Jennifer Burris Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Mar 28, 2014
Project Description: The Biophysics and Optical Science Facility (BiyOSeF) at Appalachian State University is utilizing Raman spectroscopy to study the structure of heterogeneous biofilms, such as Vibrio Cholera. The project is in collaboration with the Department of Biology. BiyOSeF is one of the largest research groups on campus, including two PIs, two other faculty members, five graduate students and 14 undergraduates. Students in the group routinely present their findings at local, regional, and national meetings and multiple peer-reviewed papers have been written that include student authors. Raman Spectroscopy is used to identify materials and can be used to examine the molecular structure of materials. This is done with Raman Scattering, the phenomenon that occurs when light of a known energy (wavelength) interacts with a material. The incident light excites the molecule to a higher vibrational energy state. The energy gain is then emitted back out as light when the molecule returns to a lower energy state. The emitted light will have a different energy than the incident light. This shift in energy gives information about the vibrational modes of the molecule. Biofilms are assemblages of microbes that grow on surfaces and become embedded as complex matrices. They can form on living and non-living surfaces, easily taking hold in natural industrial and controlled environments. They are thought to be the primary mode of existence for bacteria; thus examining their formation and structure is critical to understanding bacterial physiology and ecology. Due to their complex structure, biofilms are difficult to remove and lead to complications in systems. In hospital environments, biofilms are a threat to sanitation as they cause infections that are difficult to fight. In Industry they embed into metallic surfaces and cause damage on the microscopic scale by etching the metal causing corrosion. Biofilms can have equal impact on food processing. A more thorough understanding of the structure and composition of biofilms could potentially improve methods of prevention and eradication. For this project to succeed, it is critical that the optical components are aligned. The Polaris-K1-2AH Mirror Mount provides ultra-stable performance and has temperature-independent retention which is very important in our lab. The HKTS-5/64 Hex Key Thumbscrews allow for fine adjustments to mirror alignment at the correct level of precision. The TRT2 Translating Optical Post provides stable height adjustment. The post has anti-backlash and a lock setting so the ideal position can be obtained and then locked. Background reduction is important when taking data. A Quartz slide, unlike common glass slides, does not fluoresce in the range that our data gives Raman. The overall objective of this project is to successfully collect and use Raman signals to both identify naturally occurring, heterogeneous biofilms and to study the molecular structure of the biofilms.

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38. Determination of Enzyme Kinetics Using Electrophoretically Mediated Microanalysis

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kaitly Woodard Chemistry Libby Puckett Arts and Sciences Chemistry Mar 28, 2014
Project Description: In order to study enzyme activity, a method must be developed to react enzyme and substrate, and quantify the rate of the reaction. One method is capillary electrophoresis with on-column electrophoretic mixing known as electrophoretically mediated microanalysis (EMMA). In EMMA, enzyme is injected in a zone into a capillary filled with substrate and coenzyme. Product formation takes place on-column and is detected at an absorbance detector resulting in a plateau shaped electropherogram. The goal of these experiments is to determine a faster approach for finding the Michaelis-Menten constant. EMMA assays for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD/H) dependent enzymes will be developed using the native UV absorbances (260 nm and 340 nm) of these cofactors. By using cofactors, the kinetic constants of the enzyme and inhibitor will be determined indirectly. NAD/H plays vital roles in energy metabolism and antioxidation, making it an important mechanism to study. Experimentation will be performed using alcohol dehydrogenase, an enzyme responsible for the breakdown of ethanol. A poster of research information and results is required to present at the National Conference of Undergraduate Research in Lexington, KY in April of 2014.

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39. Do Nutrition and Food Courses Impact the Dietary Habits of College Students?

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kristen Tekell Nutrition and Healthcare Management Anne-Maire Gloster Health Sciences Nutrition and Healthcare Management Mar 28, 2014
Project Description: The intention of this project is to examine if different types of nutrition education can have a impact on the foods that college students choose to eat. Our nation as a whole tends to have a lower than recommended fruit and vegetable intake, and that food group has strong correlations with positive health benefits. Previous research has revealed barriers that college student’s face that prevent them from eating healthy. One known barriers is inapt cooking skills. A part of a nutrition major's coursework is Food Science, a hand-on, culinary skills curriculum. Other coursework includes Nutrition and Health, an introductory course, that does not include cooking skill development, but rather lecture based nutrition education. This project quantifies fruit and vegetable intake for those students enrolled in those classes, along with a control group, from the beginning to the end of the spring semester in 2013. Upon my literature review, evidence was found that increasing vegetable intake was associated the acquisition of cooking skills. This pointed my research hypothesis in the direction of expecting an increase in vegetable intake with those students taking Food Science. I also hypothesized total fruit and vegetable intake would have a greater increase in those students taking Nutrition and Health and Food Science compared to those students in the control group, Health Care Management. The end result of this project was that different nutrition courses did not have an impact on the fruit and vegetable intake of college students. As the main researcher in this project, I put forth a great deal of time and energy. I developed, administered and analyzed a 146-question food frequency questionnaire to assess the student's diet. There was a grand total of 235 participants in my study. I also assisted in IRB approval process for this research. And finally, with the use of SPSS statistical software, I complied all of my research and results in poster format to be printed. I will be presenting this research at the North Carolina Dietetics Association in April.

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40. Characterization of Mouse meis2 Downstream Element 2 in Zebrafish Embryos

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Hannah Freundlich Biology Ted Zerucha Arts and Sciences Biology Mar 28, 2014
Project Description: In my research I study genes responsible for specific aspects of embryonic development in vertebrate organisms. We focus on Meis genes, which regulate anterior-posterior development of vertebrate embryos. Meis genes produce a protein that works in conjunction with other proteins (Hox, Pbx) to regulate genes during embryogenesis. Many aspects of the Meis genes can been observed in our model organism Danio rerio, or zebrafish. In land vertebrates, there are four Meis genes: Meis1, Meis2, Meis3, and Meis4. A duplication event occurred during the evolution of the zebrafish lineage resulting in zebrafish having two Meis2 genes (meis2.1 and meis2.2). In zebrafish, the Meis2 genes exhibit expression is in the brain and spinal cord and as embryogenesis continues expression moves to the developing eye and forebrain. While this normal expression pattern is known, it is unknown what controls it; our lab seeks to further the understanding of Meis2 expression controls. Enhancers are specific regions of DNA known to assist in the activation or repression of a target gene, usually downstream of it. Enhancers are highly conserved non-coding elements (CNEs). The Zerucha lab has identified four downstream elements associated with the Meis2 genes: m2de1, m2de2, m2de3, m2de4. My project is to characterize m2de2 by using zebrafish as a model system to determine if m2de3 is able to direct expression of a reporter gene in a manner consistent with that known for Meis2. I am constructing a m2de2 expression construct. This element will be attached to the GFP (green fluorescence protein) gene sequence and the minimal promoter cfos. After this expression construct has been assembled, it will injected into single cell zebrafish embryos along with Tol2 transposase RNA. The expression construct should then integrate into the zebrafish embryo’s genome and trigger green fluorescence protein expression as directed by m2de2. To confirm my hypothesis that m2de2 is able direct Meis2 expression, the pattern of expression of GFP directed by m2de2 should overlap with portions of the endogenous Meis2 expression. This project is significant because with increase understanding of Meis and the regulation mechanisms we can learn more about embryogenesis in vertebrate organisms.

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41. Conserved Non-Coding Element (mm2de4) Derived Regulation of the Meis2 Homeobox Gene during Embryonic Development

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Tucker Munday Biology Ted Zerucha Arts and Sciences Biology Mar 28, 2014
Project Description: The Zerucha lab is currently studying a class of homeobox genes known as the Meis genes. The Meis genes play important roles in the embryonic development of all animals by binding DNA sequences as well as other homeodomain proteins to help them bind to DNA. This binding to DNA allows the Meis proteins to influence the expression of other genes, they essentially act as switches that activate or inactivate groups of genes. The expression of the Meis genes is generally localized to the anterior regions of embryos during development, but can be found elsewhere throughout the developing organism. The problem is that it is not currently known how the Meis genes are directed temporally and spatially during development. We hypothesize that the expression of the Meis genes is under the direction of highly conserved, non-coding elements (CNEs). CNEs are regions of DNA associated with genes and direct the expression of those genes during embryonic development. Previous work done in our lab identified four putative CNEs that we are hypothesizing regulate Meis2 expression during development. I am studying the CNE we have named m2de4 (meis2downstream element 4) to test the hypothesis that it is able to direct expression consistent with that observed for Meis2. I am constructing a reporter DNA construct that will contain m2de4, a minimal cfos promoter and a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) gene sequence. The minimal cfos promoter is unable to drive gene expression by itself, and will only drive GFP expression if m2de4 is directing it. The reporter plasmid will be injected with transposase mRNA into single celled zebrafish embryos. The transposase protein will be translated following the injection and cause the integration of the m2de4 expression cassette into the host genome. The embryos will be observed at various stages of development, ranging from 5 hours post fertilization up to 72 HPF. If the m2de4 element drives Meis2 expression in the embryos, GFP expression should be observed within the same tissues and at the same time as endogenous Meis2. This project is significant because this will be a discovery of a previously uncharacterized gene regulation event; a significant finding given that the m2de4 element is conserved across a wide range of organisms. This study could have beneficial impacts for CNE research by shedding more light on how CNE’s function during development. ?

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42. Further characterization of a novel Meis2.2 linked gene and protein

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Zachary Williams Biology Ted Zerucha Arts and Sciences Biology Mar 28, 2014
Project Description: We have identified a novel gene, zgc:154061, that appears to be utilized during embryonic development. This new gene is genomically linked to the Meis2 gene in all animals examined. The Meis2 gene is known to be involved in the embryonic development of the anterior to posterior axis as well as other major roles in brain and eye development. My research project is the further characterization of the zgc:154061 gene of which little is currently known, using zebrafish as a model organism. Research in the lab has shown this gene is transcribed during early development throughout the zebrafish embryo. While a gene may be actively transcribed, it does not necessarily get translated into functional protein. In order to further characterize the target gene, protein localization experiments need to be performed in order to determine where and when the gene is translated into protein. Characterization of protein localization, both temporally and specially, is often accomplished using antibodies. Fortunately, our lab has previously utilized rabbits to produce antibodies against the zgc:154061 gene’s protein product. The antibody has been isolated and recently the antibody’s specificity has been confirmed. Using whole mounts and cross-sections of zebrafish embryos, the target protein’s location can be identified based off the specific binding by the antibody. This is accomplished by first introducing the antibody that is specific for the target protein, then a secondary antibody which recognizes and binds to the first antibody, and finally the addition of a substrate which reacts with the secondary antibody to allow visual detection. The proposed purchases will enable me to detect the primary antibodies position, which corresponds to the localization of the target protein. By examining the location of the target protein, further insight can be gained into the possible function of this previously uncharacterized gene.

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43. Membrane thermometer for temperature measurements of laser-irradiated gold nanoshells

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
seth seagle Chemistry Brooke Hester Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Mar 28, 2014
Project Description: The aim of this project is to examine the behavior of bilayer lipid membranes in the presence of applied heat via irradiated gold nanoshells. The objective of the project is to create a synthetic membrane that will function as a model of a true cell membrane in order to study the heating capabilities of gold nanoshells. Gold nanoshells have been used to destroy cancerous tumors in mice via laser irradiation. The mechanism by which the heated nanoshells disrupt the tumor cell membranes is not well understood. We wish to quantify the heating effects from single and multiple nanoshells. In order to form the bilayer lipid membranes, a rotary evaporator manufactured by Buchi was obtained from the ASU Department of Chemistry and requires some replacement parts to properly function. Membrane formation requires the lipids to first be suspended and sonicated in solution with chloroform. The chloroform solvent must then be removed by way of evaporation, and the rotary evaporator is used to heat, agitate and pull all residual solvent from the sample by applying a vacuum to the rotating evaporation flask. It is most important to remove solvent from the sample, because any remaining solvent could cause the membrane to degrade and re-suspend resulting in a non-uniform membrane sample which would obscure results. The fixing spring will be utilized to hold the rotating evaporating tube in place and fixed within internal portion of the Buchi rotary evaporator. The bump flask connects to the rotating evaporating tube, and prevents any sample from being pulled up inside the instrument. Finally, the evaporating flask will be used to house the sample and will connect to the bottom end of the bump flask. The bilayer lipid membrane will be formed within the evaporating flask, extracted, and used for temperature measurements of laser-irradiated gold nanoshells

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44. Influences on Perfectionism and Sensation Seeking in Rock Climbers

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Zachary Silberman Psychology Lucinda Payne Arts and Sciences Psychology Mar 28, 2014
Project Description: Rock Climbing as a sport and recreational activity has grown exponentially in the past decade. As gyms bring convenience to the activity, people from all ages are becoming involved. With calculated progression and potential risk as major factors, this activity has large demands on the psyche. This research is designed to gain insight on the mentality of climbers in regards to the type of climbing (i.e. Bouldering, Trad, Ice Climbing, etc) as well as their performance level.

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45. RtI and SLD Beliefs Held by Educators

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Ashley Golding Psychology Jim Deni Arts and Sciences Psychology Feb 27, 2014
Project Description: The purpose of this research is to investigate and assess educators’ beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge of Response to Intervention (RtI) and children with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD). We seek to gather information regarding school professionals’ knowledge of RtI, knowledge of SLD, experience working with children with SLD, and training in federal and state law regarding children with SLD. Subjects will be recruited by contacting professional organizations list-serves and requesting leaders of the organizations to disseminate the survey to members within the organization. In addition, school professionals will also be sought to send out links to the survey to members of the school after receiving permission from governing body. An initial email with a cover letter inviting the participants to participate in the survey will serve as informed consent. The survey will be accessed from the participant’s personal computer, and participants will be able to complete the survey once opened. The type of data collected will be responses to items on dichotomous and likert scale items, and will be collected using the web-based survey Qualtrics. Once data has been collected, the researchers will export the data into Microsoft Excel, which will be used for analysis. The data will be stored in the Qualtrics program, and will be accessed by the PI and research assistants via a password protected login. The data will be destroyed via a delete responses option in the Qualtrics program, after a year has passed from the last day participants have to complete the survey. The Excel file will be deleted at the same time.

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46. Chain extension in bipyridine-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) blended with copper(II) chloride

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Mallory McVannel Chemistry Alexander Schwab Arts and Sciences Chemistry Feb 27, 2014
Project Description: This project works toward synthesizing a rubber compound that will maintain its desirable physical properties and yet be recyclable. This can be accomplished by replacing the permanent crosslinks of conventional rubbers with various metal tris(bipyridine) metal coordination polymer networks. This will allow the material to be recycled because the metal coordination bonds can be created and destroyed. The research is complete and I need to print a poster out to present at the 247th ACS National Meeting & Exposition in Dallas, TX.

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47. The Power of Group Dynamics in Musical Ensembles

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Carys Kunze Music Education Jennifer Snodgrass School of Music Music Feb 27, 2014
Project Description: This poster will detail the results of an independent undergraduate research study on group dynamics in choral ensembles. This preliminary research studies how the group dynamics of a choir may affect the ensemble’s musical performance, the quality of student learning, and overall student experiences. Students at this university and one other were surveyed on their social and musical experiences in choirs, and rehearsals of five different ensembles were observed by the researcher. The results of this study may allow directors to gain a better understanding of the importance of group dynamics in musical ensembles, thus allowing directors to tailor their rehearsal and leadership styles so as to maximize student learning, enjoyment, and the quality of musical performance. This poster is the culmination of this research and will be presented by the student at the 2014 Regional Conference of the College Music Society.

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48. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) networks with iron(II) tris(bipyridine) crosslinks

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Shannon Harris Chemistry Alexander Schwab Arts and Sciences Chemistry Feb 27, 2014
Project Description: The aim of this project is to create networks of poly(dimethylsiloxane) with iron(II) tris(bipyridine) crosslinks, as these networks show promise as electrically switchable elastomeric materials or sensors. The proposed budget is needed in order to present our most recent findings at the 247th ACS National Conference in Dallas, March 18th.

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49. Water Quality Monitoring of Streams Impacted by Coal Waste Acid Mine Drainage in Southwestern Virginia

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kimberly Noel Chemistry Carol Babyak Arts and Sciences Chemistry Feb 27, 2014
Project Description: The disposal of waste coal into large heaps, known as garbage of bituminous or “GOB” piles, is known to cause environmental degradation via acid mine drainage (AMD). AMD occurs when sulfides in fossil fuels such as coal and metal ores are oxidized by exposure to air and water. Pyrite (FeS2) is a particularly prevalent sulfide ore and major cause of AMD. Coal in GOB piles contains a number of sulfide minerals, including pyrite, which oxidize to produce metal ions, sulfates, and hydrogen ions. If high concentrations of acidic metal ions (which may include arsenic, mercury, and lead) leach into streams, rivers, and lakes, they pose a threat to aquatic life and the ecosystem at large. The goal of this project is to monitor stream conditions at eight sites in southwestern Virginia which are in proximity to coal waste piles. The project has been underway in collaboration with The Nature Conservancy since June 2013, and will continue during and after a remediation project that will remove the waste piles to determine the effectiveness of remediation. Parameters of interest include pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and temperature, which are measured onsite using digital data acquisition probes. Water samples are also taken for determination of anion (sulfate and chloride) and metal (Al, As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) concentrations in the lab using sophisticated instrumentation- ion chromatography (IC) for anions and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) for metals. The conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen probes/calibration solutions listed in the budget are needed to perform onsite measurements, and the 100 mg/L stock solution of metals is needed for ICP-OES analysis. Results so far have shown concentrations of metals within an acceptable range given by the EPA with the exception of aluminum and iron, which have been present in high concentrations during storm events.

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50. The Effects of Victim and Defendant Attractiveness, Attire, and Gender on Culpability Judgments and Legal Decisions in Teacher-Student Sexual Abuse Cases

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Alissa Anderson Psychology Twila Wingrove Arts and Sciences Psychology Feb 27, 2014
Project Description: In the context of adult-victim sex crimes, extralegal factors such as perceptions of the victim and defendant often affect jurors’ abilities to make impartial legal decisions. The purpose of the study was to explore whether these perceptions similarly influence jurors’ decisions in child-victim crimes involving students and teachers. For this research project, we evaluated how manipulations of victim and defendant attractiveness, modesty, and gender impacted victim and defendant culpability judgments and legal decisions. We found that modesty of the actors significantly influenced both victim and defendant culpability judgments. Additionally, victims and defendant gender significantly affected perceptions of culpability and sentencing, as did attractiveness. This research project will be displayed as a poster and presented by the first and second authors, myself and Alexandria Mackinnon, at the American Psychology-Law Society’s 2014 Conference. The conference will be held in New Orleans, LA from March 6th – 9th. I am applying for an OSR Research Grant in the amount of $35.00 to cover the total cost for printing the conference poster. Thank you for your consideration!

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51. The Determination of Calcium, Magnesium and Phosphorus in Refined Samples of Vegetable Oil and Biodiesel by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES)

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Lindsay Preston Chemistry Carol Babyak Arts and Sciences Chemistry Feb 27, 2014
Project Description: The use of vegetable oils as substitutes for fossil fuels has grown in popularity. In order to use this petroleum substitute, the oil must be physically and chemically refined through a relatively simple process called transesterification, in which an oil is converted to a renewable fuel, known as biodiesel. The goal of this research is to develop an analytical method using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) for the measurement of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P) in raw and refined vegetable oil and biodiesel. These elements produce undesirable compounds upon combustion, which can affect engine performance and have damaging effects on the atmosphere. Our research partners, Jeremy Ferrell, the EcoComplex and Appalachian State Energy Center, will provide samples for analysis. A method has been developed to effectively analyze concentrations of the elements in question in samples of vegetable oil using ICP-OES; however, the biodiesel method is still being optimized. The ICP operating conditions, as well as effective calibration standard ranges for analysis, were determined. R2 values were generally higher than 0.991. A month-long test to determine the stability of Ca, Mg, P, and the internal standard in the organic solvent, PremiSolv, biodiesel and vegetable oil was conducted. Results showed that the samples should be analyzed within a few days after preparation. A laboratory-fortified blank (LFB) was analyzed and percent recoveries ranged from 100-116%. A certified biodiesel sample known to contain 23.6 mg/kg, 9.3 mg/kg and 0.00115% w/w of Ca, Mg and P, respectively, was also analyzed and percent recoveries ranged from 54-114% (n=5). However, Case 1 t-Test results suggested that some of the lines currently used for the elements in question should be further investigated for spectral interferences. Samples of biodiesel and raw soybean oil were analyzed in our lab, as well as at the Iowa Central Fuel Testing Laboratory. Our results for Ca, Mg, P in raw soybean oil were 2.5, 1.5 and 7.9 ug/g, respectively. Iowa Central reported Ca, Mg and P results to be 2.0, 1.3 and 5.5 ppm, respectively. Our results for the biodiesel sample were not reported due to undetected concentrations by the ICP for calcium and magnesium. In the future, a more sensitive method will be used to test biodiesel samples, which contain lower metal concentrations. In addition, samples will also have a higher sample-to-solvent ratio in hopes that metals will be more easily detected by the ICP. A test to determine spectral interferences will also be conducted. The process of determining metals and phosphorus in various samples of oils and biodiesel requires multiple trials and plentiful resources. Although the amount of solvent and reagents received were adequate, these items were, and still are, in very high use and will quickly deplete as more trials are run.

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52. Growth and physiological responses of Fraser fir Christmas trees along an elevational gradient

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Scott Cory Biology Howard Neufeld Arts and Sciences Biology Feb 27, 2014
Project Description: For my master's thesis, I will study growth and physiology of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) Christmas trees at a range of elevations in Western North Carolina to evaluate how this species will respond to global warming. North Carolina ranks second nationwide in number of Christmas trees harvested, and the $100 million per year industry is crucial for local economies. My research involves collaboration with local farmers and the NC Cooperative Extension to provide useful information to farmers and agriculture researchers about the potential effects of global warming on their industry. Native populations of Fraser fir grow above 1370 meters, but Christmas trees are grown as low as 610 meters, where temperatures are warmer. For my thesis research, I will monitor trees from six field sites at approximately 610, 1070, and 1370 meters (2000, 3500, and 4500 feet). Ecologists frequently employ elevation as an in situ surrogate for warming to predict how plant species will respond to warming and climate change. I propose testing the following hypotheses: H1: Due to an extension of the favorable growing season at low elevations, trees will begin growth sooner and cease physiological activity later than trees at higher elevations. H2: Net photosynthetic rates will be reduced at lower elevations due to higher temperatures that cause an increase in dark respiration rates, resulting in less carbon gain compared to trees at higher elevations. H3: Cumulative irradiation (total amount of sunlight per season) is lower at high elevations due to frequent cloud cover, resulting in physiological adaptations in photosynthetic characteristics. At each of the six field sites, timing and magnitude of tree growth will be measured during the growing season by recording phenology (timing of seasonal biological events; e.g. when new needles grow) and by installing dendrometers to measure annual growth increments and timing of trunk expansion. Net carbon gain and physiological adaptations will be measured using a Li-Cor 6400 portable gas-exchange system. Variation in temperature along the elevational gradient is the crux of this warming experiment, and based on the adiabatic lapse rate, low elevation sites are expected to be ~6°C than high elevation sites. Weather stations that record temperature, humidity, and precipitation data will be installed at one site at each elevation. To verify that cumulative irradiation is reduced at high elevation due to frequent cloud cover and to supplement weather station data, I am requesting the purchase of 1 light sensor ($171.00). Additionally, I am requesting assistance to offset the cost of travel to field sites. Each site is ~15 miles away from Boone and will be visited ~20 times throughout the growing season. At $0.30 per mile, $329.00 will cover approximately one third of travel costs associated with fieldwork.

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53. Leaf succulence and CAM cycling in the forest understory plant stonecrop (Sedum ternatum): unusual adaptations for a shade plant and their potential roles in acclimating to environmental stress

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Catherine Cole Biology Howard Neufeld Arts and Sciences Biology Feb 27, 2014
Project Description: My M.S. thesis investigates the ecophysiology of a native Appalachian plant, Sedum ternatum. This unusual species lives in shaded, moist forests, yet features traits typical of plants subject to high light and frequent drought. For example, its relatively thick, succulent leaves enhance water storage capacity, while it recycles respiratory CO2 using a photosynthetic pathway known as CAM cycling to protect against drought. In contrast, most shade plants have thin leaves that limit self-shading by upper mesophyll cells and reduce respiratory CO2 losses, which can be critical for maintaining carbon balance in low light. Several hypotheses concerning these unique adaptations will be tested. First, S. ternatum may minimize self-shading by partitioning leaves into an outer layer of cells containing light-capturing chlorophyll, and an inner layer used for water storage. Second, S. ternatum may require greater drought tolerance than other plants in the area because it is shallowly rooted, and often grows atop rocks in thin soil. Third, elevated CO2 levels arising from root respiration near the forest floor may help the plant tolerate low light. Finally, S. ternatum may be particularly efficient in capturing sunflecks, intermittent patches of often dim light that penetrate shifting openings in the canopy. To assess the anatomy of unstressed leaves and establish a baseline for leaf morphology, I will use light and scanning electron microscopy to measure leaf dimensions including overall thickness; thickness of individual layers (cuticle, epidermis, and mesophyll); shape and volume of various cell types; intercellular air spaces; and density of stomata. The forceps requested here will enhance precision while preparing leaf cross-sections, and the boxes will safely store finished specimens. Next, throughout a series of experiments assessing the impact of drought, CO2 levels, and sunflecks on plants, the CO2 cylinders requested will supply carbon dioxide to a LiCor 6400 Photosynthesis System that measures leaf photosynthetic rate. The first experiment will juxtapose varied light and water levels to test the plant’s drought tolerance. A second experiment will test whether elevated CO2 enhances plant growth in low light. A final experiment will expose plants to light flashes of varying intensities imitating sunflecks, measuring efficiency of photosynthetic response, and if and when high light inhibits photosynthesis. As we plan to use several hundred plants, the labels requested are needed to organize them. Testing the hypotheses proposed here will shed new light both on the mechanisms by which S. ternatum currently thrives in the forest understory, and how it may handle unpredictable water levels and rising atmospheric CO2 in the future. Adaptations that a forest understory species shares with succulents from arid climates may, surprisingly, both defend it against environmental stress in the present and foster acclimation to future climate change.

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54. 1) Influence of dam hydropeaking on the life history, development, and habitat quality of the sulphur mayfly, Ephemerella invaria 2) Impact of the invasive diatom Didymosphenia geminata on the population dynamics and nutritional ecology of Ephemerella invaria in the South Holston River Tailwater

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Matthew Green Biology Shea Tuberty Arts and Sciences Biology Feb 27, 2014
Project Description: I am interested in tailwater ecology and the management of aquatic insect populations by manipulating environmental variables to establish more robust and healthy tailwater trout fisheries. Tailwater rivers are rivers created by the damming of a natural, free-flowing rivers to form reservoirs. Many of these tailwaters, especially those within the TVA reservoir system, are products of water released from hydroelectric dams. Hence, manipulating environmental variables like flow, temperature, and dissolved oxygen by altering hydroelectric power generation releases can be beneficial to trout and their prey if science is used to justify water release schedules. Our understanding of tailwater fisheries and their ecology greatly improves with our deduction of their biological deficiencies through research. Tailwaters are, in effect, experiments, which can be managed efficiently with sufficient understanding and experimentation. In order to manage the experiment adequately, research must be preformed to insure that the tailwater is operating at maximum biological production. This is the fundamental underlying premise justifying tailwater management and research—manage for the highest biological production possible to create the most productive fishery possible. The following projects are planned to adequately assess how tailwater rivers affect aquatic insect populations in order to improve fisheries management. Influence of dam hydropeaking on the life history and population dynamics of Ephemerella invaria. This experiment will examine how a variable tailwater thermal regime affects the developmental patterns, fecundity, abundance, and adult size of the sulphur mayfly, Ephemerella invaria at multiple river sections. Impact of the invasive diatom Didymosphenia geminata on the population dynamics of Ephemerella invaria in the South Holston River Tailwater. This field experiment will determine if the invasive diatom Didymosphenia geminata has a positive or negative effect on the population dynamics and life history of Ephemerella invaria. What is the impact of the invasive diatom Didymosphenia geminata on the nutritional ecology of Ephemerella invaria? This lab experiment will investigate the possible nutritional hazards that Didymosphenia geminata poses to the sulphur mayfly, Ephemerella invaria. The effects of Didymosphenia geminata on the nutritional quality of aquatic insect diets have been poorly studied and are not well represented in the literature. Therefore, the results of this study will provide biologists and managers with sound evidence to formally address conservation concerns regarding Didymosphenia geminata’s effects on aquatic insect diets. If Didymosphenia geminata is found to have a negative effect on Ephemerella invaria fitness, it will be possible to approach the TVA and TWRA with an appropriate plan of action to begin experimental mitigation flows to discourage Didymosphenia geminata blooms and colonization of new habitats.

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55. Crystallization of Collagen Networks Dependent on the Drying Technique

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Jenna Osborn Physics Brooke Hester Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Feb 27, 2014
Project Description: Collagen is the most abundant proteins in the body. Collagen monomers, which are roughly 1.5 nm in diameter and 300 nm in length, covalently crosslink to form a fibril, which is roughly 20 to 400 nm in diameter and variable in length. Fibrils contribute to forming macrostructures of the body like tendon or bone. We fabricate collagen fibrils and fibers from monomers in solution by incubating the solution to temperatures from 25oC to 45oC.When the collagen sample is dehydrated, numerous crystal structures will form depending on the drying technique. Dehydration is achieved via vacuum, compressed nitrogen air, air flow in a hood, and desiccation. Images of the resulting crystal structure are taken with dry and liquid atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical microscopy. We wish discover to the connection between the crystal structure and the drying method, concentration, temperature of incubation time, and length of incubation.

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56. Method Development for the Analysis of Estrogens Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) by Alec Daye and Carol Babyak

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Alec Daye Chemistry Carol Babyak Arts and Sciences Chemistry Feb 27, 2014
Project Description: Elevated estrogen concentrations in natural waters cause mutations in certain fish, affecting their reproductive abilities, and subsequently the population balance in an aquatic ecosystem (Croley, Timothy R.; Mass spectrometry applied to the analysis of estrogens in the environment). Estrogens are released into the environment via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and agricultural runoff. We hypothesize that estrogen concentrations in the surface water downstream from the Boone WWTP may corresponded directly with the fluctuation of the student population. We expect to see higher concentrations during the school year, and lower ones in the summer. The goal of this research is to develop a robust analytical method using solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in order to confirm or refute our hypothesis. The previous research has established a stable and reproducible method. It has been developed so that concentrations as low as 10 ppt can be detected in samples collected. Current sampling results have shown no detectable estrogens. The next step in this project is to scale up our preparation and sampling abilities. Originally, 2 L of river water could be processed per day. Currently we have expanded our capabilities by using two low cubic flow per minute (CFM) pumps and setting up two separate extraction set ups. This allows us to process 4 L of water a day but the current arrangement can be further maximized by getting a single pump that could handle multiple extractions. Also to maximize our efficiency we plan on designing an air flow manifold to reduce the complexity of the tubing setup. This manifold will be made in the machine shop on a CNC machine with aluminum blocks. We will also need additional tubing and couplings to increase our processing ability to 6 to 8 L a day on a single pump. This setup if proven to work it could also allow us to explore the possibility of detecting concentrations as low as 5 parts per trillion in 2 L samples via a stronger pump. The items listed on the cost verification list are all needed to further the processing abilities of our lab. We have less than 5 feet of usable tubing left. The quick disconnects will allow us to setup and disconnect the vacuum system in the fume hood quicker and we currently have none. The vacuum pump is needed so that we can use up to 4 extraction or vacuum filtration setups at a time. Our current capacity is 2 with 2 separate pumps. Our lab also only has 2 sintered glass funnels for 3 separate research groups. To minimize cross contamination we would like to buy an additional one so there is 1 sintered glass funnel for each set of analytes/chemicals.

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57. Quantification of Estrogens in the South Fork of the New River

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Roxie Knight Chemistry Carol Babyak Arts and Sciences Chemistry Feb 27, 2014
Project Description: Elevated estrogen concentrations in surface water cause mutations that complicate reproduction in certain fish, which subsequently affects the population dynamics of the fish and the surrounding ecosystem. These estrogens are introduced into the environment through waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and agricultural runoff. Our research group has developed an analytical method to quantify estrogens in river water. Based on the work of several previous students, most recently Alec Daye, the method has a detection limit of 10 parts-per-trillion (ppt) using tap water spikes. For the past six months, grab samples were collected above and below the WWTP’s discharge into the South Fork of the New River and analyzed using our method. As of yet, no estrogens have been detected in any grab samples. Although grab sampling is a widely accepted sample collection method, it represents only a small snapshot of the stream and may miss ephemeral spikes of pollutants. A better alternative that can capture short-term pollution events is passive sampling. The goal of this research is to quantify the estrogen concentration in the surface water both upstream and downstream of the Boone WWTP using a passive sampling method called “POCIS,” or polar organic chemical integrative sampler. The POCIS consists of a semi-permeable membrane that contains a sequestration medium. The POCIS will be deployed in the South Fork, and as river water flows through the membrane, estrogens will partition into the sequestration medium. After a suitable deployment time, the POCIS will be retrieved and the sequestration medium extracted. The extract will then be analyzed using our analytical method in order to obtain a time-weighted average estrogen concentration. A former student in this research group, Alexis Dale, did preliminary experiments with the POCIS and pesticides used in the Fraser Fir tree farming industry. I will begin by repeating her experiments, only I will use estrogens, not pesticides. The goal of these bench top studies is to determine a rate constant known as the sampling rate (Rs) that is needed in order to calculate the time-weighted average estrogen concentration. The requested C18 Material will be used extensively throughout this research as the sequestration medium contained in the POCIS.

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58. Raman Spectroscopy of Biofilms

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Zachary Jenkins Physics Jennifer Burris Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Feb 27, 2014
Project Description: The Optical Facility (BiyOSeF) at ASU is utilizing Raman spectroscopy to study the structure of heterogeneous biofilms, such as Vibrio Cholera. The project is in collaboration with the Department of Biology. Students in the BiyOSeF group routinely present their findings at local, regional, and national meetings and multiple peer-reviewed papers have been written that include student authors. Raman spectroscopy is a technique used to identify materials and study the molecular structure, via the collection of Raman scattering. Raman scattering occurs when light of a known energy (wavelength) interacts with a material. The incident light excites molecules in a specimen to a higher vibrational energy state. When the molecules relax to a vibrational energy state other than the original state, they release the excess energy in the form of light. The light emitted from the molecules will have a different energy than the incident light. Biofilms are assemblages of microbes that predominately grow on surfaces embedded in a highly complex matrix. Biofilms are believed to be the primary mode of the existence of bacteria. Therefore, understanding all aspects of biofilm formation and structure is essential to understanding bacterial physiology and ecology. Biofilm bacteria are the cause of many problems across different fields. In industry, they attach to metallic surfaces, causing damage on the nano scale, leading to corrosion. In medicine, biofilm bacteria have very high resistance to antimicrobial compounds and commonly cause diseases that are extremely difficult, if not impossible, to treat. Furthermore, biofilms of food-borne pathogens formed on surfaces of food or packaging cause outbreaks of food-borne illness. A more thorough understanding of the structure and composition of biofilms can lead to new strategies to prevent biofilm-associated problems. For this project to succeed, a stable light source (laser) and a perfect alignment of the system are imperative. The laser light is guided through the system using various mirrors, lenses and filters. The Polaris™ Low Drift Kinematic Mirror Mount, paired with the Hex Key Thumbscrew, allows the mirrors to be fine-tuned for a long lasting alignment. The Single Mode 785nm, 90mW, Laser Diode will provide us with the necessary stable light. For some of our samples, 90mW is sufficient to induce the Raman effect. However, due to the structure of other samples, a greater power is required. The Single Mode 785nm, 300mW Laser Diode will provide us with the needed power to successfully study the biofilms. The overall objective is to collect and use Raman signal to identify naturally occurring biofilms and study the molecular structure. Specific Aims: Optimize system alignment to achieve maximum Raman signal and accurate spectral information Successfully collect spectra on biofilms and understand the structure in which they form Present research at student research events Submit the research to a peer-reviewed journal

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59. Identification of Microorganisms in Alcohol Fermentation

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
William Giduz Physics Jennifer Burris Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Feb 27, 2014
Project Description: The Biophysics and Optical Science Facility (BiyOSeF) at Appalachian State University is currently working on a project in collaboration with the Fermentation Science Program that involves the use of Raman spectroscopy for the identification and classification of microbes in the fermentation process. Raman spectroscopy is a technique used to identify materials and study the molecular structure of a specimen, via the collection of Raman scattering. The Raman scattering phenomenon occurs when light of a known energy (or wavelength) interacts with a material. The incident light excites the molecules in a specimen to a higher vibrational energy state by adding energy to the molecule. When these molecules relax to a vibrational energy state other than their original state, they release the excess energy in the form of light. The light that is emitted from the molecules will have a different energy (or wavelength) than the incident light. Raman spectroscopy can be used to identify unfamiliar samples because every substance yields its own unique Raman fingerprint. Using this technique, we will collect Raman spectra of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae is a specimen of yeast that is commonly used in beer and wine fermentation. In order for our project to be successful, a stable light source with a known wavelength (laser) is required. Due to the differences in the molecular structure of the microbes that we will investigate, it is imperative that we vary the power of the laser being aimed at the sample. Some of the microbes such as S. cerevisiae require large amounts of power while others require very low power. If an incorrect amount of power is delivered to a biological sample, the sample will either die (too much power) or not yield a Raman spectra (not enough power). The (LD785-SH300) single mode 785nm, 300mW laser diode, paired with its (S8060) laser diode socket, and the (L785P090) 785nm, 90mW, laser diode will allow us to apply the correct amount of power to samples. Please note that we can accept less than the $500 requested, and we will be able to move forward part-way on the project. Objective: The overall objective of this project is to successfully collect Raman spectra of microbes and identify them. Specific Aims: Deliver adequate power to the yeast sample to induce a Raman effect. Document alignment and calibration techniques so that procedure and results can be replicated. Successfully obtain a Raman spectrum for each sample. Present project methods and results on posters at student research events such as Celebration of Student Research and Creative Endeavors in the spring of 2014 and SNCURCS 2014

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60. Ecophysiology of grapevine cultivars grown on an elevational gradient: how global warming may affect high-elevation winegrowers.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
David Nielsen Biology Howard Neufled Arts and Sciences Biology Feb 27, 2014
Project Description: Models within the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change fifth annual report project substantial warming in the Southeast U.S. within the next century. Consequences of this include changes in the ability to grow crops in certain areas. The magnitude and rate of the current change are severe; too rapid for some species to adapt. For this reason, the need for scientific research in crop responses to changing climate is paramount. My goal is to characterize changes in grapevine physiology due to variations in conditions associated with climate change. This project is significant for two primary reasons. First, wine chemistry at the grape level is studied extensively; however, the link between environment and vine physiology (and ultimately, wine quality) is neglected in the scientific literature. Second, low elevation growing conditions may be presently similar to future conditions at high-elevation sites, giving high-elevation winegrowers an idea of what the growing environment may become. I hypothesize that vines producing quality fruit at high elevation sites may suffer due to warming because of significant differences in their vascular structure, hydraulic conductivity (ability to move water), photosynthesis and transpiration rates. I propose to quantify these differences by characterizing several parameters of grapevine physiology as a function of climate. To simulate warming, I will take advantage of the adiabatic lapse rate and local geography by examining vineyards situated at different elevations with average temperature differences of 5-10oC. In order to correlate changes in vine physiology and chemistry with changes in environmental conditions, several physical and chemical parameters must be characterized for each study site. Accurate local weather conditions must be recorded throughout the growing season. This will be accomplished through the installation of weather stations on site to record temperature, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and soil moisture content. In addition, soil chemistry sand pH will be measured. Two varietals will be studied at two vineyards at each elevation. Parameters being evaluated will be water relations, including hydraulic conductivity (how easily water flows in the xylem), and xylem anatomy. Anatomy will be studied primarily through scanning electron microscopy. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates will be measured using the Li-Cor 6400 portable gas exchange system. In addition to physiological characteristics, leaf and berry chemistry will be analyzed. Leaf chlorophyll and anthocyanin content will be determined using spectrophotometry. Berry composition will also be evaluated using standard enology techniques. Flavonoids will be quantified, as well as soluble solids, acids.

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61. Using an Elevation Gradient as a Surrogate for Climate Warming to Understand Potential Effects on Wood Anatomy and Water Relations of Fraser Fir Christmas Trees

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Lauren Wood Biology Howard Neufeld Arts and Sciences Biology Feb 27, 2014
Project Description: Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) farms are integral to the economy and agriculture of western North Carolina. This species is native to the southern Appalachian Mountains and populates the upper elevations in western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southern Virginia, having inhabited the area after the last glaciation when temperatures began to climb. Naturally occurring Fraser fir (at >1,370 meters) get almost half of their water from low cloud cover and are highly sensitive to drought stress and warmer temperatures, which partially explains their restriction to the highest peaks in the southern Appalachians. Although warming is not yet found consistently throughout the southern Appalachians, climate change models suggest that temperatures will increase 3°C by the year 2100. This could present new challenges to the survival of Fraser firs and threaten the viability of the Christmas tree industry in western North Carolina, most of which is located below the natural elevation range of the species. The goals of this study are to assess the impacts of warming on water relations and xylem anatomy of Fraser fir trees growing at three different elevations: 760 m (2,500 ft), 1,070 m (3,500 ft), and 1,370 m (4,500 ft). I propose testing the following hypotheses: H1: Warmer temperatures and less cloud immersion at lower elevations cause greater evaporative demand and will result in higher sap-flow rates, leading to greater whole-tree water use. H2: To support higher sap-flow rates at the lower elevations, trees will produce tracheids (cells that conduct water up the trunk) with larger diameters, which decrease resistance to flow. As a corollary, the hydraulic conductance (ease with which trees move water) will also be higher at lower elevations. I will install Granier-type sap-flow probes (custom made by a collaborator and provided gratis to us) on 5 trees/elevation to measure whole-tree transpiration during the growing season. Weather stations at each elevation will allow us to compare microclimatic differences among the three elevations. Sap-flow probes will be powered by deep-cycle marine batteries and connected to data-loggers to record measurements. I am requesting funding for the purchase of six batteries (three are backups) as well as a charger. This study is part of a larger study on the impacts of warming on the growth and physiology of Fraser firs. The results will provide evidence of the physiological adaptability of this species and may assist farmers in preparing for the effects of future warming on their industry.

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62. A PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION OF COLLEGE OUTDOOR PROGRAM STAFF CONNECTEDNESS TO NATURE

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Francesca Shaffer Recreation Management Eric Frauman Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Feb 27, 2014
Project Description: A byproduct of the adventure education movement of the 1960’s, non-academic college outdoor programs (OP’s) have flourished in recent decades with hundreds of OP’s throughout the US (Poff, 2013). Generally administered by full-time professional staff OP’s provide structured training and leadership opportunities for students interested in facilitating outdoor recreation experiences for others. While historically the emphasis of college OP’s has been on facilitating adventure-based opportunities (e.g., backpacking), primarily on public lands, offering limited outdoor education (OE) to reduce negative impacts, recent calls from organizational bodies such as the Association of Outdoor Recreation and Education (AORE) and Wilderness Education Association have emphasized “promoting ecologically sound stewardship of the natural environment” (http://www.aore.org/) and “education in the preservation of this country’s wild land areas” (http://www.weainfo.org/about). Given the increasing attention towards stewardship education, what is little known is how many OP’s provide training in OE and environmental education (EE), and furthermore, how each relate to connectedness to nature (CN) (i.e., sense of oneness with the natural world). As such the primary purpose of this paper was to examine staff CN and how other factors (e.g., OE, EE) relate to CN operating under the assumption that OP’s play an important role both in influencing the CN of staff and participants.

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63. An Examination of Tourist’s Motives for Visiting and their Impacts on a Coastal Destination

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Harrison Smith Recreation Management Eric Frauman Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Feb 27, 2014
Project Description: Many economies surrounding a number of coastal communities are experiencing growth primarily due to nature and heritage based tourism, but how much visitation can be sustained before a coastal community loses its appeal (Butler, 1990)? While there is plenty of supply side research documenting how coastal communities are impacted by tourism, as well as research examining resident perceptions of tourism impacts (see Frauman & Banks, 2011), there is little research examining tourist’s views linked to impacts (see Puczkó & Rátz, 2000), particularly as it is revealed via their motivations for visiting. Do tourists believe they positively or negatively impact the destinations they visit, particularly those linked to the natural environment? Do their reasons for visiting offer additional insight into their impacts? As such, this paper primarily examines tourists’ reasons for visiting and perceived impacts on a popular coastal destination.

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64. The Bridge Between Through 2-4 interactive sculptures, I will invite my audience to engage their presence in both their mind and body, to be part of and one with the work and their true self. The Bridge Between will study the relationships between movement and stillness, silence and sound, connection and detachment. I understand the mind to be the flow of information, where the body and brain are the origins and manifestations of this information. By engaging my viewers in a space where touch is necessary to fully experience the work, I offer these sculptures as a place to find union. Inspired by visual and kinesthetic learning, I hope the materials I choose will inspire touch and movement in my audience. Through my research on nonduality, the dual mind, and contemplative practices, I studied the nature of dichotomization. This research has guided my work in materiality and inspired me to create a similar tactile experience for my audience.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Maria Perry Studio Art Chris Curtin Fine and Applied Arts Art Jan 29, 2014
Project Description: I plan to make 2-4 interactive sculptures. The first piece is a gallery installation and consist of a series of ceramic drums with stretched goat skin on hollow steel tubes stands. With 8-10 drums standing 3-6 feet tall. Each drum will be paired with an open bowl that will hang directly above the flat drum from the ceiling by a strip of fabric. All the bowls will be pressed out of a series of bisque molds that I build, all slightly varying in size. I will use rubber gaskets, washers, bolts, and threaded rod to connect the bowls to both a hanging device and the stand. The pairs of drums will appear as if a sphere was split in half, leaving a 6-8" gap between the two halves. They will appear to be suspended from far away and create a sense of weightlessness in their form. The second piece is installed outside and will consist of a tower to climb; a hollow steel tube 6 inches in diameter will stand 12-14' tall. This pole will be secured into a stable foundation in the ground. Small steel posts will be connected horizontally to the sides of the vertical pole, creating ladder-like steps all the way to the top. Atop the post, a steel view finder give the viewer handles to rotate the view a full 360 degrees. At the top of the hollow post, a small recess will be made to allow for the planting of a seed. The third sculpture is a steel arch reaching the height of 9 feet installed in the gallery. One side side of the arch will be a wide base, where the other side will branch out into two smaller posts with a 5' gap between them, almost as if a wishbone was curled into an arch. Woven materials made of paper, fabric, polyurethane, and wire and found objects will cover the inside surface. From the peak of the arch, nylon fabric will hang at around 3' from the ground. The sling will hang from swivel connectors that will allow a full 360-degree rotation without the material getting knotted and bound up. The fourth piece consists of a video and sound installation in the gallery. A screen will be mounted on the wall depicting two hands with a box of sand. The hands with repeat the motion of picking up a pile of sand and slowly letting it go, over and over. In front of the screen, a pedestal will hold a wooden box filled with sand. From the pedestal, a pair of headphones will give the viewer an opportunity to listen to a 2-minute recording of Ram Dass talking about Albert Einstein and the rational mind. For each of these works, my budget shows a thorough list of the materials that I will need to complete them. Some materials are specialized and need to be bought whereas others can be reclaimed and borrowed. Each sculpture offers an opportunity for the viewer to participate, to step outside a boundary and to enter into a new space. By integrating an interactive experience with the sculptures, people are invited to enter into the presence of their bodies, to find new relationships with the world around them, and a new understanding of themselves.

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65. Creating an understanding of language through performance

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Elizabeth Thomas Music Performance Joseph Amaya School of Music Music Jan 29, 2014
Project Description: My Graduate recital will be the culmination of my studies here at Appalachian State University. The above materials have been recommended to me by members of the voice faculty. My recital is heavy on German art song (at least eight pieces by three different composers will be in German), and I would like to purchase Rosetta Stone so that I have a full grasp of the German language. Furthermore, it is ultimately my goal to move to Germany for an operatic career, so learning the language is a must. I will be performing two pieces from the opera Le nozze di Figaro and one piece from the opera Rigoletto. It is important for me to have complete vocal scores of these operas because, at this stage in my development, I will be learning full roles and not just specific songs from the operas. Susanna in Le nozze di Figaro and Gilda in Rigoletto are roles that I will be learning and performing throughout my career. There are several different editions of the vocal scores, and the Baerenreiter and Ricordi were recommended to me as the better editions. I also have a set of three Debussy songs, and a professor recommended that I purchase the Pierre Bernac book to learn how to effectively interpret French art song. These materials will help me give a successful recital and will continue to be useful to me throughout my career.

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66. Effects of Caffeine Ingestion on Sodium-aided Hyperhydration

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Chelsea Lineberger Exercise Science David Morris Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Jan 28, 2014
Project Description: Dehydration can have detrimental effects on performance during exercise in the heat. Because the rate of fluid loss from sweating while exercising can be more than twice the rate of gastric emptying for water, dehydration may be inevitable during exercise in the heat. To reduce rates of exercise dehydration, a strategy known as hyperhydration can be employed. This technique involves consuming large amounts of water with sodium in the hours before exercise. Consuming sodium with water has been shown to reduce urine production and assist in hyperhydration by promoting retention of fluids. Numerous investigations (Coles, 2004; Simms, 2007; Morris, in review) have demonstrated the efficacy of co-consuming sodium with water to reduce the rates of dehydration and improve performance during exercise in the heat. As a result of these and other investigations, use of hyperhydration has increased among athletes and soldiers prior to performing work in hot environments. Another common practice among endurance athletes and soldiers is the use of caffeine prior to competition and deployment. Previous works have demonstrated ergogenic effects of caffeine when it is consumed at levels of approximately 5-8 mg/kg body mass (Ganio, 2009). Caffeine is also widely recognized as a diuretic in many, but not all circumstances (Maughen, 2003). Furthermore, it is unknown what effects the consumption of caffeine, sodium, and water has on fluid excretion, retention, and hyperhydration. Therefore, we wish to determine the effects of co-consuming sodium and caffeine with water on fluid excretion, retention, and hyperhydration. Subjects will come to the laboratory on 4 separate occasions to undergo hyperhydration strategies. Upon arrival at the laboratory, subjects will perform a bladder void from which a small sample will be obtained to assess urine specific gravity (USG) through the use of a refractometer. Immediately following the bladder void, subjects will consume 2 commercially available energy bars consisting of approximately 400 kcals, and 20 mL/kg body mass of tap water along with the following treatment strategies: 1. Consumption of 60 mg/kg body mass of sodium chloride + placebo (aspartame), 2. Consumption of 5 mg/kg body mass of caffeine + placebo (aspartame), 3. Co-consumption of 60 mg/kg body mass of sodium chloride and 5 mg/kg body mass of caffeine, or 4. Consumption of placebos. These treatments will be applied in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. The subjects will be allowed 30 min to consume the prescribed water volume. Following consumption of the water, the subjects will rest quietly for 2 hours. During this 2-hr rest period, subjects will be asked to perform a bladder void every 15 min. Urine volume measured and USG will be performed on these samples.

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67. Anaerobic Microbe Culture and Identification

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Austin Harbison Biology Suzanna Brauer Arts and Sciences Biology Jan 28, 2014
Project Description: Using peat collected from local peat bogs, inoculum is prepared from the peat and anaerobically cultured in a hydrogen/CO2 rich anaerobic environment (for methanogens) or in an N2 or N2/CO2 headspace with glycerol or casamino acids (for anaerobically fermentative archaea). The tubes are used to contain the various medias and their added inoculum to enrich for microbes of interest. Once the microbes have successfully grown they will be isolated via dilution, streaking and shake tubes and then they will be identified via PCR and sequencing analyses. The aim of this project is to identify the local microbes and determine what is required for the microbes to grow.

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68. A Better Suzuki Polymerization for Thiophene-containing Monomers

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Ethan Hull Chemistry Pamela Lundin Arts and Sciences Chemistry Jan 28, 2014
Project Description: The Suzuki polymerization is a very popular method for the synthesis of conjugated polymers. The reaction involves carbon-carbon bond formation between a boronic acid species and an organohalide. However, the efficiency of this reaction decreases when the boron is attached to a thiophene ring. It is speculated that the experimental conditions of the reaction decrease reaction efficiency with thiophenes. We have been investigating different palladacycle catalysts to determine how effectively they couple with the thienyl boronate ester under different reaction parameters. We have found that the catalysts with X-Phos and RuPhos ligands work the best, and that the best solvent is THF. We have also found that increasing the molar equivalents of base leads to higher yields. Having established a preliminary set of reaction parameters, we are interested in examining the scope of this reaction. This is important to ensure that the method that we are developing is general for a variety of structures. We are particularly interested in the steric effects of a hindered thiophene molecule, which contains an alkyl chain in the 3-position of the thiophene ring. In order to test this molecule under the reaction conditions, we will need to synthesize it from commercially available starting materials.

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69. "Anaerobic Digestion From the Laboratory to the Field: An Experimental Study Into the Scalability of Bench to Pilot-scale Anaerobic Digestion"

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kevin Gamble Appropriate Technology James Houser Fine and Applied Arts Technology Jan 28, 2014
Project Description: The Department of Technology and Environmental Design (TED) at Appalachian State University has a robust, and growing, biofuels program. In the fall of 2013 construction began on a pilot-scale laboratory for anaerobic digestion (AD) research. Three pilot-scale biodigesters were constructed from plastic 275 gallon (~1,041L) Intermediate Bulk Container (IBC) totes that will be housed in a super-insulated shed for pilot-scale experimentation and research into biogas production. Anaerobic digestion experimentation in the TED department has traditionally been performed in bench-scale 250ml Erlenmeyer flask digesters, using inverted graduated cylinders for volumetric measurements of biogas production. The Biofuels course in the TED department, and former graduate students have used this configuration, or one just like it, in performing bench-scale analyses of anaerobic digestion. Bench-scale studies are extremely useful in AD research, as they allow for multiple variables to be tested simultaneously while limiting the amount of required resources. Unfortunately, however, the current bench-scale system has proven troublesome. Data collected from this system set-up has been spotty at best, yielding wildly varying results (even between digesters utilizing the exact same feedstocks/ratios). With the recent addition of a pilot-scale AD lab, the need for a functioning, consistent, and accurate bench-scale laboratory set-up is essential. This project, which is my Masters thesis, aims at achieving that end. Beyond the set-up of a more robust bench-scale system, the primary goal of this project is to determine the accuracy and precision of bench-scale digesters in predicting the performance of digesters of a larger size. The performance of three differently sized digesters (0.1L, 1.0L, & 10L) will be compared by a number of factors, most importantly being the total volume of biogas produced, and the chemical composition of that biogas. This information will be invaluable to the biofuels program, as it will help in providing a model for scalability which will be able to be employed in the future on experiments utilizing the pilot-scale digesters currently under construction. Two important pieces of equipment are necessary for this undertaking. The first is a set of gas standards for use in calibrating the GC-PDHID that will be used in this study. The standards are to ensure that the Gas Chromatograph is calibrated to the specific gases we are looking for (CO2, CH4, H2), thus ensuring greater accuracy in results. The second piece of equipment is an immersion water heater/circulator. Our lab's current hot water circulation bath (used for maintaining appropriate temperatures in the bioreactors) is unequipped to handle digesters larger than 2L. The Anova immersion heater is a stand-alone unit which may be installed in a separate (larger) container capable of holding and heating the 10L digesters, which will be used in this study.

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70. Elevation Building / Design

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Anthony Dienst Building Sciences Jamie Russell Arts and Sciences Technology Dec 18, 2013
Project Description: We will be participating in R.C.M.C (Residential Construction Management Competition) in Las Vegas, NV. The competition involves preparing a presentation, each of the six members will present their section. The group members make are selected from larger groups within the class. These six members represent a class of thirty student. I will be in charge of presenting the financial information about our company. While we each specialize in a specific area of the project we all must also be knowledgeable of the other five team members sections.

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71. Bachelor of Fine Arts Senior Exhibition: The Manifestation of Gratitude

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Laurie Kirkpatrick Art Lynn Duryea Fine and Applied Arts Art Dec 18, 2013
Project Description: My current body of ceramic artwork and the work that I plan to continue began as an effort to manifest my personal practice through the physical. Part of my daily life is working to cultivate gratitude by making lists of what I am thankful for each day; each sheet of clay is meant to visually reference something that I am thankful for on a sheet of paper. Another portion of my daily practice is a technique of meditation that is centered around the repetition of a mantra to induce physical and psychological calm. The technique that I practice is meant to diffuse the exterior world temporarily, so that when the meditator emerges he or she will be refreshed. In the studio I use the clay as a vehicle to explore a meditative space rather than a mantra. Each slab of clay is carefully pressed and worked to create a delicate sheet. The making becomes a natural rhythm and the repetition of the movement creates a meditative state. What I find so attractive about working with clay is that it has the ability to respond so directly to the touch of the hand that it can hold a fingerprint. Through this quality the piece seems to be imbued with the meditation and gratitude in which it was made. By the culmination of the piece, I have spent time with each page so that every part is unique and fits together in a visually interesting way. I assemble the slabs intuitively while working with and responding to the flow of the pieces. The pieces form together into an undulating mass. The works will take the form of wall pieces. The goal of this work is to create a beautiful and calming experience for the viewer to be absorbed in. My hope is that the observer will be able to see the presence of my touch in the work and sense the tranquility of my making. I plan to make 6 to 8 ceramic pieces - each piece will consist of a 20x20x1 inch (or larger) hollow base out of sturdy stoneware. The base will include an interior support system that I will remove post-firing to prevent slumping and strain. I then build on top of each piece using thin porcelain slabs that I roll out on the slab roller and then manipulate by hand. The pieces will then be finished with a white matte glaze. Each piece will be bisque fired in a gas kiln in the ASU clay studio so I can leave the pieces on the boards on which they were built to help prevent warping and cracking. The boards will burn away during the firing. They will be glaze-fired in the electric kiln provided through the ASU Art Department. After the interior structure is removed post-firing plywood will be attached within using liquid nails and wire so that the piece can be hung like a painting. I plan to make 6-8 pieces, each will measure to between 18”x18” and 19”x19” inches post-firing. There are several possible installations for these pieces. I plan to show in the Catherine-Smith Gallery in May 2014.

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72. Functional Training in a Dysfunctional Elderly Population

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Amanda Kosmata Exercise Science Kevin Zwetsloot Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Dec 18, 2013
Project Description: Approximately 20-30% of the elderly population report debilitations in activities of daily living and mobility (Topinkova, 2008). Previous studies have demonstrated that balance and strength deficits contribute to disability in activities of daily living (Vermeulen, Neyens, van Rossum, Spreeuwenberg, & de Witte, 2011). As adults age, there is a decrease in functionality of activities of daily living and independence, both of which are directly related to physical fitness (Garatachea & Lucia, 2012). Many factors can lead to decreases in functionality, one of which is sarcopenia, or the loss of muscle mass and strength that is associated with the aging process. Resistance training has been shown to be the most effective way to prevent or stop the progression of sarcopenia (Muhlberg & Sieber, 2004; Yarasheski, 2003). Suspension training is a unique type of resistance training in which the person uses suspension straps with handles to perform exercises using one’s own body weight. The TRX suspension training system used in this study is anchored to a door and straps can be adjusted to give customizable support depending on the individual’s level of strength and balance. TRX is unique in that it provides something to hold on to when performing exercises, which provides a sense of safety, while also trains the body to support itself with muscle endurance and balance. Currently there is no scientific literature using suspension training in any population. Due to the lack of research utilizing alternative methods of exercise training (other than traditional resistance exercise) in elderly adults and the promising results from the paper by Alexander et al. (2001), the objective of this research project is to determine whether a functional training program with the TRX suspension trainer can improve the quality of life and functionality in an elderly population. This research project will consist of 3 training sessions per week for 8 consecutive weeks at Deerfield Ridge Assisted Living. The participants will be completing 6 exercises with the TRX that will improve functionality. The participants will be tested before the training begins, after 4 weeks, and at the end of the 8 weeks of training. Tests include the Berg Balance scale, handgrip strength test, timed repeated chair rise test, and timed up and go test. With the previous OSR grant award, 3 TRX trainers were able to be purchased for the study. However, 6 subjects have signed informed consent forms and have been approved by their physicians to start the study. There are an additional 6 subjects who are interested in being subjects in the study. However, with 3 TRX trainers, there can only be 3 subjects trained at a time which limits the total amount of people that we can include in the study due to time constraints. Therefore, to be able to help improve the quality of life for more residents at Deerfield Ridge, more TRX trainers need to be purchased.

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73. "Satired of it all" My project will consist of five to seven paintings, a self-published book, and a solo art exhibition presented by the Looking Glass Gallery. The five to seven paintings will be of political and social commentary type, similar to my editorial cartoons (I am the Senior Editorial Cartoonist at The Appalachian). The self-published book will consist of daily ideas (five days a week) for editorial cartoons. This extra component of my project, in addition to my solo show, will meet the stipulations of Art Departmental honors. The book will also document the creation and creative process of at least one editorial cartoon in its entirety. In it will also be some finished cartoons that are created out of the daily ideas. This book, these ideas (sketches) and cartoons will be displayed next to the paintings as a part of my solo exhibition in the Looking Glass Gallery. This show is tentatively to be prepared in April and have a reception on the 9th or 10th of May.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Andrew Cox Studio Art Gary Nemcosky Fine and Applied Arts Art Dec 18, 2013
Project Description: I am a fourth year student completing my BFA Studio Art degree, with departmental honors. As required by the Senior Studio program, I will independently create a body of work that will be presented to the public at the end of the Spring semester. My project will be the culmination of personal researching of the creative process of pop culture, political, and social commentary painting and editorial cartooning. I have sought a creative language in between painting and editorial cartooning, creating an aesthetic look of my own. My editorial cartoons and paintings exist independent of each other, but doing one improves the other. My paintings will address important topics such as capitalism and greed, restorative justice, militaristic culture, materialism, healthcare, national and state politics as well as other issues. They, like my editorial cartoons, will address local, state, national and international topics. I aim to challenge viewers of my paintings on their perception of important political and social issues, as well as make them laugh at the absurdity of pop culture. The goal with the self-published book is to develop a consistency in coming up with good ideas daily for editorial cartoons. Editorial cartooning, as a profession, requires this. So I will respond to different issues five days a week from January until middle to late March, creating "thumbnail" sketches to plan out possible cartoon compositions. Some of these sketches will become finished cartoons, others may not. They will all be compiled as a part of the book. Some will be displayed on the wall with the paintings in my solo show with the Looking Glass Gallery. My proposed budget is needed for this project to cover the cost of supplies that are required for the completion of this project. I paint on wood panel and need to construct frames for the back of my panels to ensure that they do not warp. This requires a bit of hardware, such as corner braces, t-plates, wire brads, wood glue, and clamps. I plan to do five to seven paintings, ranging from 18"x24" to 3.75'x5'. They will all need frames to prevent warping and ensuring that they are of the highest possible quality of craftsmanship. In addition, I need to buy all the art supplies that my work demands. This includes gesso (a paint primer), acrylic paints, pens, and paper. The pens and paper are required for the editorial cartooning and self-published book portion of my project. I estimate that I would need between $281.71 and $420.08 to complete my project. Any given funds would be greatly appreciated, but the $500 maximum would allow for the highest quality project possible.

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74. Helping Hands: Familial Recipe Books and the Ideological Networks of the Scientific Revolution.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Amanda Finn English Susan Staub Arts and Sciences English Dec 06, 2013
Project Description: I am applying for the Office of Student Research Grant at Appalachian State University to conduct original thesis research for credit towards a MA in English – Literature. My thesis topic on British seventeenth century medicinal receipt books offers a unique opportunity to enter into a research field at its inception. The term receipt books covers a wide variety of texts composed primarily by domestic women who used these books to record medicinal and culinary experiments, the purposes of which often overlapped. These texts intersect the increasingly popular fields of the history of science and gender studies. While work is being completed in the field of recipe books by scholars such as Jayne Archer, Elizabeth Spiller, and Kathleen Long, many recipe books still only exist in manuscripts and there is much more comprehensive work to be done. My research continues the conversation begun by the aforementioned authors but addresses some of the concerns noted by their critics. Elizabeth Spiller’s Ashgate series focuses solely on the recipe books of aristocratic women. In order to conduct quality research that is not skewed based on class or limitation of resources, I need to examine a wide variety of manuscripts of women from all classes during a very specific five year span in order to fully establish a connective network of women in early science. These receipt books show not only the spread of ideas but the often underground groups of women experimenting in the sciences. The Wellcome Library, the British Library, and the National Archives at Kew all hold a wide range of receipt book manuscripts that have not yet been digitized and are essential to my thesis such as the receipt books of the Godfrey-Faussett family (Wellcome - MSS.7997-8002), the Trumbull family letters that include a receipt book in several hands (British Library – MS 72619), the medical case-book of Joseph Binns whose recipes frequently appear in mid-century domestic recipe books (British Library – MS 45197), and the familial archives at the British National Archive to help trace marriage certificates, birth and death certificates, and private papers that will help to connect these seemingly unconnected documents together. These manuscripts only name a few of the many receipt books and necessary documents that I would need to look at to trace philosophical and familial networks in the mid-seventeenth century. In addition, almost none of the recipe books from the sixteenth or eighteenth centuries have been digitized and I need to look at few select comparison manuscripts from the Wellcome and British Libraries in order to intelligently place my work in its historical context. Opportunities of this caliber happen only rarely and would guarantee that my PhD applications stand out from other, less original, research. Concerning publishing this original research, my thesis will have three article-length chapters to pursue for publication.

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75. The Effects of a Brief Mindfulness Intervention on Sport Performance and Anxiety

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Mitch Plemmons Psychology Joshua Broman-Fulks Arts and Sciences Psychology Dec 02, 2013
Project Description: Mindfulness, or nonjudgmental awareness of present-moment physiological, mental, and environmental status, has been shown to be effective in treating some mental health concerns and recent research suggests that it may enhance sport performance. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of a brief mindfulness intervention on athletic performance. Fifty-four novice golfers were randomly assigned to complete three sessions of mindfulness training, visualization, or a non-intervention control task. Baseline, mid-intervention, and post-intervention measures of sport performance were administered via a structured putting task that consisted of a series of 10 putts of varying distance. Participants also completed measures of mindfulness and sport anxiety. Results indicated that sport-related anxiety decreased and putting performance improved over the course of the study, though no group difference emerged. However, mindfulness levels did not substantially change. Several potential explanations for these findings will be discussed, as well as directions for future research. The amount requested is needed to fund the creation of a poster that will display this research at the 47th Annual ABCT Convention.

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76. Predictors of High School Students' Knowledge of College: An Assessment of College Access Programs in Rutherford County, NC

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Emily Clarke Student Development Diane Waryold Education Human Development and Psychological Counseling Dec 02, 2013
Project Description: First-generation college students, underrepresented racial/ethnic students, and low socioeconomic students have completed high school and attended college at lower rates than their higher income and white student counterparts. College access programs have been developing as a way to bridge the gap between secondary and postsecondary education for students and their parents. This study compared students’ demographic variables to their understandings of postsecondary education for four high schools in Rutherford County, NC. The McNair Foundation was created in 1989 to improve education in this county. To assess the needs of students within the schools and the effectiveness of the McNair Foundation, this research used The NC College Knowledge Inventory. A quantitative approach was designed to measure the correlations between students’ demographic variables and students’ understanding and topical knowledge of college. In spring '13 1,566 (91%) participants were accounted for in this study. This study will be presented at the Southern Association for College Student Affairs Conference in Norfolk, VA on 11/3/2013. This budget will allow us to print our materials for the poster session.

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77. Computerized and Internet-Based Interventions for Panic Disorder: A Review and The Latent Structure of Anxiety: A Taxometric Analysis

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
John Bergquist Psychology Joshua Broman-Fulks Arts and Sciences Psychology Dec 02, 2013
Project Description: Computerized and Internet-Based Interventions for Panic Disorder: A Review Panic disorder is a chronic and disabling psychological condition, affecting nearly 5 percent of the population. Although several forms of treatment have demonstrated efficacy in reducing panic symptomology, such as cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT), relatively few affected individuals ever receive efficacious psychological treatment. Computerized and Internet-based interventions (IBIs) offer an innovative treatment delivery method and have the potential to be accessed by large populations from virtually any location. IBIs are potentially cost-effective and may be more accessible or desirable for groups affected by stigma regarding mental health care. The purpose of the present research is to provide a comprehensive review of the literature concerning the efficacy of IBIs for panic disorder. Only randomized controlled trials measuring computer and/or Internet based treatment as a primary or secondary condition were included in this review. Seventeen articles from 1980 to 2012 were selected based on inclusion criteria. Results revealed that the majority of researched IBIs for panic disorder are based on cognitive-behavioral therapy principles and include common components, such as psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring, and exposure to feared stimuli. Efficacy research has consistently demonstrated that IBIs are superior to self-monitoring or wait-list in the treatment of panic symptoms, and IBIs demonstrate comparable effects to traditional face-to-face therapy. One important implication regarding IBI efficacy research is whether IBIs for panic disorder are a viable or desirable alternative to traditional clinician-administered treatment in primary care settings. The Latent Structure of Anxiety: A Taxometric Analysis Researchers have generally assumed that anxiety is a dimensional, rather than categorical, variable. To date, only one taxometric study of the broad anxiety construct has been conducted, with results indicating a possible taxonic structure. However, most taxometric research on anxiety related topics has reached dimensional conclusions, and recently researchers have raised concerns that many early taxometric studies yielding taxonic findings may have been spurious or attributable to use of underdeveloped methodological procedures. The present study sought to further examine the latent structure of broad anxiety construct using modern taxometric methodology. The general assumption running throughout the anxiety literature that anxiety is continuous appears to be correct. Second, latent dimensional structures are consistent with the graded and additive etiological models proposed by modern behavioral conceptualizations of anxiety. Finally, anxiety researchers are encouraged to assess the entire continuum of anxiety and to use parametric statistical procedures, such as multiple regression analysis, that do not necessitate artificial dichotomization.

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78. Fighting Age with Knowledge: Ten Tips for Teaching Undergraduates as a Young Graduate Student

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Bradley Green Music Performance Jennifer Snodgrass Fine and Applied Arts Music Dec 02, 2013
Project Description: This poster will be presented as a resource to help graduate students (specifically young graduate students) in music who find themselves teaching undergraduates that are either close to their own age or older. The tips provided by the poster developed as a result of my own personal experiences in the classroom and focuses on the challenge of teaching students close to one's own age. The goal of this poster is to help graduate students who may feel inadequate in their teaching positions because of their hierarchical "rank" or lack of experience. The proposed budget will allow me to print the poster for presentation.

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79. Examining the Perceptions and Experiences of Teachers Involved in a Two-Year Professional Development Initiative Focusing on Emergent Literacy

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Allison Mitnick Ed.D Leadership General Alecia Jackson Education Leadership and Educational Studies Dec 02, 2013
Project Description: I am examining the perspectives of 8-10 primary public school teachers in Avery County who are receiving free professional development (paid for by the school district) through App State. The focus is emergent literacy and the teachers get on-site professional development and practicum supervision and support for two years with tenured App State professors. Because this is a completely new model of professional development, I want to study how teachers perceive these sessions and how they feel the classes inform their own understanding of emergent literacy as well as their own teaching. Method: *I will be conducting 2 hour-long interviews (fall, spring) that will be recorded and transcribed and later given back to the teachers for editing *Focus groups every semester *Observations of the teachers engaged in using new strategies *Surveys As a doctoral student that is paying out of state tuition, I will have trouble pursuing this project without financial assistance. I am so interested in this project, but the gas alone will be very expensive. I want to make the process as convenient as possible for the teachers so I can come to them in Avery when they are available. The transcription materials will help to minimize the time I am actually transcribing all of the data, so I can spend more time analyzing it. The paper from the budget will allow me to print the transcriptions that I give back to the teachers.

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80. Perfectionism in India Compared to America: A Cross-Cultural Internet-Based Assessment

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Stephen Semcho Psychology Robert Hill Arts and Sciences Psychology Dec 02, 2013
Project Description: This study compares perfectionism in people from India to people from America. A multidimensional perfectionism scale was administered online via Amazon's MTurk service to 1204 users from India. Mean scores on the Perfectionism Inventory subscales were compared to data from a previously collected American sample with a series of independent-samples t-tests. Post hoc analyses were also performed to investigate differences among religious groups and genders within the Indian sample. In order to present my research I must reimburse the Psychology department for the costs of printing the poster.

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81. Assessing Forest Management Practices on Golden-winged Warbler Abundance in Nicaragua

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Clifton Avery Biology Lynn Siefferman Arts and Sciences Biology Dec 02, 2013
Project Description: Golden-winged Warblers (GWWA; Vermivora chrysoptera) are neotropical migrant songbirds that breed in the southern Appalachian Mountains and overwinter in Central America. GWWA are a species of conservation concern, with a decline of ~2.5% per year. Much is known about GWWA habitat use in the breeding grounds; it consists of a mosaic of early successional habitat adjacent to mature forest. However, very little is known about habitat use by GWWA on their winter grounds. One speculated cause of current accelerated population declines is the rapid deforestation that much of Central America is experiencing. Curtis Smalling (Audubon NC; a GWWA expert) estimates ~50% of GWWAs overwinter in the Nicaraguan highlands. The GWWA Working Group has been surveying GWWAs in Nicaragua, Panama, Honduras, Costa Rica, Colombia, and Venezuela but there is still a great deal of land to be surveyed. This past summer, I worked for Audubon NC studying GWWA on their local breeding grounds (funded by the USDA). I surveyed for GWWAs, mapped territories, captured birds, located and monitored nests and conducted vegetation surveys. This winter, I have the opportunity to survey for GWWAs in a reforested habitat corridor in Nicaragua’s El Jaguar Reserve for GWWA with the GWWA Working Group. The Nicaraguan study site is a 46-hectare area in the process of becoming a reforested habitat corridor and is being managed for GWWA to colonize. A collaborative group including American Bird Conservancy (ABC) and Southern Wings started the habitat corridor project three years ago. This group is pursuing funding from USFWS Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Act for a larger corridor project. Methods: My research is to conduct baseline surveys of GWWAs and other rare neotropical species (e.g. Chestnut-sided Warbler (CSWA), Golden-cheeked Warbler, Highland Guan, Three-Wattled Bellbird) across habitat gradients. I will use targeted playback to flush the species of interest to measure their density. I will compare densities of these species across habitat types to better understand preferred habitat types. I have experience with both GWWAs and conducting avian research in Latin America. I am confident that this opportunity will enable me to gain experience toward my goal of becoming a professional ornithologist. Moreover I am very excited about conducting independent research. I will use these data for my Senior Capstone Experience. I will have the spring semester to analyze data and write a paper that I plan to submit to a peer-reviewed journal. Additionally, ABCs promised to match whatever funds I can raise and this money will be used for on-the-ground conservation of the Nicaraguan habitat corridors. Curtis Smalling is coordinating the logistics of the research and will accompany me on the trip. Dr. Lynn Siefferman is my research advisor and instructor for the capstone course. She is collaborating with Mr. Smalling and GWWA Working Group’s research.

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82. Effects of Mood on Wishful Thinking

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Anastasiya Orlova Psychology Andrew Smith Arts and Sciences Psychology Dec 02, 2013
Project Description: This study is designed to assess a relationship between mood and wishful thinking. Wishful thinking can be defined as predicting a more favorable outcome for a preferred situation, like predicting a sports team will win a game because of a bet on it. Although wishful thinking has been shown to exist in a variety of research studies, the effects of mood on it have not been actively tested. The goal of this study is to examine whether being in a happy or sad mood will affect a person’s likelihood to engage in wishful thinking. The participants will go through an Automated Marked Card Paradigm (AMCP) as a primary task. In this task, participants will be shown a deck of 10 cards. Each of the cards will be marked with a particular symbol. For example, the participants might be told that some cards are marked with a square and some marked with a triangle. The participants’ task is to predict which card will be on the top of the deck after it is shuffled. As an incentive for accuracy, the participants will receive $.10 each time they correctly predict the top card. Before each prediction is made, the participants will be told how many of the each card is in the deck. For example, there might be 6 cards marked with a square and 4 cards marked with a triangle. As a way of manipulating the desirability of a particular outcome, the participants will be able to win or lose additional money depending on the cards on top. For example, a participant might be told that if the card that is on top after the deck is shuffled is marked with a square they will receive an additional $1. In our previous studies investigating wishful thinking, participants’ predictions are influenced by the number of cards in a deck. People are also sensitive to our desirability manipulation. Specifically, they are more likely to pick a card if they can win money if it is on top as compared to when they can lose money if it is on top. In other words, participants’ predictions are influenced by the desirability of the outcome. As a way to assess mood effects, we will influence the participants’ mood through pictures carefully chosen from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), a collection of pictures that have been previously evaluated and identified as being effective in evoking the desired emotion. Each participant will view either 10 happy pictures, 10 sad pictures, or 10 neutral pictures prior to going through the AMCP and their performance will be compared. At the end of the study, the researchers will pay the participants in cash, depending on the amount of money they win. The cash incentive is a large aspect of this study, because this is how we will manipulate the desirability of one outcome over another outcome. This, of course, is necessary to detect a wishful thinking effect and, without being able to detect wishful thinking, we certainly wouldn’t be able to examine the effects of mood on wishful thinking.

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83. Generating detailed expression profiles for the FLIP4 protein family in Arabidopsis thaliana using RT-qPCR

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Michael Judge Biology Annkatrin Rose Arts and Sciences Biology Dec 02, 2013
Project Description: Genetic rearrangements in the higher plants are thought to promote the evolution of new or adaptive traits in nature through specialization of genes and the molecular evolution of new traits. However, these events complicate the task of tracing evolutionary histories (which could offer insights on the development of gene families and functions) and the application of knowledge gained from model plants to economically important crops (Mei-Ku 2000). In the case of rearrangement by gene duplication, functionality is preserved in the original gene; one copy of the gene can freely accumulate mutations which may lead to the formation of a pseudogene or new/enhanced specialization via neofunctionalization, subfunctionalization, or gene dosing. The FILAMENT-LIKE PROTEIN4 pair presents a particularly interesting case of such gene evolution resulting from the most recent of three genome duplication events in Arabidopsis. Microarray data predicts a more specific localization for FLIP4-1, suggesting that this paralog may be specializing in function. The goal of this project is to obtain more specific expression patterns for these genes by reverse transcription (RT) of mRNA isolated from various flip4-1 and flip4-2 mutant and wild-type tissues at different developmental stages into cDNA, then to quantify cDNA by real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) with mutant-specific primers. In order to obtain total RNA transcripts for RT-qPCR, tissue will first be homogenized. Next, RNA will be isolated using a series of phenol-chloroform extractions, an isopropanol/NaOAc precipitation and two ethanol washes. During all these steps, RNA will be very susceptible to warming and degradation by nucleases (RNases). A liquid nitrogen-cooled mini mortar and pestle allows tissue homogenization and initial extraction to take place directly in microcentrifuge tubes submersed in liquid nitrogen, saving nitrogen and minimizing loss of material (as with traditional mortar and pestles) while preventing thawing. Nuclease-free vessels and reagents are also necessary to prevent degradation by RNases. Water (for re-suspension and storage of isolated RNA) contamination seems to have caused previous experiments to fail in our lab, but nuclease-free water is available. To minimize this possibility, nuclease/endotoxin-free 50mL tubes will be used to hold aliquots of ultrapure water, while RNase contamination will be eliminated from the work environment using a decontaminant. Furthermore, at least 1000 nuclease-free microfuge tubes will also be needed to carry out 100 RNA extractions and test reactions. All tissue samples and other reagents required to complete this project have been obtained.

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84. Characterization of Conserved Non Coding Element Associated with Meis2

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Alicia Ramsaran Biology Ted Zerucha Arts and Sciences Biology Dec 02, 2013
Project Description: My research project is concerned with studying genes that are responsible for the embryonic development in vertebrate organisms. Specifically, we are looking at the Meis genes, which play a role in hindbrain development. Many details we learn about the developmental role Meis genes play is observed in model organisms Danio rerio, zebrafish. This particular line of study focuses on the use of zebrafish as a model organism for embryogenesis. Within Meis genes of vertebrates there are 4 Meis genes: Meis1, Meis2, Meis3, and Meis4. In zebrafish a duplication event occurred in Meis2 resulting in zebrafish having meis2.1and meis2.2. Our lab studies meis2.2 gene. We know where meis2.2 is normally expressed, but we do not know what controls the expression of this gene. There are regions of DNA called enhancers that are usually located upstream of the target gene and are known to help activate or repress genes. Enhancers are highly conserved non- coding elements (CNEs) that can control expression of the target gene. In land vertebrates there are four enhancers associated with Meis2: m2de1, m2de2, m2de3, and m2de4. As mentioned above, zebrafish have a duplication of Meis 2, meis 2.1 and meis 2.2. Meis 2.2 is only associated with Meis 2 downstream element 1, m2de1. My central question is can highly conserved non-coding element mm.m2de3 element drive expression of a reporter transgene in zebrafish and is that expression consistent with where mouse Meis2 is expressed during development? This study will determine if conserved non- coding element, mm.m2de3, can be expressed in zebrafish. I am constructing a plasmid with mm. m2de3 element using Tol2 Gateway protocol in order to develop transgenic zebrafish with enhancer m2de3. I use Gateway cloning technique in order to put the elements into a Tol2 expression plasmid, pGW- cofs- EGFP. The kits I asked for (Gateway® LR Clonase® II Enzyme mix, Gateway® BP Clonase® II Enzyme mix, and Phusion® High-Fidelity DNA Polymerase) are all required to complete Gateway cloning technique. pGW- cfos- EGFP flanks the target element in order to drive expression of EGFP if the conserved non- coding sequence is activated. Tol2 expression plasmid, Tol2 flanking mm.m2de3 element, and Tol2 transposase mRNA is injected into a single cell fertilized zebrafish embryo. The element will then integrate into the zebrafish genome. The embryos are allowed to develop for different time periods post fertilization. If mm. m2de3 is able to drive EGFP expression, confocal microscopy is used to confirm that the element integrated into the zebrafish genome and is active. EGFP expression should, in theory, mirror the EGFP expression of endogenous meis2.2 seen in mice. This project is signification because the more we understand about this particular gene and the mechanisms involved in the regulation of meis 2.2. The more we will learn about the embryological development of vertebrate organism.

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85. The effect of Moringa oleifera on the oncolytic activity of the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus strain, rM51R-M, in cervical and prostate cancer cell lines

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Audrey Brown Biology Maryam Ahmed Arts and Sciences Biology Dec 02, 2013
Project Description: Oncolytic viruses have gained much support for modern treatments of multiple types of cancer. These viruses are naturally or genetically modified to preferentially infect and kill various cancer cells. For our purposes of research, we work with an attenuated strain of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), rM51R-M, to examine its effects on breast, cervical, and prostate cancer cell lines. This recombinant strain of VSV has a methionine substitution for arginine at position 51 of the M protein which downregulates the host antiviral response. While capable of replication in infected cells, the mutation in the M protein eliminates host pathogenicity associated with VSV. This allows the host to develop an effective immune response against the recombinant virus, eventually leading to clearance of the oncolytic virus. For this reason, it is important to identify treatments to increase the effectiveness of VSV at killing cancer cells prior to viral clearance. We have previously shown that various natural compounds have the potential to synergize with VSV to kill chemotherapy-resistant cervical (SiHa) and prostate (PC3) cancer cell lines. Recently, interest has grown on testing the beneficial effects of a native plant of India, Moringa oleifera. The extracts from this plant exhibit strong anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties, yet lack any cytotoxic effect on healthy cells. Due to M.oleifera’s anti-inflammatory effects, we hypothesize that M. oleifera extract will effectively inhibit cellular antiviral responses in VSV-resistant cancer cells and promote the oncolytic effects of VSV. To test this hypothesis, we will use MTT assays to determine the ability of M.oleifera to enhance the ability of VSV to kill select cancer cell lines. Into separate 96-well tissue culture plates, prostate and cervical cancer cell lines will be added with Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). After obtaining 80% confluency of both cell lines, concentrations of M. oleifera ranging from 1-200 µg/mL will be added to wells in triplicates. Following a 6-hour treatment with M. oleifera, rwt and rM51R-M strains will be added at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10 pfu/cell. At 24 and 48 hour time periods, 10 ?L of the tetrazoleum salt MTT will be added, which is cleaved by metabolically-active cells to form a formazan dye. After a 4-hour incubation period with MTT, 100 µL of 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in 0.01 M HCl will be added to each well to solubilize the formazan crystals. Absorbance at 550 nm will be read using an ELISA microplate reader. Percent cell viability is determined by dividing treated cell absorbance by mock cell absorbance. We expect to observe decreased cell viability for both PC3 and SiHa cell lines following treatment with M. oleifera as compared to virus treatment alone, which would support the role of M. oleifera as an anticancer extract that will synergize viral oncolysis by our rM51R-M strain.

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86. Evaluation of Genetic Structure in Rare Clonal Plant Species Using Microsatellite Markers

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Adam Morgan Biology Zack Murrell Arts and Sciences Biology Dec 02, 2013
Project Description: Primarily this project aims to describe the genetic structure of Spiraea virginiana, a rare and imperiled clonal shrub in order to identify the locations of the most genetically diverse populations for conservation efforts. Previous studies of the genetic structure have used Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) variation to analyze gene flow and centers of genetic diversity. However, these methods are disadvantaged with respect to reproducibility and sequence variability within species for RAPDs and ISSR respectively; in comparison this project’s microsatellite approach will resolve genetic structure in much finer detail. Secondarily, we will assess the utility of a set of primers targeting microsatellite regions in quantifying genetic variation across many populations of S. virginiana, and evaluate the efficacy of the RAPDs previously used on the species. PCR amplification of 11 microsatellite loci will be performed on approximately 100 DNA samples extracted from S. virginiana leaf tissue collected across five states, incorporating florescent dyes to allow for high throughput genotyping on an ABI3730 sequencer. These PCR products will be multiplexed and sent to the Georgia genomics facility for fine-scale resolution of sequence length in order to determine the number of alleles present at each microsatellite locus. This character data will then be analyzed to determine genetic structure and geographic patterns of diversity within the species. The Taq polymerase is needed in the process of PCR, the most fundamental first step of this experiment. Taq polymerase is a precious lab resource that will be consumed in significant quantities in the process of the project. One unit of Taq is required for each PCR. An estimated 1,100 reactions minimum is required (approximately 100 samples times 11 primers) to complete this first stage of data collection. However, it is very likely that additional PCR will need to take place for quality testing and optimization; requiring at least 1100 additional units of Taq. The florescent tags are critical to the genotyping process and will also be consumed in significant quantities in this project. Although currently lab reserves of Taq polymerase and florescent tagged primers are being used for moving the project forward, this usage of lab resources is unsustainable without replacement. More importantly, the scope and purpose of this project merits drawing funds to support itself.

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87. Single versus multiple particle laser-induced heating of supported lipid bilayers

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Victoria McLean Biology Brooke Hester Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Dec 02, 2013
Project Description: Supported lipid bilayers are well characterized, are known to undergo a transition from a fluid phase to a gel phase with a decrease in temperature, and are frequently utilized as a model for a cell membrane. Gold nanoparticles have been used to ablate tumors, achieved by noninvasive photo-thermal tumor ablation. Heating effects tend to increase with nanoparticle density. We seek to understand the effects of heating a lipid bilayer via a single irradiated particle versus heating from clustered particles. We will observe a fluorescent supported lipid bilayer whose fluorescence can only be observed in the gel phase. Nanoparticles will be placed on the lipid bilayer and laser-irradiated, causing a phase change in the bilayer surrounding the particle. The size of the dark region is related to the heat conducted into the membrane and a size measurement allows for the determination of the particle temperature. Our results can be used for modeling cell membranes at biologically relevant temperatures in order to understand the role of nanoparticles in cancer therapy.

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88. PTR-MS Measurements of Air Toxics at Thompson Farm, NH, 2005-2010

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Megan Knuth Environmental Science Barkley Sive Arts and Sciences Chemistry Nov 21, 2013
Project Description: Abstract: Presented is an analysis of seasonal variability in toluene, benzene, and C8 and C9 aromatics using data collected at the University of New Hampshire Observing Station at Thompson Farm. The measurements made using a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) account for seasonal changes starting in spring of 2005 and ending in fall of 2010. Representing the data are time series plots encompassing seasonal changes from 2005 to 2010, along with a series of toluene:benzene ratio curves, and annual box plots for each air pollutant indicating mean concentrations, abnormal lows, and abnormal highs. The purpose of this work is to identify possible sources for each pollutant and note differences in diurnal emissions. These changes in emissions diurnally give insight into the potential magnitude of biogenic versus anthropogenic sources. Background levels for benzene, toluene, and C8 and C9 aromatics averaged: 0.073 ppbv, 0.045 ppbv, 0.048 ppbv, and 0.040 ppbv.

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89. Ground-based Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds in Houston, Texas

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Stephanie Hoelbling Environmental Science Barkley Sive Arts and Sciences Chemistry Nov 21, 2013
Project Description: As part of NASA’s DISCOVER-AQ aircraft campaign in Houston, TX during September 2013, we conducted crucial ground-based measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs). During the campaign, we deployed the following instrumentation at the University of Houston’s (UH) Moody Tower field site: i) a Picarro cavity ring-down spectrometer, ii) a cryogen-free gas chromatographic (GC) system and iii) a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). The state-of-the-art cryogen-free GC system was used for hourly measurements of C2-C10 nonmethane hydrocarbons, C1-C2 halocarbons, C1-C5 alkyl nitrates, reduced sulfur gases and OVOCs. The Picarro cavity ring-down system was used for in situ formaldehyde measurements and the PTR-MS systems will be used for fast response VOC and OVOC measurements. The ground-based measurement conducted at UH’s Moody Tower are fundamental to the objectives of NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign, which include satellite validation, and also to help improve the use of satellite measurements to diagnose air quality conditions and its controlling factors. Distributions of formaldehyde will be compared to those of acetaldehyde, isoprene, carbon monoxide, and ozone in order to provide insight on the primary and secondary production sources of formaldehyde in the greater Houston area during the campaign.

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90. Restaurant Lawsuit

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Diana Aguilar Molina Psychology Paul Fox Arts and Sciences Psychology Nov 20, 2013
Project Description: By 2010, approximately 13 million immigrants were living in the United States. These immigrants included those with legal residence as well as those without legal status. Immigration to the United States is growing rapidly and many states are formulating laws to restrict immigration and privileges immigrants have here whether they are here legally or not. We designed our study to examine the effects of immigration status (ethnicity and legality) on attribution of blame and both compensatory and punitive awards in a lawsuit involving a slip and fall situation in which the plaintiff was scalded by hot oil due to negligence of the restaurant. We used a 2 (legal status; legal vs illegal) X 5 (ethnicities: Latino, African, European, Asian, Arabic) factorial design with a control in which no ethnicity or legal status was described. Results revealed significant main effects of blame and compensation relative to the legal status of the plaintiffs as well for punitive damage awards relative to ethnicity. Latinos and the control group received greater punitive damage awards than other ethnic groups. Results are discussed relative to ethnic bias and the more egalitarian ethnic proclivity of student compared to community populations.

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91. Quantification of Gliadin Content in Beer

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Taylor Smith Chemistry Brett Taubman Arts and Sciences Chemistry Nov 20, 2013
Project Description: Gluten-free beers, which are defined as having less than 20 ppm of gluten, are becoming increasingly popular as more people are being diagnosed with gluten intolerances. Traditionally, gluten-free beers have been made with cereals such as rice or sorghum, which contain either no gluten or gluten that does not trigger autoimmune responses. More recently beers are being made gluten-free by introducing certain enzymes to break down gluten content of barley and wheat- of which 75% of the proteins are gluten including 50% gliadin.- during fermentation. This research, the RIDASCREEN® gliadin competitive enzyme immunoassay was used for the analysis of multiple varieties of commercially available beers including a light lager, an IPA, a wheat beer, a gluten-free red lager made with sorghum, a gluten-free blonde ale made with sorghum and corn, and a gluten-free pale ale made with barley in which the gluten was extracted during fermentation. Results for the gluten-containing beers ranged from 39 ppm to >135 ppm of gliadin while the gluten-free beers ranged from <5 ppm to 6 ppm of gliadin. Further research includes testing of gluten content for multiple gluten-free and gluten-containing beers brewed within the Fermentation Sciences Program at Appalachian State University. The proposed budget will be used to print a poster to present this research at the State of North Carolina Undergraduate Research and Creativity Symposium on November 16, 2013 at UNC Charlotte.

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92. Band of Solar Gypsies

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Andrew Eagle Physics David Sitar Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Oct 30, 2013
Project Description: During the Fall 2013 semester, our research group has organized and conducted numerous off-campus outreach events designed for the public. The purpose of the events is to bring information about and observations of the Sun to individuals who may otherwise be unable to explore. The Sun’s current status, solar maximum, only takes place once every eleven years, which has created a greater interest for researchers and enthusiasts alike. The poster itself will be instrumental in presenting our research at the State of North Carolina Undergraduate Research and Creativity Symposium.

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93. A Comparative Analysis of Aroma Compounds in Hops Grown in North Carolina by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Taylor Krivenki Chemistry Brett Taubman Arts and Sciences Chemistry Oct 30, 2013
Project Description: For my senior research project, I am studying essential oil compounds in hops responsible for aroma produced in various regions of North Carolina and the Pacific Northwest. I am interested in comparing aroma compounds beta-myrcene, beta-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, geraniol, alpha-humulene, linalool, and beta-pinene within the essential oil in each type of hops and in each region from which the hops were produced. I am also interested in observing how the concentrations of aroma compounds vary in the hops after they are allowed to oxide in the freezer for 30 day periods. My experimental method will compare the effects of solubility of aroma compounds in the essential oil on quantification of those compounds. I have developed a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the separation and analysis of the aroma compounds in the hop samples. I observed that the solubility of the aroma compounds greatly effects the quantification of those compounds by GC-MS. I aim to determine if certain types of hops produced in either region are prone to oxidation of the aroma compounds. I am curious to see the time frame of aroma compound oxidation in order to determine for how long certain types of hops produced in certain regions will maintain their aroma. The electric heating mantle is used in sample preparation for the distillation apparatus as a heat source for the steam distillation of the essential oils in the hops. The Whatman syringless filters are used to filter plant material and dust from the hop essential oil samples for analysis by GC-MS.

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94. Catalyst Development for a Sonogashira Catalyst Transfer Polycondensation

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kameron Singer Chemistry Pamela Lundin Arts and Sciences Chemistry Oct 30, 2013
Project Description: The applications of ?-conjugated polymers have been prevalent in forming the basis of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), solar cells and transistors. The focus of our lab is to optimize the synthesis of an appropriate meta- substituted monomer via Sonogashira cross-coupling polycondensation. This grant will provide funds necessary to print a 3’ x 4’ poster that will be presented at SERMACS 2013 in Atlanta, GA on 15 November 2013.

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95. Summertime Measurements of Nonmethane Hydrocarbons in Rural Western North Carolina

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Ryan Cook Chemistry Libby Puckett Arts and Sciences Chemistry Oct 30, 2013
Project Description: My project performed during the REU program last summer was aimed to quantify trace gases of light hydrocarbons around the Boone, NC. area to provide important reference background information to aerosol formation as well as trends visible from population and day/night fluctuations. This poster is necessary for presenting my research at SERMACS and NCUR to help enlighten the science community about the prevalence of this research.

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96. Optical Density Counting and Viability Measurements of the C. Elegans Nematode

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Stephen Dellinger Physics Jennifer Cecile Arts and Sciences Chemistry Oct 30, 2013
Project Description: Nematodes are utilized as a model system for many mammalian processes. These small worms (which span less than the length of a flea) are useful for examining the transport and toxicity of drugs and often used in "high-throughput" experiments in which large numbers of the nematodes and drug concentrations are employed. Our lab examines the function of the drug transporters in the nematode with a fluorescent dye that is detectable on the microscope (like the one I custom built for the lab last year) or a microplate reader. Often times we may co-treat the nematode with another drug that is not fluorescent and we can quantify different amounts of fluorescent material that remain in the nematode that interacts with the drug transporter. In some experiments, the concentrations of drugs utilized is large and limited information is available to determine if the high concentrations have a negative impact on the nematode (causing death) which would interfere with our experiments. Thus, we have designed new experiments to expose the nematodes to various drug concentrations to determine any change in nematode viability using the microplate reader and various dyes. However the estimation of nematode populations has proved challenging. Typically, counting the nematodes is done by eye-counting the number of nematodes present in a small volume of sample under a light microscope. Multiple counts on the sample are required to obtain a number representative of the sample population. That nematode count per volume unit is extracted to the total volume of the sample and is used as an estimated count. Eye-counting is very time consuming and results in some error for large samples. A method to quickly and accurately count the nematodes is very desirable. The purpose of this research project is to build a custom instrument to count the number of nematodes present in a given sample. While commercial models are available (termed nephelometers), they may cost upwards of $10,000 and are not a practical investments for an academic laboratory. Historically, the nephelometer has been previously designed and shown to accurately count nematode populations in medium to high density levels (1000 nematodes/mL to 100,000 nematodes/mL). I will build this device according to previous published papers, incorporating equipment detailed in the budget. In addition, I will be responsible for testing and calibrating the instrument to make sure the counter performs as desired. With my custom built nephelometer and the fluorescent microscope (completed in my first year of the GRAM program), I have utilized skills learned in my physics graduate classes to assist in routine experiments in Dr. Cecile's lab and can add these instruments to my resume. In addition, I can share the usefulness of this equipment with other scientists that work with nematodes as many of the reference papers utilized are dated (1975-1990) and better components are currently available.

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97. Novel cobaloximes as electrocatalysts for hydrogen production

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Corbin Ester Chemistry Dale Wheeler Arts and Sciences Chemistry Oct 30, 2013
Project Description: This research is a continuation of an ongoing project of which I have been involved in for two years. I propose to create a series of new cobaloximes in which the redox-couple shift is less than the 1 V observed with the alkylamine derivatives. In the synthetic scheme, I will use p-substituted anilines in place of the alkylamines described in the previous paragraph. There are two reasons to study this group of glyoxime derivatives. First, aniline will delocalize electron density throughout the phenyl ring, decreasing the electron donating effects vs. alkyamines. Second, changing the p-substituent on the aniline allows for a variation in the electron donating effect of the ligands. One can therefore “tune” the ligand to optimize the electron density on the central cobalt ion, influencing the basicity of the Co(I) state and enhancing the catalytic activity of the cobaloxime. To create these new glyoxime derivatives, several p-substituted anilines, p-XC6H4NH2, will be used, including X = NO2, OR, R, H, I, and N(CH3)2. The synthesis will follow the published procedure for N,N’-bis(anilino)glyoxime (Inor. Chim. Acta (2008), 361, 2225-35) by reacting dichloroglyoxime with the various anilines. The synthesis of dichloroglyoxime involves the chlorination of glyoxime (Inorg. Chem. (1990), 29(22), 4537-44). Many of these products will be new glyoximes and all the analogous cobaloximes will be new compounds. All of these proposed complexes will be characterized by NMR, IR, UV-vis, and MS. The electrochemical analysis and the determination of the hydrogen producing catalytic activity subsequently will be performed in the research lab of Prof. Hambourger. The proposed budget is used for the purpose of purchasing reagents for sythesis, and solvents for analysis.

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98. Episodic Autobiographical Memories: Retrieval in Older Adults

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Heather Burkett Psychology Lisa Emery Arts and Sciences Psychology Oct 08, 2013
Project Description: Memories pertaining to our past are known as autobiographical memories that preserve and maintain information about ourselves (Conway & Pleydell-Pearce, 2000; Schlagman et al., 2009). Autobiographical memories are important for developing and managing one’s personal identity throughout a life time (Schlagman et al., 2009). Research suggests that the amount of sensory and perceptual detail used to describe an event changes as people age (Nilsson, 2003), with older adults producing memories that are less specified and more general in description (Piolino et al., 2010). I will examine this phenomenon by testing the hypothesis that age-related differences in sensory and perceptual detail production are caused by deficits in retrieval processes supported by the prefrontal cortex. I will test this hypothesis by examining if differences in detail production remain between young and older adults, by presenting two different conditions for retrieval. The first will use a word cue to retrieve memories, and the second will use an event cue to retrieve memories. A word cue is a single word designed to trigger any memory associated with the word presented, an event cue is a sentence used to target one specific event. I also predict that older adults will produce more detail during the event cue condition, compared to the word cue condition. Furthermore, I predict less detail production is linked to prefrontal cortex performance, which will be tested by Digit Span Backwards task. Addis et al. (2008) showed that the word cue condition is strongly correlated to this task. Project Design & Methodology: Each participant will complete one session lasting two hours. Participants will first complete a demographics questionnaire, Short Blessed and Geriatric Depression Scale (short version). Next, participants will be given a series of word cues and event cues and asked to produce a single event from the past year that is associated with the cue. The participant will have one minute to think about an event, and will then write out one sentence describing the event. For the remaining two minutes, participants will elaborate on as much detail as possible about the event. Participants’ narratives will be audio recorded for this last portion. The recorded narratives will later be transcribed and coded for number of details, and categorization of type of detail (Levine et al., 2002). Finally, the Digit Span Backwards and Verbal Paired Associates will be given. Clinical Relevance: Age-related disease such as Alzheimer’s disease are on the rise (CDC, 2012). There is significant difficulty in distinguishing the early stages of these diseases from normal memory changes. Understanding the normal aging processes for memory is important for distinguishing between normal and serious cognitive impairments. Justification for Proposed Budget: The proposed budget for this project is needed to compensate the older adults for their time and travel expenses.

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99. Determining Barriers to Implementation of Inquiry Based Science: A Mixed Methods Study of 6th -8th Grade Science Teachers in One Rural District

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Carol Moore Ed.D Leadership General Krista Terry Education Leadership and Educational Studies Sep 30, 2013
Project Description: This mixed methods research project will use pre-existing data from on-line surveys to inform collection of new data through development of interview questions. The new data will be collected through six interviews of 6th-8th grade teachers having access to a new inquiry-based science curriculum. Two teachers from each grade level, one who readily uses the curriculum and one who does not, will be interviewed. The one-hour interviews will tease out the barriers to full implementation of the new science program and possible ways to overcome those barriers. This research is relevant to educational leadership as our communities demand better education of students while dollars spent on education are being reduced. This research is part of program evaluation required by the funder of the program who has a vested interest in its implementation. A pilot study has been done previously that used two interviews and several observations to strengthen the research design. Several of the barriers researched were: support, self-efficacy, time, testing and accountability, and teacher beliefs. A few of these were evident in the pilot study. The research proposed will elaborate on these barriers and may discover others, as well as developing ways to overcome these barriers.

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100. Illusory Permanence: the Persistence of Nature

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Katherine Meeks Art Gary Nemcosky Fine and Applied Arts Art Sep 26, 2013
Project Description: I will create a solo installation exhibition in the Looking Glass Gallery in the Student Union. Media include ceramics, photography, live plants, wood, and other mixed media. The show will focus on themes of degradation and permanence, submission and control, and the natural process of entropy. (See www.artistkatherinemeeks.com/grant-application for images) I will build a structure in the center of the gallery that will support ceramic vines (Image 1). This structure will be comprised of PVC pipe and round wooden panels, painted black. The structure will assemble and disassemble easily, for ease of transportation. The ceramic vines (Image 2) will burst out of each layer of the structure. A horizontal two-foot band will be painted around the gallery at eye level. In this band, photographs of vegetation reclaiming the human landscape (Image 3) will alternate with industrial parts overgrown by vegetation (Image 4). I will grow these plants in my house and then transport them to the gallery. Grow lights will be installed in Looking Glass Gallery. They can be watered by misting the soil with a spray bottle, to prevent leakage. Artist Statement: As a maker of things, I am interested in products: both my own and those of society. Our consumerist culture propels us to desire, obtain, and finally discard the new in search of the newer. Humans work incessantly towards a fleeting sense of order; natural disorder prevails. Permanence is elusive. I am interested in themes of degradation and permanence, submission and control, and the natural process of entropy. My ideas become manifest in the ceramic process. When fired, clay is chemically similar to fossils, and therefore, it is an appropriate record of my interest in the fossils that humanity will leave behind. The permanence of ceramic parts mirror humanity’s egotistical desire for permanence of our record upon the earth, in utility and celebrity.

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101. Divest Yosef: A Different Kind of Student Activism at App State

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Nicholas Tampa Anthropology James Dees Other/Business Affairs Office of Sustainability Sep 26, 2013
Project Description: The poster will be a visual for Fossil Free App State (student activism group/club) presentation at the AASHE conference in October. We are an activism group whose goal it is to petition the University to divest the money it has invested in the fossil fuel industry. We have developed a good relationship with University administrators who we have been meeting with to discuss the logistics of investment/divestment and have made sure to keep the lines of communication open so that we can work alongside each other on the path to creating a more socially responsible investment strategy. At the AASHE conference where we have been accepted as presenters, we will have the opportunity present a visual and to share with attendees what our club has done and what we plant to do with our divestment project in the future. The poster will show a history of the club, pictures from activism events we have participated in, and will outline some of the strategies we have used in dealing with administrators all towards the goal of full divestment from the fossil free industry in the future. We want to make a professional-looking appearance at the conference with a professionally done poster so we can attract other attendees and share with them what we have learned about the process of negotiating with administrators in a campaign for positive change.

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102. Misidentification of crown coloration provokes aggressive response in golden-winged warblers

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
John Jones Biology Lynn Siefferman Arts and Sciences Biology Sep 26, 2013
Project Description: The golden-winged warbler (GWWA) is a neotropical migrant songbird that breeds in North America and has recently experienced a population decline of ~ 98%. Populations breeding in the Southern Appalachians are experiencing particularly precipitous declines. My graduate research will focus on the causes of local population declines. Last summer, I worked with Audubon North Carolina as a field technician and became familiar with this species. I have a strong interest in both behavioral ecology and conservation biology. Although conservation biologists often do not ask behavioral questions, such research approaches can be relevant to solving conservation problems. My experience is that GWWAs often engage in physical confrontations with the morphologically similar (and much more common) chestnut-sided warbler. Physical aggression between the two species is perplexing because they should not be competing for mates or nesting sites and such conflict runs the risk of injury or even death. Although these two species have very different plumage characteristics and song however, to the human eye, appear to have similar yellow coloration on the crown of their heads. I hypothesize that each species is potentially viewing the yellow crown color and misidentifying the other species as their own species. I predict that the variation in color in each species overlaps to the extent that they are not distinguishable with the avian eye. To test this hypothesis, I will need to measure plumage color of hundreds of animals of both species. Museum skins are a wonderful resource from which to gain these data. I will use a reflectance spectrometer to measure plumage reflectance (feather color) of the crowns of both species and then use models of avian vision to determine whether the warblers’ crown color is similar enough to not be distinguishable. I plan to visit The Field Museum of Chicago because it offers a particularly large collection of both species of warblers and I also plan to visit the NC Museum of Natural sciences because of its close proximity to Boone. An additional benefit to my visit will be that I will also be collecting reflectance measurements for Anna Tisdale, a fellow graduate who is using spectral data for an investigation of hybridization between GWWA and blue-winged warblers. For my trip to Chicago, I have requested mileage reimbursement from the GSAS grant. I will also need funding for per diem and hotel during this visit to Chicago. Additionally, I am requesting funding for mileage reimbursement and hotel for the visit to Raleigh. This research project will be one chapter of my Master’s thesis. Further, the results of this museum research will help me design an appropriate field based study that I will conduct nest spring. The results of these findings will be presented at the Golden-winged working group meeting and the International behavioral ecologist meeting should help managers implement a successful GWWA conservation initiative.

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103. Effects of safety signal availability on uncomfortable and painful task persistence.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Breckyn Ely Psychology Josh Broman-Fulks Arts and Sciences Psychology Sep 26, 2013
Project Description: The proposed project will examine participants’ willingness to engage in a physically uncomfortable task when safety signals are available. Previous research has yielded inconsistent evidence regarding the behavioral influences of safety signals (i.e., stimuli that suggest or signal increased safety or control over aversive stimuli) on aversive task persistence. Although some research has indicated that safety signal availability facilitates task persistence, other studies have suggested that they may diminish exposure to feared situations. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of safety signal availability on noxious task persistence. In addition, the study will examine the predictive validity of two cognitive variables, anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety related sensations) and experiential avoidance (avoidance of tasks that induce physical discomfort), in noxious task persistence. Approximately 100 ASU students who are at least 18 years of age will be recruited from the Psychology Research Pool to participate in this study. After providing informed consent and prior to engaging in any of the study activities, participants will be administered a screening measure to ensure that they do not meet any of the exclusion criteria for the study. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (1) cold pressor task with safety behavior availability or (2) cold pressor task without safety behavior availability. Questionnaires will be administered via the Internet (i.e. Qualtrics) in the privacy of the research lab to all participants before and after the cold pressor task. The methodology for the cold pressor task will be consistent with those used in the vast majority of previous research (several hundred studies have implemented the cold pressor task). Specifically, participants will be asked to place their right hand in a bucket of icy water (maintained at 2-4 degrees Celsius) for as long as they are willing to or until the discomfort created by the water becomes unbearable, up to 300 seconds (i.e., 5 minutes). Participants with safety signal availability will have a second cooler of water maintained at room temperature (~21 degrees Celsius) available throughout the task, and informed that when the discomfort becomes unbearable, they can remove their hand from the cold water and place it in the room temperature water to warm it up more quickly than letting it air dry. The majority of the budget will be used to purchase components for the cold pressor task, as it requires specific equipment to build properly. One of the coolers, the circulation pump, and one digital thermometer will be used to build the cold pressor. The lattice materials are required to keep the ice away from the participants’ skin during the cold pressor task. The second cooler will hold the room temperature water and the other digital thermometer for individuals in the safety signal condition.

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104. Use of a Low-Cost UAV for Collecting 3D Point Cloud Data for Analysis of Land Use Change

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Michael Flanagan Geography Chris Badurek Arts and Sciences Geography and Planning Sep 26, 2013
Project Description: Use of a Low-Cost UAV for Collecting 3D Point Cloud Data for Analysis of Land Use Change Remote sensing platforms can yield powerful geographic information science (GIS) datasets including digital elevation models, multi-band products covering a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and high resolution imagery that are all critical components of effective GIS analyses. However, remote sensing data comes with two critical downsides. First, most available data can be cost-prohibitive, as the collection platforms and available imagery are expensive to rent/purchase. Second, much of the commercially available data is at a scale that is much too large to use for small, regionally-focused analysis. Dr. Badurek of ASU’s Geography and Planning Department is in the process of working with the US Forest Service (USFS) Southern Research Station in Asheville to examine reforestation/deforestation of developed sites in Watauga County as they pertain to land-use changes and effective land management. The GIS components of his research require timely, accurate field data collected at an appropriate scale. At present, this data is very fine resolution data is unavailable but the DJI Quadcopter offers an affordable solution to the data’s collection, opening the door to research that is presently difficult or impossible to perform. Dr. Badurek and I propose to use the DJI Phantom quadcopter and GoPro Camera to perform field data collection and image captures at a number of developed sites in the Western North Carolina region, particularly in Ashe, Avery, and Watauga County. The images will then be manipulated using a software suite that allows the extraction of detailed 3 dimensional point cloud data from 2 dimensional images. The resulting data will be combined and analyzed with additional GIS datasets in order to forecast trend models, estimate forest composition and biomass, model carbon storage, and extract land-use information that is visible only when the spatial data is manipulated in a GIS software-suite. This research will mitigate the problem of acquiring existing data that is expensive or inappropriate to our research, while opening the door for an array of research that would benefit from the availability of timely, relevant digital elevation data. This grant will assist in the purchase of a collection platform that we can use to streamline the aforementioned process, in the process developing a new methodology that has implications for a wide-variety of scientific research, and allowing us to work in conjunction with ecologists and GIS professionals at the USFS.

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105. An investigation of how glucocorticoid profile within Tree Swallow offspring is influenced from parental personality

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Mary Kathryn Bruning Biology Lynn Siefferman Arts and Sciences Biology Sep 26, 2013
Project Description: In nestling birds, the hormone, glucocorticoid (GC), secretion has short-term and long-term fitness consequences. For example, short-time elevations trigger begging activity, whereas chronically elevated GC levels impair body condition, growth and cognitive abilities. Past research has shown that variation in hormone levels is attributed to the variation of behavior seen in an animal’s personality and considered a genetically based trait. Despite a growing body of literature on animal personality traits, the effects parental personality has on their offspring’s GC secretion has received little attention. Thus, we hypothesize that parental personality influences stress responses in offspring. We expect that the more bold and aggressive animals will produce offspring that react more slowly to environmental stress as we expect those offspring to show less of a ‘fight or flight’ response. Last summer, working under the guidance of Dr. Lynn Siefferman, I conducted independent research on Tree Swallows breeding in Valle Crucis, NC. First, we measured adult personality traits using response to simulated predators (fake crows) and boldness to novel objects (toy rubber duck) place on nest boxes. I used these observations of parental responses to classify parents into two groups from opposite ends of the personality spectrum: aggressive / bold parents and non-aggressive / shy parents. Next, we collected blood samples from day 14 chicks to later compare the baseline hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity of wild tree swallow nestlings of parents that show aggressive / bold and non-aggressive / shy personality traits. To analyze the glucocorticoid secretion within the chicks, I will determine the amount of immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites (CM) via an enzyme immunoassay. The blood samples are currently frozen but because ASU does not have the necessary equipment to perform the assays, Lynn Siefferman, and I are planning a trip to Auburn to conduct the hormone assays at Auburn University were we have a collaborator. My advisor is covering the cost of mileage and stay in Alabama. Unfortunately, the research is not currently funded and I need funds to purchase the necessary expendables (corticosterone enzyme immuneassay kits) to run the assays on the over 300 blood samples that were collected. Overall expenses of the analysis will easily surpass the amount requested from this grant; however it will be greatly appreciated so that I can work on completing my capstone research. Ultimately my goal for this research is publish a paper, to present the data at a national meeting and to learn the entire process of science to prepare myself for a career in genetics.

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106. Effects of interspecific competition on parental provisioning and nestling stress response

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Morgan Harris Biology Lynn Siefferman Arts and Sciences Biology Sep 26, 2013
Project Description: Interspecific competition has been well studied due to its implications for community and population structure, character displacement, and settlement patterns. However, the effect of interspecific competition on parental provisioning rates is not well covered despite the direct effects provisioning has on nestling condition. My past research with eastern bluebirds has shown that nestlings reared in areas with high amounts of interspecific competition from tree swallows have reduced mass as a result and that parental coordination of provisioning behavior may be the reason for success when facing a stressful environment. This study will examine the effects of coordinated parental provisioning behavior on nestling stress response. Corticosterone is the avian equivalent of cortisol in humans and is a hormone that is secreted in response to stress. Here I will attempt to use blood samples taken from the summer of 2013 to quantify differences in levels of corticosterone between nestlings in areas of high and low interspecific competition. These data will also be analyzed with parental provisioning behavior to fully understand the mechanisms affecting nestling growth in areas of high interspecific competition. This study will help to understand the mechanism underlying the effect of aggressive invasive species on less aggressive resident species. In many cases aggressive invasive species do outcompete less aggressive resident species in birds, fishes, and even plants (grow fast/anywhere). As invasive species become more widespread throughout the earth, understanding these mechanisms may be crucial to gaining knowledge about what species may be at risk and the geographical locations where species may be at risk of being outcompeted as a result of interspecific aggression.

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107. Further characterization of a novel Meis2.2 linked gene and protein

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Zachary Williams Biology Ted Zerucha Arts and Sciences Biology Sep 26, 2013
Project Description: We have identified a novel gene, zgc:154061, that appears to be utilized during embryonic development. This new gene is genomically linked to the Meis2 gene in all animals examined. The Meis2 gene is known to be involved in the embryonic development of the anterior to posterior axis as well as other major roles in brain and eye development. My research project is the further characterization of the zgc:154061 gene of which little is currently known, using zebrafish as a model organism. Research in the lab has shown this novel gene is transcribed during early development, throughout the zebrafish embryo, and translated into protein localized in specific structures within the developing optic and head regions. In order to further characterize the linked gene, experimentation is necessary to determine the actual function of the protein within the developing embryo. Exploring protein function can be accomplished by conducting overexpression experiments, enabling us to determine the effect of too much protein coded by the zgc:154061 gene during development. Overexpression experimentation encompasses injecting single cell embryos with mRNA (transcribed from zgc:154061 DNA) and allowing the embryo to translate the message into protein. By examining developing embryos for abnormalities, further insight can be gained toward this newly discovered gene. The proposed purchases will enable me to construct the appropriate samples for injections into embryos for further examination and analysis.

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108. Development of a Sonogashira Catalyst-Transfer Polycondensation for a Para-substituted Monomer

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Xian Powers Chemistry Pamela Lundin Arts and Sciences Chemistry Sep 26, 2013
Project Description: Chain-growth polymers with aromatic backbones have shown promising application as the basis for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), field effect transistors (FET), and in photovoltaic cells. Our lab focuses on generating a chain-growth polymer with an aromatic backbone by means of a Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction. Our current project involves optimizing the polymerization conditions of a catalyst-transfer polycondensation, which can be applied to an appropriate monomer. This grant will provide a vital compound needed to synthesize the monomer, and appropriate glassware required to set up tandem model reactions that are essential to determining appropriate polymerization conditions.

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109. Investigating historical trends of hybridization between the nearly endangered Golden-Winged Warblers and their unthreatened sister species, Blue-Winged Warblers, with a focus on cryptic hybridization.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Anna Tisdale Biology Lynn Siefferman Arts and Sciences Biology Sep 26, 2013
Project Description: For my Master’s project I plan to investigate historical trends of hybridization between the Golden-Winged Warbler (GWWA) and Blue-Winged Warbler (BWWA). These two species are neotropical migrant songbirds that breed in the southern Appalachian Mountains. The GWWA is a species of conservation concern, with an estimated decline of 76% in North America since 1966 while the BWWA is not a species of conservation concern. One of the putative causes of the current acceleration of the population decline of GWWA is hybridization with the BWWA. The rate of hybridization has also been proposed to be drastically increasing. However, this hybrid system is poorly understood despite considerable research. Understanding historical trends of the hybridization could shed light on future hybrid population estimates as well as potentially find causes to the steady increase in hybridization. Fortunately, careful study of museum specimens of the two species collected over the past 3oo years can allow me to estimate past rates of hybridization. Plumage characteristics that differ from traditional patterns in the two species have been found to serve as a proxy for identifying subtle, and sometimes seemingly cryptic, hybrids. I will collect these data by measuring spectral reflectance and overall color patterns of individuals from museum specimens collected from a wide geographical range and temporal scale. However, I can also collect feather samples from the specimens and use an already developed mitochondrial (mt) DNA purity assay to allow for a direct genetic approach to estimating past rates of hybridization. I will collect a feather sample from each specimen, extract DNA using a modified version of a standard extraction kit, and amplify the NDII gene on the mt DNA. Then, I will use restriction enzyme MaeII to cleave the BWWA variant of this gene while leaving the GWWA variant intact. This then shows up clearly on a gel as either 2 bands roughly 140 bp in length (BWWA) or 1 band of around 280 bp (GWWA), allowing each individual to be assigned to a maternal lineage of the appropriate species. This would be the first study, to date, to investigate cryptic hybrids in museum specimens. These data are of particular importance for the rare GWWA because it will help researchers understand the causes of hybridization. If I find evidence of increasing hybridization through time, I will expand my study to look for associations between rates of hybridization and land use changes from geographical and temporal perspectives. My research could produce findings that will allow researchers and managers a better understanding of how unique current hybridization is and these data should benefit management for this species of concern. Moreover, such studies could be applied to a wide variety of taxa to better understand the extent of historical rates of hybridization. This grant will provide funding for the genetic analysis portion of this study.

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110. Characterizing C. elegans as a Model for Mammalian Organic Anion Transport by Fluorescence Microscopy

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Krista Region Chemistry Jennifer Cecile Arts and Sciences Chemistry Sep 26, 2013
Project Description: Drug research accounts for a large market share of biomedical research. Currently mice and other small vertebrates are commonly used as human substitutes for drug testing. It would be advantageous to perform preliminary drug testing on invertebrates before testing animals. Research on invertebrates such as C. elegans removes many ethical concerns about animal testing. Humans absorb drugs through the organic anion transporter protein (OAT) in many organs such as the liver and kidney. C. elegans are a small invertebrate worm of about half a millimeter in size. C. elegans are of importance because the organic anion transporter protein located throughout the intestine of this invertebrate can move drugs across cell membranes. The anionic (or negatively charged) drugs do not cross cell membranes without transporter assistance. While there are differences in the specific makeup of the C. elegans and human OAT, there are enough homologies in the proteins to expect similarities in drug interaction. My research uses the anionic dye fluorescein to study the interaction of various drugs with the OAT protein in the intestine using fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescein emits light (fluoresces) after absorbing light and we can quantify this signal spatially by determining the pixel intensity of light emitted in the intestinal region of the C. elegans. Previous experiments that I have completed over the past year suggest that other anionic drugs, like probenecid (a gout medication), compete with fluorescein for interaction with the OAT protein. We know this as the level of the dye fluorescein is less in the C. elegans intestine in the presence of probenecid which does not fluoresce. This mimics the response seen with other mammalian OATs. We want to continue this comparison, not only using other non-fluorescent drugs but other inhibitors of this transport process to confirm the invertebrate model does function similar to mammalian models. In the budget request below, consumable supplies are requested to continue this work. Additional equipment such as the spatulas, lab tape, petri dishes, pipet tips and round bottom tubes are used in the culturing of C. elegans. Potassium phosphate monobasic is an ingredient used in creating agar, which is poured into the petri dishes, giving the C. elegans an environment in which to live. The pipet tips are used to move nematodes, and prepare solutions for treating C. elegans with the fluorescein dye or various drugs. The round bottom tubes are necessary for holding solutions during transport to microscopy, where slides and cover slips are necessary for imaging. Finally, autoclave bags are requested to properly dispose of our C. elegans waste (agar plates, used cultures, etc). Results from this work will be presented at the State of North Carolina Undergraduate Research & Creativity Symposium in November as well as the next Celebration of Student Research and Creative Endeavors meeting.

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111. Ecosystem Consequences of Genetically –Mediated Leaf Chemistry in Invasive and Native Black Locust (Robinia psuedoacacia L.) Ecosystems

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Cameron Houser Biology Mike Madritch Arts and Sciences Biology Sep 26, 2013
Project Description: The purpose of my research is to develop a better understanding of how introductions involving nitrogen-fixing species contribute to ecosystem functioning differently within their native and invasive ranges. My research will provide insight into what factors drive differences in ecosystems function and may help to elucidate characteristics that facilitate invasive species establishment. My goal is to determine how black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) influences ecosystem processes in native and introduced habitats, and what factors (genetic, chemical, microbial) are responsible for the observed differences. I have four primary questions: Q1.Does black locust influence belowground processes differently in its native range compared with its introduced range? Q2.Does genetic diversity vary between native and introduced populations of black locust? Q3. Does genetically-mediated variation in black locust leaf chemistry drive variation in belowground processes? Q4. Do rhizobial symbiotic communities differ between native and introduced ranges? My primary goal is to understand how black locust influences ecosystem processes in native and introduced ranges. As a manipulative study on such a large scale is impractical, I will use established black locust stands. Using established stands will confound black locust sites with spatial variation and site history prior to black locust establishment. To correct for these confounding factors, my collection sites will be paired with sites without black locust. Such a paired sampling scheme had been shown to be useful for both ecosystem and community responses to overstory plants. For appropriate genetic analysis, I will choose a total of at least 30 paired sites, half within the native range and half within the introduced range. I have four types of data to collect at my sampling sites: (1) Soil biogeochemical- Soil C:N, NO3, NH4, and respiration (Li-Cor 8100 with survey chamber) , (2) Leaf Chemistry-C:N, total phenolics and lignin, (3) Genetic- ten microsatellites markers, (4) Soil microbial-frozen soil samples will be processed symbiotic bacteria as outlined by Wei et al. 2009. I will use a Student’s T-test to compare the soil biogeochemical metrics in paired sites (e.g., Soil Nblack locust- Soil Nno black locust) between native and invaded ranges. The influence of leaf chemistry on belowground responses will be will be analyzed using multiple linear regressions . Using a Mantel test I will test for a correlation between genetic distances and litter chemistry differences. Although microsatellite markers are neutral, genetic distances can correlate with distances in litter chemistry and belowground processes. A multi-response permutation procedure (MRPP) will be used to detect significant differences in community rhizobial composition.

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112. Using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) to Enhance the Raman Signal of Laboratory Calibrants

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Gunnar Schettler Physics Jennifer Burris Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Aug 23, 2013
Project Description: Goal: One of the projects within the Biophysics and Optical Science Facility (BiyOSeF) at Appalachian State, has involved the study of collagen and biofilms using Raman spectroscopy. Collagen, a naturally occurring group of proteins, can be found in the flesh and tissues of most vertebrates, contributing to 25-35% of our total bodies protein count. Although common properties of collagen are well understood, a complete underlying of the physics behind this unique protein still remains uncertain. Dissolving this uncertainty could lead to further advancements in medicine, such as improved bone grafts, cardiac applications, and increased tissue generation. Biofilms are an adherent group of microbes, which tend to stick and live on surfaces. It’s believed that bacteria rely on these biofilms as their source of existence. This bond between biofilms and bacteria tends to be extremely resistant to antimicrobial compounds. Gaining a more in-depth understanding between this relationship could lead to better methods for treating bacterial related infections as well as other bacterial applications. Raman Spectroscopy gives scientists a way to observe the various molecular vibrations of materials. This method relies on the Raman, or inelastic scattering of light passed through a certain compound, which emits its very own, very unique signal, true to that material and that material only. So this Raman signal, or spectrum, can be thought of as the material’s spectral fingerprint. Raman Spectroscopy provides a non-invasive, precise method of determining the internal components of materials without altering the material itself. One of the issues with Raman Spectroscopy is the low signal strength, only about one millionth of the light sent in via laser is Raman scattered. Methods including Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) have been developed to allow scientists to magnify the weak Raman signal so that it may be recorded and analyzed. Another way of magnifying our signal is by optimizing our system of mirrors, lens, and beam splitters to increase the signal strength; if our track is not aligned properly there is no way of gathering a signal. These methods become increasingly important when the sample of interest consists of only a small amount of molecules. Which is the case with collagen and biofilms.

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113. Characterization of Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Junctions

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Andrew Zeidell Physics Brad Conrad Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Aug 23, 2013
Project Description: The development of transparent and flexible electronic components is vital for the next generation of mission-capable sensors, displays, and other electronic devices. One of the most promising candidate materials are Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs). They exhibit very remarkable properties, including thermal conductivity and current density up to 3500 W•m?1•K?1 and 10-12 mA/?m2 respectively, high tensile strength, bulk film flexibility, and ease of chemical modification. Because of these properties, a thin, almost transparent mat of CNTs would be ideal for incorporating electronics onto a variety of non-traditional surfaces. As an example, using CNTs as the conductor in organic solar cells would allow for flexible substrates and thereby reduce volume requirements, eliminate the need for costly rare-earth metal electrodes, and reduce the total mass of the device. However, the electronic properties of the CNT mat are not completely understood. The junctions formed between CNTs can have a large resistance, impeding charge conduction, and local junction environment can affect transport. Our project will focus on these two aspects of CNT networks. To investigate these junctions, purified semiconducting and metallic CNTs will be deposited on pre-fabricated silver electrodes on SiO2 substrates. CNTs will be suspended in Dimethylacetamide (DMA), a polar solvent and will be applied to the substrate by spin and drop casting. Ideally, measurements of the voltage drop across a junction of two single walled CNTs would be characterized by using a conductive tip on an atomic force microscope (AFM). The tip is used to come in contact with the junction and measure the relationship between electrical current and voltage at different locations across it. By making electrical contact with a CNT, a bias can be applied to the CNT while the tip acts as a virtual ground and current-voltage characteristics can be measured at multiple points across the junction. This data will be used to characterize the effects that a junction has on the potential of the device.

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114. Characterization of Fluid Mechanics Inside DIY Hydraulic Ram Pump with Intent of Optimization.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Catherine Alexander Physics Brad Conrad Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Aug 23, 2013
Project Description: A hydraulic ram pump is a gravity-driven water pump consisting of two one-way valves and an air reservoir that exploits the momentum of falling water to compress air and use the subsequent "spring" to drive water up a supply pipe to a reservoir. Ram pumps have been around since the 1700s and today are used in areas where electricity is expensive or unavailable. The goal of this project will be to design and build a simple hydraulic ram pump using materials available at any hardware store and design a simple procedure to maximize the economy of the pump. Maximum pump efficiency will be determined by outfitting the pump with two pressure transducers and two solenoid valves in place of the passive check valves. Pressure transducers will allow us to monitor the peak water "hammer" or maximum pressure obtained by the accelerating water. This data can then be employed to elucidate the optimum timing for the impulse valve to close and the delivery valve to open, via solenoid valves. The experimental setup will consist largely of transparent piping in order to better observe fluid mechanics and to offer a more visually intuitive display to facilitate public understanding during demonstrations. The addition of food coloring to the reservoir will allow detailed observation of the fluid dynamics. Hydraulic ram efficiency is readily determined based on the ratio of input power to output power. Output power is the product of the flow rate of the supply pipe (L/min) and the supply pipe head, the height above the pump the water is being delivered (meters). The input power is the product of the drive pipe head, or the distance the water falls (meters) and the drive pipe flow rate (L/min). Efficiency = (output power)/(input power) = (qh)/(QH) Where: q= supply pipe flow rate, h=supply pipe head, Q=drive pipe flow rate, H= drive pipe head Our intent in this experiment is to manipulate the timing of valve operation in order to achieve maximum output in systems where drive head and supply head are known. Commercial hydraulic rams for residential use can cost in the thousands of dollars, and often these systems are only slightly variable, if at all. Our goal would be to develop a simple procedure involving inexpensive adjustable check valves to produce optimal performance of residential hydraulic rams. These rams could be valuable energy saving resources in appropriate geographic areas, including, Appalachia. We intend to present this work at the Annual Celebration of Student Research and Creative Endeavors in the Spring.

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115. Characterization of Fluid Mechanics Inside DIY Hydraulic Ram Pump with Intent of Optimization

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
David Nielsen Biology Brad Conrad Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Aug 23, 2013
Project Description: A hydraulic ram pump is a gravity-driven water pump consisting of two one-way valves and an air reservoir that exploits the momentum of falling water to compress air and use the subsequent "spring" to drive water up a supply pipe to a reservoir. Ram pumps have been around since the 1700s and today are used in areas where electricity is expensive or unavailable. The goal of this project will be to design and build a simple hydraulic ram pump using materials available at any hardware store and design a simple procedure to maximize the economy of the pump. Maximum pump efficiency will be determined by outfitting the pump with two pressure transducers and two solenoid valves in place of the passive check valves. Pressure transducers will allow us to monitor the peak water "hammer" or maximum pressure obtained by the accelerating water. This data can then be employed to elucidate the optimum timing for the impulse valve to close and the delivery valve to open, via solenoid valves. The experimental setup will consist largely of transparent piping in order to better observe fluid mechanics and to offer a more visually intuitive display to facilitate public understanding during demonstrations. The addition of food coloring to the reservoir will allow detailed observation of the fluid dynamics. Hydraulic ram efficiency is readily determined based on the ratio of input power to output power. Output power is the product of the flow rate of the supply pipe (L/min) and the supply pipe head, the height above the pump the water is being delivered (meters). The input power is the product of the drive pipe head, or the distance the water falls (meters) and the drive pipe flow rate (L/min). Efficiency = (output power)/(input power) = (qh)/(QH) Where: q= supply pipe flow rate, h=supply pipe head, Q=drive pipe flow rate, H= drive pipe head Our intent in this experiment is to manipulate the timing of valve operation in order to achieve maximum output in systems where drive head and supply head are known. Commercial hydraulic rams for residential use can cost in the thousands of dollars, and often these systems are only slightly variable, if at all. Our goal would be to develop a simple procedure involving inexpensive adjustable check valves to produce optimal performance of residential hydraulic rams. These rams could be valuable energy saving resources in appropriate geographic areas, including, Appalachia. We intend to present this work at the Annual Celebration of Student Research and Creative Endeavors in the Spring.

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116. Doping Effects on Organic Interfaces

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Cortney Bougher Physics Brad Conrad Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Aug 23, 2013
Project Description: Devices such as transistors and solar cells, which utilize carbon-based semiconducting molecules in the active regions of the device, are known as organic devices and have been the focus of growing interest in recent years. Organic semiconducting small molecules can be deposited by solution on a variety of surfaces with multiple manufacturing modes including gravure printing and ink jet printing. These manufacturing modes avoid the traditionally expensive, labor-intensive fabrication methods associated with current conventional electronic devices, allowing the potential production of low-cost, ubiquitous electronics. However, solution deposition of organic small molecules most often yields polycrystalline thin-films, with charge carrier mobilities considerably lower than that of organic single crystals but comparable to polycrystalline silicon thin-films. During solution deposition organic crystals form large grains, often 10-100 µm in size, with boundary regions between grains which may be of alternative crystal orientations or even amorphous in structure. The electrical properties of transistors made with such polycrystalline materials are affected by these boundary regions between crystal grains, since electrical performance of organic semiconductors is related to film morphology. Aside from inherently inhibiting charge transport within devices themselves, these grain boundaries may also enhance the effect of atmospheric gas doping in organic thin-film transistors (TFTs). Grain boundaries commonly serve as defect sites possibly due to poor molecular packing orientations, allowing atmospheric gas molecules, including water, to percolate into the film. These atmospheric gases can then inhibit charge transport via charge-transfer complexes or trapping. We propose to quantify the effect of an atmospheric dopant, namely water, at grain boundaries in 2,8-difluoro-5,11-triethylsilylethynyl anthradithiophene (diF TESADT) thin-film transistor surfaces utilizing Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM). KPFM is an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) mode which acquires topographical and surface voltage data simultaneously, by equalizing tip and surface potentials during an interleave scan. We have performed KPFM on diF TESADT devices in an on-state, and concurrently measured the potential drop across the conduction channel. Preliminary KPFM imaging of diF TESADT TFT devices indicate that exposure to ambient laboratory air increases resistance at grain boundaries in the thin-film. In the proposed project, the effect of humidity at grain boundaries in diF TESADT TFTs will be focused on, by imaging diF TESADT TFT surfaces using KPFM during the transition from dry air to ambient laboratory air. The evolution of potential drops at grain boundaries over time will be quantified and related to the physics of gas doping and device morphology.

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117. Determination of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Enzyme Kinetics Via Electrophoretically Mediated Microanalysis (EMMA)

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Jacob Pawlik Chemistry Libby Puckett Arts and Sciences Chemistry Aug 23, 2013
Project Description: The citric acid cycle is the most important metabolic pathway when it comes to aerobic energy production. The importance comes from the large portion of reduced molecules that result from the oxidation of carbon-based substances within the cycle because these molecules indirectly fuel ATP synthase. Hydrogen atoms carrying electrons are transported by molecules such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) to the chain from the citric acid cycle, and these electrons are used to produce ATP. The reduced form of NADP is NADPH, and this molecule is formed within the citric acid cycle via the catalysis of isocitrate by isocitrate dehydrogenase (ID). Because of the importance of this process, it would be beneficial to study the enzyme kinetics of ID as the many dynamics of the coenzyme are somewhat unknown. The objective of this project is to study the enzyme kinetics of ID by using a P/ACE MDQ from Beckman Coulter using electrophoretically-mediated microanalysis (EMMA). Specifically, the kinetics of converting isocitrate and NADP substrates to NADPH and alpha-ketoglutarate via the ID enzyme, as in the citric acid cycle, will be assayed. The only evidence in previous studies of studying isocitrate dehydrogenase has been through spectrophotometry and capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE/MS). By studying the kinetics of this enzyme with a modernized procedure like EMMA, the field of research might benefit from this project by gaining new insight into new ways of studying coenzymes. The set-up of the study will utilize methods of continuous-engagement EMMA, which means that a substrate buffer solution containing the reactants isocitrate, magnesium ions and NADP will be used as a capillary medium in which the enzyme ID will be injected and analyzed in activity by quantifying the product output of NADPH using a UV absorbance device. The first goal of the project will be to construct a calibration curve of NADPH concentration and UV absorbance as NADPH absorbs UV light. This will help optimize parameters so that the proper detection wavelength will be used in experimentation with the actual enzyme. The next goal; therefore, will be to initiate the analysis of the enzyme catalysis as described above. By using this optimized wavelength absorbance of NADPH, we will be able to indirectly monitor the activity of the enzyme in varying concentrations by quantifying the reduced quantity of NADP and the production of NADPH as it is already known that NADPH absorbs UV at 340 nm. This production is directly proportional to enzyme activity. Further studies will be conducted as to the kinetic properties of the enzyme based on the data received. All materials for the above goals are provided, except quantities of DL-Isocitric acid trisodium salt hydrate, ?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrate, and isocitric dehydrogenase. The proposed budget will provide an ample supply of material to start this project.

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118. New cobalt glyoximes as potential hydrogen catalysts

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Corbin Ester Chemistry Dale Wheeler Arts and Sciences Chemistry Aug 23, 2013
Project Description: I will be taking a poster of my research to the 246th National American Chemical Society meeting. I will be presenting as the main author of this poster.

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119. Raman Spectroscopy of Yeast used in the Fermentation of Beer

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Christina Johnson Physics Jennifer Burris Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Aug 23, 2013
Project Description: The newest project in the Biophysics and Optical Science Facility (BiyOSeF) at ASU involves the use of Raman spectroscopy for the identification and classification of microbes, such as yeasts and bacteria. This project is in collaboration with Fermentation Science. When light of a known wavelength (such as a laser), interacts with the surface of a biological cell, the vibrations and movements of the surface molecules have the potential to cause a change in the energy (or color)light, which can then be detected by a CCD camera and displayed on a computer. As every type of cell has a unique organization of surface molecules, the incoming light is affected differently by different cells. This characteristic allows us to define a detected change in light as a Raman signature, which is unique to that specimen and can be used to identify it. The success of this technique requires an extreme amount of control and precision when dealing with the laser light, which must be perfectly aligned to yield the most accurate results. Several optical pieces are necessary to guide the laser line to the biological sample and then to the camera. The laser must travel through a series of mirrors, lenses, and filters. The (LM1XY) High Precision Translating Lens Mount allows for fine adjustments in lens orientation so that laser line can be accurately aligned at the target, with the adjustment screws providing a fine 250 µm/revolution. The extreme accuracy required four our samples is very difficult, if not impossible for newer student researchers, without these precision tools. The (TRT2) Translating Post allows for the necessary quick and stable height adjustments of a mounted component, such as a lens mount, and is able to be used for a variety of components in the lab. As the success of this project is very much dependent upon precise alignment of the laser, these materials are necessary for continuing research. I am the lead on this aspect of the project. I began working with Dr. Burris at the beginning of the summer and am proficient in alignment of the system. We are currently working with a type of yeast found in beer, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae is a eukaryotic organism used in the fermentation process, converting sugars into alcohol and other byproducts. The current optical pieces we have, while sufficient for other samples, are not working for obtaining a spectrum of the S. cerevisiae. This could be due to need for slightly altered techniques/tools when dealing with a biological specimen, such as yeast. The objective of this project is to successfully align the laser so that a Raman signal can be collected and used to identify a yeast microbe.We aim to: Optimize the laser alignment to yield maximum Raman signal and accurate spectral information; Report techniques so that procedure and results can be replicated; Successfully obtain a spectrum specific to each sample which can be used for identification Present project methods and results on posters at student research events (State of North Carolina Undergraduate Research & Creativity Symposium in fall 2013; Celebration of Student Research and Creative Endeavors in the spring of 2014).

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120. Measurement of greenhouse gases and nonmethane hydrocarbons in atmospheric settings

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Joseph Nenow Chemistry Barkley Sive Arts and Sciences Chemistry Jul 22, 2013
Project Description: Measurements of Greenhouse Gases in Rural North Carolina The bulk chemical composition of atmosphere has been well known for over two centuries and consists of several constant gases: (78%) nitrogen, (21%) oxygen, and (0.9%) argon. The portion of the atmosphere remaining largely consists of water vapor, carbon dioxide and methane that are at mole fractions of 10-7 or larger, with other important trace gases at even lower levels. It is now common knowledge that these main variable gases are strong contributors to the greenhouse effect. Since the industrial revolution, the concentrations of these gases have increased significantly leading to global warming. Because these gases directly affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere and are largely from anthropogenic activities, it is important to monitor the concentrations of the gases in the atmosphere and their effects on the environment to ensure the long-term preservation of the planet and the human species. High-precision measurements of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are important for characterizing their regional sources and sinks and understanding how their ambient levels are changing with time and associated anthropogenic activities. For this work we will collect hourly canister samples at the AppalAIR Observing Station in Boone, NC from 15 June to 2 July, 2013. The instrument consists of a Shimadzu 17A gas chromatograph (GC), equipped with a Flame Ionization Detector and a custom built methanizer for the measurements of CO2 and CH4. The specific goals of this project are the following: 1. Characterize and calibrate the GC system for the target compounds 2. Begin hourly measurements of these gases at the AppalAIR field site 3. Carryout data reduction and analysis of the background greenhouse gas measurements As part of the 2013 summer, a major focus of this effort is to be part of the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS), a 6-week intensive field program occurring over the southeastern U.S. with the goal of achieving a better understanding of global biospheric-atmospheric interactions. It aspires to answer questions about the impacts of aqueous chemistry on biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and discover the physical and chemical processes that affect the oxidation rate of BVOCs. The Sive laboratory will collect air samples at AppalAIR as part of the SOAS effort, analyze them, and compare the resulting concentrations to the concentrations of samples found at various SOAS sampling sites. In order to carry out the stated objectives during the summer campaign, we are requesting funds for compressed gases for operation of the CO2 and CH4 analytical system. In order to operate this system, we require multiple gas cylinders which include ultra-high purity (UHP) hydrogen, UHP nitrogen and UHP helium. In total, we anticipate being able to analyze over 400 samples using the compressed gases obtained from the requested funds.

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121. A Comparative Analysis of Hop Essential Oil Stability in North Carolina and the Pacific Northwest by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Taylor Krivenki Chemistry Brett Taubman Arts and Sciences Chemistry Jul 22, 2013
Project Description: This project aims to determine concentrations of essential oils in hops, which are the volatile aroma compounds found in the hops and which vary by hop variety, region, and harvest time. The essential oils that are found in the highest concentrations in hops are myrcene, alpha-humulene, farnesene, caryophyllene oxide, linalool and geraniol. The project will compare concentrations of these compounds in the same hop varieties grown in North Carolina and the Pacific Northwest. The hops will be harvested early, on time, and late to compare their relative concentrations of essential oils. The hops will also be analyzed as they age to observe oxidation of the essential oils. Hop farmers can use the results of this analysis to determine which types of hops produce the highest concentrations of essential oils for selection of hop varieties. The farmers can determine how long each hop variety needs to ripen for optimal concentrations of essential oils. The budget above will be used to obtain necessary materials for precise and accurate liquid measurements. For this project, multiple sets of standards will be prepared using Hamilton microsyringes, which are best for measurement of volatile liquids. The microsyringes ensure precise quantitative preparation of standard solutions for the aroma compounds that will be analyzed during this project. A chemical manufactured by Medical Isotopes, Inc, Linalool-D3, will be used as the internal standard for the quantification of linalool in hop samples as a calibration technique. The use of the internal standard ensures accuracy as a means of quality assurance/quality control for the determination of linalool in hop samples.

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122. Experiencing Music of Other Cultures Through Immersion, Research, and Ensemble Participation

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Caley Wahl Music Education Susan Mills School of Music Music Jul 22, 2013
Project Description: My research is in preparation for my Senior Honors Thesis Paper and Defense, in which I plan to focus on my major, Music Education. My current working thesis question is “How can a teacher use experiences of immersion, research, and ensemble playing to contribute to their own teacher education and what aspects of those experiences are most valuable to replicate in order to provide students with a culturally authentic musical experience?” My travel and research in South Africa will include Zulu language lessons, cultural experiences such as visiting the Nelson Mandela Museum and authentic South African music observations including rehearsing with “traditional South African musicians,” and hearing “lectures and presentations by leading musicians and directors of South African music.” Additionally, my work as a research assistant for Dr. Suzi Mills has taught me the fundamentals of music education research and will provide me with connections in South Africa, based on her Fulbright work, to pursue information, resources, and interviews with musicians, directors, and teachers on my thesis topic relating to multicultural music education. My in field research experience in South Africa will provide me with the third and final point of view for my thesis. I have experienced cultural immersion while studying traditional music in Ireland, authentic West Indies ensemble playing through my participation in the Steely Pan Steel Band, and now I will have the opportunity to do field research in a third culture. By completing this third experience, I will have a comprehensive understanding of how an educator can experience cultures and create authentic experiences for their students in a classroom. Too many classroom resources provide multicultural learning opportunities that are not actually authentic, which I think does a disservice to students, and works against the North Carolina Essential Standards related to Cultural Relevancy. Without authentic experiences, students cannot really learn about and understand the music and customs of other cultures. As a pre-service teacher, I want to be prepared to provide my students with meaningful musical and multicultural experiences, and I plan to prepare for that by exploring many ways of learning about a culture and its music.

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123. A Twenty Year Follow-Up Survey of the Long Term Influence of Torey Hayden's Teacher Lore

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Ali Macer Communication Disorders Mike Marlowe Education Reading, Education, and Special Education Jul 12, 2013
Project Description: This study examines teachers' perceptions of the long term influence of reading Torey Hayden's teacher stories in preservice teacher education on their attitudes and practices toward children with disabilities. Subjects (N = 880) had enrolled in a university course, "Introduction to Emotional Disturbance," at Appalachian State University over a 20 year period (1992 -2012) where course texts were books by Hayden, first person accounts of teaching children with disabilities. Participants will complete a web based survey designed to measure Hayden's influence on their attitudes and practices. Thirty survey participants who consent will then be interviewed by telephone to further examine in greater detail Hayden's influence on their practice. A phenomenological analysis of the interviews will be conducted to determine the structure of the experience of reading Hayden in teacher education.

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124. Resistance Exercise Timing Effects on Blood Pressure and Sleep Architecture In Pre-Hypertensives

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kumar Dave Exercise Science Scott Collier Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: The goal of the present study is to determine if the timing of resistance exercise at three specified epochs (morning, afternoon and night) has any affect on blood pressure and sleep architecture in pre-hypertensive individuals. The objectives include: measure the affect of resistance exercise at three specific times throughout the day, on blood pressure and sleep architecture. Specifically, the first aim is to determine if performing resistance exercise at different times of day conveys any benefit to blood pressure while the second aim is to investigate if timing has any benefit on sleep architecture in pre-hypertensive individuals. Twenty Participants will be required to attend 4 visits to complete the study. The first visit will consist of lab familiarization and introduction to the resistance exercises, VO2 max testing, establishing a 10-RM on each resistance exercise, have their blood pressure recorded and will receive a randomized schedule of times to make the remaining 3 visits. Visits 2, 3 and 4 will occur at either 7 am, 1pm or 7 pm based on a randomized schedule. On the second, third and fourth visit, participants will complete nine resistance exercises using resistance machines. Subjects will perform each resistance exercise at 65% of their 10-RM for 2 sets of 10 repetitions for a total exercise time of 30 minutes. The budget justification provides subject compensation for and incentive to participants willing to volunteer for the study. Also, the ambulatory blood pressure equipment requires medical batteries, which are significantly more expensive than traditional batteries.

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125. Ultimatums, Dictators, Discounts and Decisions

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Elizabeth Payment Psychology Lisa Emery Arts and Sciences Psychology Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: Previous aging research shows that older adults sometimes make less profitable decisions. When proposers in financial games, like the Ultimatum game (UG) and Dictator game (DG), older adults make more generous propositions than younger ones. Older adults, however, are also more willing to punish unfair offers. Such findings have been attributed to changes in cognitive decline, but also to motivation changes in aging. Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SES) was used as an explanation for the motivational changes in financial decisions for older versus younger adults. This theory states that aging typically leads to a shift in motivation from self- and future-related goals to being more socially amiable. This theory is able to explain why older adults make more generous offers is unable to explain punishing behaviors (Bailey et al., 2012). Erikson (1950) proposed that as adults age they develop a sense of generativity, a motivation to leave the world a better place. Subsequent research has found empirical evidence for this claim. This study will examine if age differences in financial decisions are better predicted by age differences in SES or generativity. It is hypothesized that older adults will propose more generous offers in the DG and UG, which is better predicted by measures of their generativity. It is also predicted, as supported by previous research, that older adults will engage in more punishing behavior in the UG. In the UG, a proposer (the computer) suggests a split of $10 that can be accepted or rejected by the participant (Guthe, Schmittberger, and Schwarez, 1982). Accepted offers are shared as dictated. If rejected, no money is given. Participants make propositions for 10 “future participants” to assess their generosity in the game and to increase the ecological validity of the test. Participants will receive proposals from the same 30 computer-generated proposers. In the DG, the participants will dictate how much of a $10 donation a computer-generated, “previous participant” who cannot reject offers will receive. The participant will make these decisions for 20 identical “people depicted by a name, picture, and average offers in the previous UG. Psychosocial components Generativity are measured using the LGS (McAdams & de St. Aubin, 1992) that is composed of 20 statements, rated on a 4-point scale, from rarely to nearly always apply. The following additional measures of cognitive ability and a questionnaire related to an alternative explanation will be included: the Short Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration test (Katzman et al., 1983); the GDS (Sheikh, Yesavage, et al, 1991); WAIS-R (Wechsler, 1981) coding and vocabulary subtests; and the CAII, (Adams, 2004). The financial support is needed for paying participants after the study. Although participants are deceived into believing they are playing for real money, all participants will be compensated $10 for their time in the study.

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126. Method Development for the Analysis of Estrogens Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) by Alec Daye and Carol Babyak

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Alec Daye Chemistry Carol Babyak Arts and Sciences Chemistry Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: Elevated estrogen concentrations in natural waters cause mutations in certain fish, affecting their reproductive abilities, and subsequently the population balance in an aquatic ecosystem. Estrogens are released into the environment via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and agricultural runoff. We hypothesize that estrogen concentrations in the surface water downstream from the Boone WWTP may correspond directly with the fluctuation of the student population. We expect to see higher concentrations during the school year, and lower ones in the summer. The goal of this research is to develop a robust analytical method using solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in order to confirm or refute our hypothesis. We validated the separation and electrospray ionization parameters developed by a student who worked on this project previously. We recently designed a preventative maintenance schedule for the LC-MS to ensure better reproducibility. Solutions of 95:5 acetonitrile:water (LC-MS grade) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) should be back flushed through the system for a minimum of 4 hours after every 15 hours of use. We are in the process of determining a method detection limit (MDL). The lowest quantifiable concentration is 0.01 parts-per-million (ppm), but the MDL may be lower. The SPE method has been optimized by extracting one liter aliquots of tap water spiked with 10 parts-per-trillion (ppt) of each estrogen in order to simulate surface water samples. Satisfactory percent recoveries have been obtained, ranging from 80-110%. The SPE-LC-MS method was applied to actual surface water samples downstream of the Boone WWTP. Preliminary results indicated no detectable estrogens, but warrant further examination of possible matrix interferences. Future goals are to conclusively determine the MDL, quantify the uncertainties associated with sample estrogen concentrations, and continue field sampling. The items listed in the budget are currently in high use, very low and/or completely depleted, or needed for cleaning. Our current methods require a large amount of acetonitrile, methanol, and water and there is not much methanol, acetonitrile, and water left. It has been seen that the time until degradation of eluents and standards occurs faster than expected requiring standards and eluents to be made more often. The 1 gram ENVI-18 SPE tubes are needed for the extraction of estrogens from water samples and have been completely used up. THF is needed for column cleaning and isopropyl alcohol is needed for glassware cleaning.

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127. Fluorescence Imaging of c. elegans with 6 carboxy fluorescein

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Clark Brackney Chemistry Jennifer Cecile Arts and Sciences Chemistry Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: Drug research accounts for a large market share of medical research. Currently mice and other small vertebrates are commonly used as human substitutes for drug testing. It would be advantageous to perform preliminary drug testing on invertebrates before testing animals. Research on invertebrates such as C. elegans removes many ethical concerns about animal testing. Humans absorb drugs through the organic anion transport chain (OAT). This chain is located primarily in the kidneys. C. elegans is a small invertebrate worm of about half a millimeter in size. C. elegans is of importance because the organic anion transport chain located throughout the intestine of this invertebrate can react with drugs. While there are differences in the specific makeup of the organic anion transporter amino acid sequences between a human and C. elegans, there are enough homologies in the chain to expect similarities in drug absorption. My research will study the effects of drugs such as fumarate and ouabain on the amount of fluorescent dye absorbed by the intestine of the invertebrate. The percent of inhibition shown in decreased fluorescence values due to a drug like probenecid demonstrates that the inhibitor functions on C. elegans. This research seeks to make this experiment more reproducible and increase the precision with which the experiment can be carried out. This trial will also use 6-carboxyfluorescein (6-CF) as the fluorescent dye and will be used to stimulate or inhibit certain cofactors of anion transport. Additionally, a new imaging technique involving the use of the confocal machine allows for perpendicular slices of the nematode which will provide new understanding of where 6-CF accumulates in the nematode. The current technique used to image with an inverted fluorescence microscope (Olympus IX-81) uses ethanol to keep worms stationary during imaging. Research has shown that ethanol decreases the fluorescence signal in imaging nematodes. A method of imaging that does not contribute to increased autofluorescence means that any differences caused by uptake of 6-CF would be more pronounced than the current protocol allows. Two techniques will be used to hold nematodes stationary during confocal imaging of live C. elegans. The first is the use of a 10% agarose solution with polystyrene beads. This treatment for live worms was employed by ¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬-Mottram in the paper “Hydrophobic analogues of rhodamine B and rhodamine 101: potent fluorescent probes of mitochondria in living C. elegans”. The second treatment was found from The Wormbook.org which uses a 5% agar solution and a sodium azide treatment to hold the nematode stationary. This proposal requests funds to purchase the polystyrene beads and sodium azide as new methods to keep nematodes stationary while imaging. In addition, other supplies such as the pipet tips and round bottom tubes are used in the culturing of C. elegans for this work. The pipet tips are used to move nematodes, and prepare solutions for pretreating C. elegans with chemicals. The round bottom tubes are necessary for holding solutions during transport to microscopy.

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128. Recyclable Rubbers: Metal Coordination Polymer Network

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Mallory McVannel Chemistry Alexander Schwab Arts and Sciences Chemistry Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: The goal of this research is to create a rubber material with desirable physical properties which can also be easily recycled unlike conventional rubbers. All rubber materials consist of a network of long, flexible polymer chains with branch points called cross-links. In conventional rubbers, these cross-links are permanent, covalent bonds. We are working on replacing these permanent cross-links with impermanent metal coordination complexes. The preparation of this metal coordination polymer network (MCPN) begins with a base polymer, bis(3-aminopropyl) terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane). A bipyridine metal binding ligand is attached to the ends of the polymer chain, and then a variety of different metal complexes can be blended with the bipyridine terminated polymer to form the MCPN. To study the effects of the polymer chain length (i.e. molar mass) on the rubber properties, we’ve been using two different poly(dimethylsiloxane) starting materials with different chain lengths. We’ve found that the higher molar mass starting material contains mixture of both the high and low molar mass polymer which prevents us from studying the molar mass effects on the properties of our MCPN’s. We’ve attempted a technique called fractionation to remove the low molar mass component, but the procedure was ultimately unsuccessful. Denna Pickel, a scientist at Oak Ridge National Lab collaborating with us on this project suggested using membrane dialysis to remove the low molar mass impurity. By using this technique, a dialysate solution can be applied to the outside of the membrane, which will cause the smaller solutes to be pulled away from the mixture overall achieving purification of the high molecular weight starting material.

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129. The Expression of Drug Transporters and Interacting Proteins in Cytosolic and Membrane Fractions Using Caenorhabditis elegans

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Steven Pifer Chemistry Jennifer Cecile Arts and Sciences Chemistry Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: Drug transporters are membrane-bound proteins which play pivotal roles in the transport and reabsorption of charged molecules across cellular membranes. In humans, transporters like the Organic Anion Transporter (OAT) are commonly present in epithelial cells of organs like the liver and kidney. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a nematode that can be used as a model organism for human drug transporters and provide an easier and less costly model to study these transporters in comparison to a mammalian organism. Recent studies suggest that several interacting proteins that reside in the cytoskeleton and/or lipid raft domains of the cell plasma membrane may assist with the function of mammalian OATs. In the application interests of this research, primary and secondary antibody detection techniques with caveolin, OAT and myosin will be used in conjugation with chemiluminescence film imaging in order to confirm the presence of several markers of lipid rafts or the highly insoluble fractions of C. elegans cellular membranes. Within our proposed fractionation protocol, fifteen agar plates of approximately one week-old C. elegans fed with OP50, a non-hazardous strain of Escher coli, are washed with M9 buffer, pelleted, and flash-frozen with liquid nitrogen before homogenization in the presence of 50 µM TLKC. The homogenate can then be centrifuged at 500 x g for 10 minutes in order to remove worm cuticle debris before the supernatant is centrifuged at 50,000 x g for 1 hour at 4?C. The nematode membranes can be recovered as a pellet and suspended in a 100 mM lactose solution with protease inhibitors for 1 hour at 4?C and centrifuged at 50,000 x g for 1 hour. The resulting pellet could then be suspended in 100 mM HEPES, 0.1 M NaCl with inhibitors before analysis. The collected membrane and cytosolic fractions would then undergo gel electrophoresis and Western blotting before chemiluminescence imaging and detection with primary and secondary antibodies. We would expect to confirm the presence of the OAT protein as well as caveolin within the membrane fractions of C. elegans while myosin would be found throughout both the membrane and cytosolic fractions. Research funds requested within this proposal include thick wall polyallomer tubes so that the collected C. elegans may be subject to fractionation using the Beckman Model L8-80M Preparative Ultracentrifuge equipped with the Beckman Type 50.2 Ti Rotor as described previously. The clearpage gels (listed with VWR catalog numbers) will be used for the separation and eventual detection with chemiluminescense of the targeted proteins within the membrane and cytosolic fractions of C. elegans.

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130. Quantifying Summertime Secondary Organic Aerosol for the Appalachian Region in North Carolina

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Michael Link Chemistry Brett Taubman Arts and Sciences Chemistry Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is hypothesized to significantly influence regional climate by retarding the global warming effect, due to increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, in the south eastern United States (SEUS). While the exact influence of SOA on the radiative budget is largely uncertain, integrating observed SOA loading into climate models is pivotal in describing regional and global climate fluxes. Additionally, positive feedback mechanisms due to global climate warming promote the emission of biogenic precursors to SOA, and anthropogenic sources are hypothesized to catalyze the formation of SOA, further illustrating the importance of quantifying these species. As of 2008, the annual report issued by the intergovernmental panel on climate change did not include an estimate of the radiative forcing due to SOA, so quantification of these species and estimations of the radiative impacts of SOA can be useful for global climate models. Real-time measurement of the chemical variability in ambient aerosols has been paramount for forwarding aerosol science. An aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) will be used to measure the chemical variability of ambient aerosols in real-time from June 15 to July 15. The results of the AMS provide a measurement of a bulk organic aerosol concentration that must be deconvolved in order to delineate the unique organic factors contributing to the total observed signal. A statistical technique commonly used in the community of the AMS users to deconvolve the observed total organic signal into unique contributing factors is called positive matrix factorization (PMF). This statistical analysis solves a least-squares regression problem that describes the total organic signal as a linear combination of unique factors. The results of this analysis do not have inherent physical meaning and must be substantiated using correlations with spectral databases, correlations with organic species, and mass spectral markers. Filter samples of ambient aerosols collected over a 24 hour period during this month will also be analyzed. A suite of polar and non-polar compounds will be targeted to represent the evolution of organic chemicals in the atmosphere that will describe what the dominate organic species are and how old they are. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry will be the primary method utilized for filter sample analysis. The results of this study will describe various regional source contributions to organic aerosol, provide a regional estimate of SOA loading for the summertime, and provide a chemical template for which optical properties and subsequent radiative forcings can be correlated.

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131. Evaluation of the Suzuki Coupling of Thiophene Boronate Esters with Electron-Neutral Reaction Partners

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Robert Lamb Chemistry Pamela Lundin Arts and Sciences Chemistry Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: The Suzuki reaction is a popular way to make conjugated polymers because the conditions are mild and the boron byproducts have low toxicity. Thiophenes are common aromatic rings used in conjugated polymers, however when thiophene boronate esters are used in the Suzuki reaction, they undergo a side reaction. This side reaction prevents the growth of long polymer chains. The reason this side reaction occurs is believed to be because the thiophene is relatively electron rich as compared to benzene. The purpose of this project is to see if we can suppress the side reaction in coupling thiophenes with 9,9-dialkylfluorenes, which are also common motifs in conjugated polymers and are electron-neutral coupling partner. We will be setting up test reactions to determine the effects of different variables, such as various solvents, co-solvent ratios, bases, base concentrations, and temperatureon the side reaction. The test reactions will be prepared and run for 24 hours, after which they will be analyzed with gas chromatography. The proposed budget is necessary for this project because preparation of the samples for GC analysis will require the use of large quantities of diethyl ether over the course of the project. Due to the number of reactions being performed, additional starting materials and reaction vessels will also be required to ensure that all necessary reactions can be performed.

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132. A Better Suzuki Polymerization for Thiophene-containing Monomers

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Ethan Hull Chemistry Pamela Lundin Arts and Sciences Chemistry Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: The Suzuki polymerization reaction has gained popularity since its development in 1979 by Akira Suzuki. The reaction involves the carbon-carbon bond formation between a boronic acid species and an organohalide. However, the efficiency of this reaction decreases when the boron is attached to a thiophene ring. It is speculated that the experimental conditions of the reaction decrease reaction efficiency with thiophenes. This research will investigate experimental conditions which optimize the Suzuki reaction with thiophenes, in particular reducing deboronation of the substrate. The undesired deboronation in the Suzuki coupling reaction will first be investigated by determining the effects of different solvents, bases, temperatures, and boronic acid species on the degree of deboronation. This particular project will focus on the reaction of the thiophene boronate ester with an electron-poor coupling partner, 4-bromo-3,2,1-benzothiadiazole, which is a standard partner in the production of semiconducting conjugated polymers. We hypothesize that the electron-poor coupling partner may produce a different profile of side products than other more electron-rich coupling partners. The results of these test reactions will be obtained from GC/MS and GC to elucidate the trends that favor coupling over other side reactions. This budget requests funds for the reagents to synthesize the 4-bromo-3,2,1-benzothiadiazole coupling partner, as well as consumable supplies needed for the study of the Suzuki reaction.

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133. Development of a Protein-Based System for Detection of Organophosphates Using the pH-Dependence of Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Ashlyn Henson Chemistry Libby Puckett Arts and Sciences Chemistry Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: The purpose of this project is to create a fusion protein between organophosphourus hydrolase (OPH) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) to determine the presence of organophosphates (OPs). OPs are known neurotoxic inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) that are commonly found in pesticides and chemical warfare agents. OPs inhibit AChE by phosphorylating the active site of the enzyme, resulting in its deactivation. OPH is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of OP products, and can thus be used in remediation efforts. In order to monitor this process, a reporter protein, EGFP, is attached to OPH in a fusion protein. EGFP is a red-shifted variant of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and is pH dependent. The fusion protein components will work together so that when OPH catalyzes the cleavage of the OP substrate (resulting in two protons being released into the local environment), the fluorescence intensity of EGFP will decrease with the decreasing pH. After expression and purification, the fusion protein will be utilized to detect and quantify organophosphates. In order to develop this sensing system, DH5-alpha competent cells are required to transform the OPH-EGFP fusion construct into a fusion protein. The Taq polymerase is used to replicate the EGFP and OPH DNA. The Eppendorf tubes are utilized to perform the majority of the reactions within this project. These materials are mandatory in order for the laboratory research to continue.

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134. Analysis of Non-methane Hydrocarbons by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy as Precursors of Organic Aerosols

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Ryan Cook Chemistry Barkley Sive Arts and Sciences Chemistry Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: This project is in collaboration with the Southern Oxidant and AerosolStudy (SOAS), a 6-week intensive field program occurring over the southeastern U.S. that will take place from 1 June through 15 July, 2013. The goal of SOAS is to achieve a better understanding of global biospheric-atmospheric interactions and their influences on organic aerosols in the atmosphere. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) such as non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are important constituents in the formation of tropospheric ozone, i.e., photochemical smog. The relative concentrations of the VOC’s can influence whether ozone is ultimately produced or destroyed in the troposphere. Volatile organic compounds along with visible light and oxides of nitrogen are intimately involved in the production of photochemical smog, which is a respiratory irritant and adversely affects human health. Additionally, VOC’s are important precursors to the formation and growth of organic aerosols in the atmosphere. Similar to ozone, aerosol particles can adversely affect human health and also influence the radiative balance of the atmosphere, thus, warranting this work. The goal of this project is to collect hourly, pressurized samples over an intensive two week period at Appalachian Atmospheric Interdisciplinary Research (AppalAIR) for analysis of NMHCs as ozone and aerosol pre-cursors. The samples will be collected from 15 June to 2 July, 2013. AppalAIR serves as a prime place for the collection of these samples because the surrounding biogenic influences on air masses of interest for this project. The samples will be analyzed using multi-channel gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectroscopy (MS) for the analysis of NMHCs. The use of multiple channels enables more accurate measurements by providing adequate parameters necessary for accurate identification for individual compounds. The samples are compared to a whole air standard for quality control to help determine significant variations in sampling. We propose to address the following scientific questions during the two week intensive sampling campaign at the AppalAIR observatory. What are the relative contributions of sources and sinks (oxidation, deposition, transport and environmental factors) to the diurnal variation of VOCs, specifically for the monoterpenes? Are there presently unidentified terpenoid compounds emitted from the forests that are important in organic aerosol formation? In order to carry out the stated objectives during the summer campaign, we are requesting funds for liquid nitrogen for operation of the trace gas analytical system. Liquid nitrogen is necessary to maintain the vacuum line for the multi-channel GC system as well as the sample enrichment process in order to achieve parts per trillion levels. In total, we anticipate being able to analyze over 400 samples using the liquid nitrogen obtained from the funds requested in the proposal. Without liquid nitrogen, it is not possible to carry out this work.

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135. Automation of determining the axial position of trapped bead in an optical tweezer system

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
James Dienst Physics Brooke Hester Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: The goal of the project is to automate a method of determining the axial position of a bead trapped in optical tweezers. The axial equilibrium of the trapped particle is described by two distances: the distance between the chamber coverslip and the trapped particle and the distance between the beam waist and the trapped particle. Using a 975nm trap laser and a 635nm detection laser, a microscopic bead can be manipulated and observed by the optical tweezer system. The overall goal will be to create an automated program that carries out the distance measurement in a user friendly way. When completed, this program will be included as part of a large software package being developed by Dr. Hester and her students in the ASU Biophysics and Optical Sciences Facility. The XY translator mount described in the budget justification section will be used to decrease the uncertainty in the measurements, as it will ensure that the mounted lens will remain stable and aligned. The mirrors are needed for reflection of the laser as part of the automated, computer-controlled steering mirror implementation within the optical tweezers system. Specifically, one mirror will be used for alignment and the other will be used for lateral steering of the optical trap at the sample plane.

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136. Determination of Enzyme Kinetics Using Electrophoretically Mediated Microanalysis

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kaitly Woodard Chemistry Libby Puckett Arts and Sciences Chemistry Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: In order to study enzyme activity, a successful method must be developed in order to react enzyme and substrate and quantify the rate at which the reaction occurs. One such method being explored is capillary electrophoresis with on-column electrophoretic mixing. These on-column assays, known as electrophoretically mediated microanalysis (EMMA), offer several analytical advantages in addition to a unique reaction format and control of the interaction of enzyme and substrate. These include simplicity, rapid analysis times, and consumption of small amounts of enzyme per experiment. In EMMA, enzyme is injected in a zone into a capillary filled with substrate and coenzyme (if required). Product formation takes place on-column and is detected at a downstream absorbance or fluorescence detector. The resultant electropherogram will have a plateau shape representing the reaction that occurred with the injected plug of enzyme. The overall goal of these experiments is to determine a faster approach for finding the Michaelis-Menten constant, or Km, for a particular enzymatic reaction.

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137. The Determination of Calcium, Magnesium and Phosphorus in Refined Samples of Vegetable Oil and Biodiesel by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES)

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Lindsay Preston Chemistry Carol Babyak Arts and Sciences Chemistry Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: The use of vegetable oils as substitutes for fossil fuels is growing in popularity in the automotive industry. However, because of its high viscosity, the oil must be physically and chemically refined prior to engine use in order to reduce the possibility of improper functioning. The widely known renewable fuel, commonly referred to as biodiesel, is the result of a relatively simple chemical process called transesterification, in which an oil is used as the staring material. The goal of this research is to develop an analytical method to determine the concentrations of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in samples of biodiesel, canola, soy, and sunflower oils at different stages of production and refining using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). These elements produce undesirable compounds upon combustion which can affect engine performance and have damaging effects on the atmosphere. Our research partner is Jeremy Ferrell, at the Appalachian State Energy Center, who will oversee the biodiesel production and will provide the oil and biodiesel samples for us to analyze. This research has the potential to impact the development of renewable energy in the automotive industry and the health of the Earth’s atmosphere. In order to develop an effective method, the literature was researched to gather as much background, experimental, and analytical information as possible. The ICP-OES is commonly used for this type of research. Prior to analysis, the instrument’s torch will be aligned using a manganese oil standard, and the most sensitive wavelengths of each element will be determined. Method detection limits (MDL’s) and other figures of merit will also be determined before sample analysis. Oxygen and argon gas supplies must be abundant for method development and eventual sample analysis. Single-element and multi-element oil standards, containing calcium, magnesium, sodium, and phosphorus, will be used to prepare calibration standards. Standards and samples will be weighed by mass, diluted with a kerosene substitute (Premi-Solv) and analyzed by ICP-OES. The process of determining metals and phosphorus in various samples of oils and biodiesel requires multiple trials and plentiful resources. The proposed budget includes the cost of the items and reagents that would deplete the quickest. Although the amount of solvent and reagents received are adequate, these items are in very high use and will be in low supply as more trials are run.

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138. Time-correlated fluorescence spectroscopy of microspheres and assorted proteins

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Tyler Foley Physics Brooke Hester Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: We propose to first complete the construction of our fluorescence spectroscopy apparatus, housed in the ASU Biophysics and Optical Sciences Facility. The apparatus requires the addition of the item(s) listed here. Once these final items are acquired and added to the setup, it will be capable of frequency-domain fluorescence anisotropy studies. These types of studies allow for the measurement of steady-state orientations of a fluorescent particle, and also the measurement of changing orientations of a fluorescent particle. With this information, a researcher can determine the average orientation of many particles but the technique is capable of measuring the orientation of a single particle as well. Additionally, the technique allows the measurement of the timing of rotation of a particle, if it is moving. The fluorescent particle, if rotating, will give off light whose polarization axis is correspondingly rotating at the same rate, with the same angular velocity. This allows for the measurement of the timing of motion of a moving biological microscopic object such as a motor protein, as long as it is conjugated with a fluorophore. Much like the ability to measure orientation, the technique allows for the measurement of many particles moving in unison or for a single moving particle. Once the apparatus is finalized, with the addition of the parts listed in this proposal, we plan to study the rotation of single optically trapped microspheres and the dependence of temperature on those rotation times. This will increase our understanding of the basic physics of optically trapped particles and the role of temperature in this system that is widely used for biophysical measurements. Furthermore, we plan to study the conformational orientation and rotational correlation times of for the changing conformations of organic anion transporters (OATs) as part of an ongoing collaboration with Dr. Jennifer Cecile in the department of Chemistry. OATs are membrane proteins that function similarly to doors, opening and closing and allowing or not allowing drugs to enter or exit a cell within the body. How these proteins function is not well understood, and a good understanding would allow for researchers to keep drugs in the body longer so that they may be more effective at their function or flush drugs out quickly in the event of an overdose. This work will allow us to learn more about these proteins with potential impacts in the fields of medicine and pharmaceuticals.

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139. Time-correlated fluorescence spectroscopy of microspheres and assorted proteins

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Jacob Cole Physics Brooke Hester Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: We propose to first complete the construction of our fluorescence spectroscopy apparatus, housed in the ASU Biophysics and Optical Sciences Facility. The apparatus requires the addition of the item(s) listed here. Once these final items are acquired and added to the setup, it will be capable of frequency-domain fluorescence anisotropy studies. These types of studies allow for the measurement of steady-state orientations of a fluorescent particle, and also the measurement of changing orientations of a fluorescent particle. With this information, a researcher can determine the average orientation of many particles but the technique is capable of measuring the orientation of a single particle as well. Additionally, the technique allows the measurement of the timing of rotation of a particle, if it is moving. The fluorescent particle, if rotating, will give off light whose polarization axis is correspondingly rotating at the same rate, with the same angular velocity. This allows for the measurement of the timing of motion of a moving biological microscopic object such as a motor protein, as long as it is conjugated with a fluorophore. Much like the ability to measure orientation, the technique allows for the measurement of many particles moving in unison or for a single moving particle. Once the apparatus is finalized, with the addition of the parts listed in this proposal, we plan to study the rotation of single optically trapped microspheres and the dependence of temperature on those rotation times. This will increase our understanding of the basic physics of optically trapped particles and the role of temperature in this system that is widely used for biophysical measurements. Furthermore, we plan to study the conformational orientation and rotational correlation times of for the changing conformations of organic anion transporters (OATs) as part of an ongoing collaboration with Dr. Jennifer Cecile in the department of Chemistry. OATs are membrane proteins that function similarly to doors, opening and closing and allowing or not allowing drugs to enter or exit a cell within the body. How these proteins function is not well understood, and a good understanding would allow for researchers to keep drugs in the body longer so that they may be more effective at their function or flush drugs out quickly in the event of an overdose. This work will allow us to learn more about these proteins with potential impacts in the fields of medicine and pharmaceuticals.

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140. The use of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) in music therapy: A survey of current practice

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Carolyn Chwalek Music Therapy Cathy McKinney School of Music Music Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: Purpose: The purpose of the study was to address whether and how music therapy is being used to address DBT skills. The researcher hypothesizes that music therapists are more likely to adapt traditional DBT protocols to inherently address the four components of DBT than to follow DBT protocol. The following questions will be addressed: Is DBT being incorporated into music therapy? How is DBT or elements of DBT being used in music therapy? Who is using DBT in music therapy? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using DBT in music therapy? What music therapy experiences are being used to address the four components of DBT? What training do music therapists have that are using DBT in practice? Participants: The researcher will solicit respondents via email to board-certified music therapists who work with psychiatric populations. This information will be accessed through the American Music Therapy Association’s labels (email addresses). Design: The study used a mixed methods design to provide a broader picture of how DBT is being used in music therapy. The quantitative data provided information of demographic backgrounds, theoretical orientations, training in DBT, and how often the four components of DBT are addressed through music therapy. Quantitative data also included results from the VAS and Likert Scales. The qualitative data consisted of the data from open-ended questions, such as why the music therapists practice what they practice, their definitions of DBT terms, and personal experiences using DBT in music therapy. A 25 question survey was developed by the researcher. Need of budget: The budget is necessary for this study because the email labels from the American Music Therapy Association must be purchased. The budget is needed to have access to potential respondents email addresses. *The study is IRB pending. IRB Exemption Form was submitted 6/16/13

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141. TRX Suspension Training in a Limited Functioning Elderly Population

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Amanda Kosmata Exercise Science Kevin Zwetsloot Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: Sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass and strength with aging, is a significant contributor to decreases in functionality of elderly adults. If the process of sarcopenia is not stopped or reversed, further declines in functionality will occur. Exercise training can stop and/or reverse the effects of sarcopenia in elderly adults. Some studies have determined that a functional training program increases functionality in older and elderly adults. However, there is a lack of research investigating functional exercise training in limited-functioning elderly people. The goal of this research study is to investigate if functional training, using the TRZ suspension system, increases physical function, strength, and balance in limited-functioning institutionalized elderly individuals. Exercise, specifically resistance training, has been proven as the most effective way to stop and reverse the futile cycle of sarcopenia. Furthermore, functional training (training which mimics functional movements performed every day) has been shown to increase functionality in elderly persons. Most studies done to improve functionality in the elderly population include independent, highly-functioning individuals. However, those elderly people that are currently in assisted living communities are in need of the most help that a functional training program could provide. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to utilize the TRX suspension training system to implement a functional training program in a limited functioning elderly population. The exercise intervention will include an 8-week training protocol of functional exercises designed to mimic movements used in everyday living, such as the sit-to-stand movement. The exercises will train both strength and balance. Studies have shown that an exercise program of both strength and balance provide the most improvements in elderly persons. Functional strength tests, including the five time repetition sit-to-stand test, Get-up-and-go test, and the hand-grip strength test, will be assessed before training, after 4 weeks of training, and after 8 weeks of training. Elderly subjects will be recruited from a local assisted living facility and inclusion criteria for participants in this study will be persons aged 75 and older who require the use of an assistive walking device (cane, walker, etc), but must not be confined to a wheelchair. They must also require assistance in the basic functional task of rising from a chair. This study is necessary to determine if functional exercise training, using the TRX suspension system, is effective at improving the physical function and increasing strength and balance of a limited-functioning elderly population. In addition, we will be educating participants on proper ways to perform basic activities of daily living which should improve their quality of life.

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142. Balance Testing with Functional Training in the Elderly

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Victoria Roberts Exercise Science Kevin Zwetsloot Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: Through my experience working in a nursing home facility for over a year, I have witnessed the process of aging and muscle change in the elderly population. In addition, as an Exercise Science Undergraduate student, I have found a deep desire to find the solution to prolong muscle change and the decrease of mobility by using the information that I have been taught throughout my major courses. Working cooperatively, strength and balance play a vital role in maintaining mobility. However, many elderly individuals lose muscle mass through the situation of a fall injury, arthritis, or the loss of muscle mass known as Sarcopenia. It is necessary that strength is maintained and balance be focused upon in order to promote lasting mobility for the elderly. Research has shown that functional training can improve balance in normal functioning adults, but it is unknown if functional training is beneficial to improve balance in limited-functioning elderly, like those living in an assist living facility. However, without strength, balance deteriorates because strength allows one to stand from sitting, but balance allows for stability and control which makes the individual more conscious and consequently creates less fall risks and injuries. Functional exercise training should improve balance because it trains both strength and stability. Therefore the purpose of this study is to test whether functional training, using the TRX suspension system, improves balance and stability in limited-functioning elderly individuals. My proposed project will consist of an 8-week functional exercise program in elderly people with significant mobility problems (require an assistant device to walk) living in a nearby assisted living home. Participants will perform a group strength training program involving exercises using the TRX Suspension Trainers. I will evaluate balance in the participants before, at 4 weeks, and after 8 weeks of functional training. We will use the following tests to evaluate balance: the Berg Balance Scale, the Functional Reach test, Tinetti Balance Assessment test, Activity Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale, the Romberg test and the Falls Efficacy test. This research is very important because nursing home censuses are ever increasing, while fall risks and unnecessary injuries are growing. Quality of life depends upon mobility and a little strength may be all it takes. Will mobility be prolonged or possibly reversed? Data is at our fingertips by performing this research. My goal is to use this research to impact my aspiring nursing career and hope to use my research to decrease the common use of medication and replace it with a solution that will restore and preserve mobility. I want to better the quality of life for the elderly population.

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143. Annual drought impacts on pollinator communities and benefits to host plants: Testing predictive models at environmental extremes

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Leigh Rimmer Biology Jennifer Geib Arts and Sciences Biology Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: In 2012, much of the US experienced severe drought. At our research site (Pennsylvania Mountain, Park County, CO), already dry conditions were further magnified by geographic features producing a rain shadow effect. Significant reductions in foraging bumblebee densities were observed in the summer of 2012 compared to previous years, and almost no Bombus reproductive were seen at the end of the growing season. My lab will return to Pennsylvania Mountain May-August 2013 to examine carry-over impacts from the 2013 drought. Due to geographic isolation of alpine bumblebee populations living on mountaintop “islands”, I predict effects of the drought are likely to carry over to 2013 and create local extirpation of alpine bumblebee communities. This is a critical opportunity to test predictions and predictions of models relating pollinator abundance to plant benefits at the extremes of the bumblebee abundance continuum. Hypothesis 1: I hypothesize that bumblebee forager and colony abundance estimates of native alpine bumblebees will be lower than those from surveys in past years. In past years (1970s-2012), four Bombus species have dominated the alpine pollinator community at the Pennsylvania Mountain site. To assess forager abundance at the habitat scale and collect genetic data for colony abundance estimations, worker bees of all Bombus species present will be captured on Pennsylvania Mountain in mid August. DNA will be extracted and amplified at 10 microsatellite loci using 5 primers. Alleles will be scored using GeneMapper software. Sibships among same-species workers will be assigned using COLONY (ver.) software. If there are no significant carryover effects of population decline from 2012 on the composition of the 2013 bumble bee community, we will gain insights into mechanisms buffering bumblebee populations from environmental extremes such as metapopulation dynamics. Hypothesis 2: We predict that benefits to plants will decline in response to loss of pollinator abundance. To assess impacts on benefits to plants, I will count pollen deposits and pollen tube germination of two ecologically important host plants, Tifolium dasyphyllum and T. parryi, at the end of the season and count number of seeds produced in the ovaries. Relationships between bumblebee forager/colony abundance and plant fecundity will be compared with published predictive models developed during “normal” years not impacted by drought. This study has implications to test models that may be able to predict changes in pollination mutualisms in normal and extreme ecological spectrums and help us to understand meta-population dynamics for bees in “island” mountaintop locations that may or may not be acting as genetic barriers.

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144. The Power of Group Dynamics in Musical Ensembles

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Carys Kunze Music Education Jennifer Snodgrass School of Music Music Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: From June 14 to June 25, 2013, I will travel to Buenos Aires, Argentina to expand my current research on the importance of group dynamics in musical ensembles. This project seeks to study how the group dynamics of a musical ensemble may affect the quality of student learning, the overall experiences of students, and the ensemble’s musical performance. My preliminary research in this area was presented at the 2013 National Conference on Undergraduate Research and Appalachian State University’s 2013 Annual Celebration of Student Research and Creative Endeavors. My travel to Buenos Aires will serve to enhance and build upon this preliminary research. Thus far, I have only been able to study musical ensembles at the University level in the Southeastern United States. The incorporation of work with an international ensemble into my research will therefore be invaluable. In Buenos Aires, I will observe rehearsals of the Ensamble Vocal of the Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, a well-respected university located in Buenos Aires. I also hope to interview or survey select members of this choir, as would be consistent with my preliminary research. These methods will be used to test my conclusions from preliminary research about the connections between student learning, musical growth, and various aspects of ensemble group dynamics. Observing this international university choir will allow me to gain an international perspective for my research and test if my conclusions remain consistent on an international scale. I will also have the opportunity to engage in conversation with, view the research of, and potentially interview highly respected musical collegiate professionals whose research focuses are in areas similar to my own. These professionals include Dr. Debbie Lynn Wolf, who studies how to use performance evaluations effectively in the music classroom, and Cindy Tseng, who works with student enjoyment through flow in the music classroom. These individuals will be in Buenos Aires at the time of my travel due to a College Music Society International Conference occurring in Buenos Aires at this time. The opportunity to engage in scholarly conversation with these professionals about their research, which is related to my own, will inform my own research and allow me to form valuable professional connections within my field. My hotel expenses during this trip will be fully paid for by the College Music Society through a highly prestigious internship in which I will be performing duties not related to my research. My proposed budget is necessary in order to travel to and secure entrance into the country of Argentina so as to conduct my research on-site. I am excited to take my research to the next level through this travel, and I look forward to the opportunity to test my research conclusions on an international scale.

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145. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Children’s Distinction Between Beauty and Morality

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Katherine Lasine Psychology Doris Bazzini Arts and Sciences Psychology Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: Morality is thought to be a collective experience, that includes social obligation, while aesthetic beauty is subjective, personal and, ultimately, individualist. Popular cultural often confounds the two in artistic expression, as well as media representations, and it is common for individuals to believe that morality and beauty are correlated. This confounding of the two concepts has come to be called the “what is beautiful is good” stereotype. What’s more, Westernized depictions of beauty, particularly for women, idealize thinness in the conception of feminine beauty. Such images of this “thin ideal,” again, are integrated with beliefs about morality. Research with both children and adults shows evidence of this beauty stereotype with regard to social judgments of others. However, with regard to children, the ability to cognitively distinguish between the two concepts emerges with the development of concrete operations. Indeed, children age 5 and younger have more difficulty distinguishing between the two than children age 9 and older. The current investigation is a quasi-experimental, field study that will compare children located in a small village in Uganda and similar-aged, children from the Boone Community. The participants will be presented with two brief narratives depicting the actions of two women in photographs. These scenarios will be everyday scenes that involve moral ambiguity. They will then be asked to respond to three questions about the scenarios. Due to the language barrier that is found in children, an audio recorder is necessary to accurately document the open responses. The poverty of the village in Uganda is at such a level that to offer money as compensation for participants would result in a highly competitive environment. Therefore, it has been advised that school supplies (pencils) be offered as compensation for the Ugandan sample instead of money. The equivalent of this compensation for the sample in Boone, NC would be $10. Results of this study will be submitted for consideration as professional conference presentations.

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146. Resistance Exercise Timing Effects on Blood Pressure and Sleep Architecture In Pre-Hypertensives

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
John Mazzochi Exercise Science Scott Collier Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Jul 02, 2013
Project Description: The goal of the present study is to determine if the timing of resistance exercise at three specified epochs (morning, afternoon and night) has any affect on blood pressure and sleep architecture in pre-hypertensive individuals. The objectives include: measure the affect of resistance exercise at three specific times throughout the day, on blood pressure and sleep architecture. Specifically, the first aim is to determine if performing resistance exercise at different times of day conveys any benefit to blood pressure while the second aim is to investigate if timing has any benefit on sleep architecture in pre-hypertensive individuals. Twenty Participants will be required to attend 4 visits to complete the study. The first visit will consist of lab familiarization and introduction to the resistance exercises, VO2 max testing, establishing a 10-RM on each resistance exercise, have their blood pressure recorded and will receive a randomized schedule of times to make the remaining 3 visits. Visits 2, 3 and 4 will occur at either 7 am, 1pm or 7 pm based on a randomized schedule. On the second, third and fourth visit, participants will complete nine resistance exercises using resistance machines. Subjects will perform each resistance exercise at 65% of their 10-RM for 2 sets of 10 repetitions for a total exercise time of 30 minutes. The budget justification provides subject compensation for and incentive to participants willing to volunteer for the study. Also, the ambulatory blood pressure equipment requires medical batteries, which are significantly more expensive than traditional batteries.

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147. Using Fluorescent Microspheres in Collagen for Raman

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Gunnar Schettler Physics Jennifer Burris Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy May 20, 2013
Project Description: My project is part of a larger ongoing research program in the Biophysics and Optical Sciences Facility (BiyOSeF) at Appalachian State University. Goal: The ultimate goal of the ongoing project is to a better understand the relationships between the mechanical properties and the structure of collagen. Collagen is the most abundant protein in mammals. Despite its abundance, the role of collagen in the extracellular matrix (the network of non-living material which surrounds the cells in living organisms) is not well characterized. Monitoring changes to collagen is of importance in understanding wound healing, engineering tissue, remodeling of the cervix during the birthing process, and the study of collagenopathies, disorders that affect the connective tissue in humans. Researchers at BiyOSeF have the capability to simultaneously pull on an object with optical tweezers while monitoring structural changes with Raman spectroscopy. This technique is called Raman-tweezers. Objective: The objective of this part of my specific project is to attach collagen networks to microspheres. This will allow collagen networks to be anchored to a microscope slide so that researchers can pull on small microspheres, also attached to the collagen, with the Raman-tweezers apparatus. This will cause the collagen networks to stretch and the Raman-tweezers apparatus can measure the pulling force while monitoring structural changes. We currently have a protocol and supplies at BiyOSeF necessary to make biotinylated collagen. We also have basic supplies such as gloves, microscope slides, pipets, etc. I have requested $80.00 in funding to help purchase fluorescent microspheres that are already functionalized with NeutrAvidin that will need to be attached to our biotinylated collagen networks. We need fluorescent microspheres so that we can see them in order to focus a laser beam on them that will act as optical tweezers to pull on the microspheres and stretch the collagen. Specific Aims: 1) to learn the well-known protocol (1) of attaching collagen to surfaces functionalized with NeutrAvidin, 2) to carry out the protocol and successfully attach collagen to functionalized microspheres, and 3) to present a poster at both the State of North Carolina Undergraduate Research & Creativity Symposium in fall 2013 and at the Celebration of Student Research and Creative Endeavors at ASU in spring 2014. I presented a poster about Raman-tweezers at the 2013 Celebration of Student Research.

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148. Coverslip and micropipette tip functionalization with NeutrAvidin for attachment to biotynilated collagen and microspheres

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Tyler Foley Physics Brooke Hester Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy May 17, 2013
Project Description: The project described here is part of a research project being undertaken by Drs. Hester and Burris in the Biophysics and Optical Sciences Facility (BiyOSeF) at Appalachian State University using the Raman Tweezers. This instrument, which was built, tested, and optimized by me earlier this year, is capable of collecting a Raman spectrum of something being stretched with optical tweezers while also measuring those stretching forces. The Raman spectrum can indicate where the object is weak, since certain bonds can be monitored as the object is stretched. This allows for the simultaneous monitoring of bonds and forces pulling on those bonds, so that the rigidity and elasticity of the object can be related to the structure of the object. The specific project described in this work will contribute to this overall project being undertaken in the BiyOSeF. With this project, we intend to understand the basic function of collagen in the body, especially the relationship between the structure of collagen networks at the most basic level, and how that relates to the roles that collagen plays in the body. This protein is the most abundant in the human body but how it functions in the body is not well understood at the molecular level. It is known that collagen is obviously important for giving the human body structure, but also is important in wound healing, cervical changes during pregnancy, and for studies using collagen for synthetic tissue engineering. Our goal is to stretch a collagen fibril and measure the force applying the stretching with optical tweezers, while we monitor the Raman spectrum and thus the bond structure of the collagen fibril. We have the capability to perform the measurements, but at this point need the chemical and biological products that allow for anchoring of the fibril in one place and pulling on the fibril elsewhere. We will anchor the fibril to a coverslip and we will pull on a bead that is attached to the collagen in another site with a micropipette tip attached to the collagen. It is the attaching of the collagen to the coverslip and the micropipette tip that is the focus of this proposal. The objective of my specific project is to attach avidin proteins to coverslips slides and micropipette tips. This will allow collagen networks that have been biotynilated to be anchored to a microscope coverslip so that the collagen network is anchored in this location. Avidin and Biotin are well-known and widely used chemicals used for attaching other molecules or proteins or materials to each other. The robotically-controlled micropipette tip will also be functionalized with avidin so that another location in the collagen network may be pulled upon. With the anchor point on one end of the collagen network and the micropipette puller on the other end, the collagen network may be stretched for force and elasticity studies or to monitor structural changes in the collagen network.

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149. Attaching Biotinylated Collagen to Fluorescent Microspheres

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Jessica Barrios Physics Jennifer Burris Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy May 17, 2013
Project Description: My project is part of a larger ongoing research program in the Biophysics and Optical Sciences Facility (BiyOSeF) at Appalachian State University. Goal: The ultimate goal of the current project is to gain a better understanding of the relationships between the structure and elasticity of collagen. Collagen, found mainly in connective tissue, is the most abundant protein in mammals. Despite its abundance, the function of collagen in the extracellular matrix (the network of non-living material which surrounds the cells in living organisms) is not well identified. Examining changes to collagen at this scale is of importance in understanding wound healing, engineering tissue, remodeling of the cervix during the birthing process, and the study of collagenopathies, disorders that affect the connective tissue in humans. Through a technique called Raman-tweezers, researchers at BiyOSeF are capable of simultaneously pulling on an object with optical tweezers while monitoring structural changes with Raman spectroscopy. Objective: The objective of my specific project is to attach collagen networks to fluorescent microspheres. Once attached, we can pull on the small microspheres attached to collagen with the Raman-tweezers apparatus. This will cause the collagen networks to stretch, allowing the Raman-tweezers apparatus to measure the pulling force while examining any structural changes. We currently have a protocol and supplies at BiyOSeF necessary to make biotinylated collagen. We also have basic supplies such as gloves, microscope slides, pipets, etc. I have requested $357.95 in funding to purchase fluorescent microspheres that are already functionalized with NeutrAvidin. These microspheres will need to be attached to our biotinylated collagen networks. Fluorescent microspheres are needed so that we can see them and be able to focus a laser beam on them that will act as optical tweezers to pull on the microspheres and stretch the collagen. Specific Aims: 1) to learn the well-known protocol (1) of attaching collagen to surfaces functionalized with NeutrAvidin, 2) to carry out the protocol and successfully attach collagen to functionalized microspheres, and 3) to present a poster at both the State of North Carolina Undergraduate Research & Creativity Symposium in fall 2013 and at the Celebration of Student Research and Creative Endeavors at ASU in spring 2014. I presented a poster about Raman-tweezers at the 2013 Celebration of Student Research. 1. www.thermo.com/eThermo/CMA/PDFs/Various/File_6498.pdf

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150. Using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) to Enhance the Raman Signal of Laboratory Calibrants

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Gunnar Schettler Physics Jennifer Burris Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy May 17, 2013
Project Description: One of Appalachian’s projects, within the Biophysics and Optical Science Facility (BiyOSeF), has involved the study of collagen and biofilms using Raman spectroscopy. Collagen, a naturally occurring group of proteins, can be found in the flesh and tissues of most vertebrates, contributing to 25-35% of our total bodies protein count. Although common properties of collagen are well understood, a complete underlying of the physics behind this unique protein still remains uncertain. Dissolving this uncertainty could lead to further advancements in medicine, such as improved bone grafts, cardiac applications, and increased tissue generation. Biofilms are an adherent group of microbes, which tend to stick and live on surfaces. It’s believed that bacteria rely on these biofilms as their source of existence. This bond between biofilms and bacteria tends to be extremely resistant to antimicrobial compounds. Gaining a more in-depth understanding between this relationship could lead to better methods for treating bacterial related infections as well as other bacterial applications. Raman Spectroscopy gives scientists a way to observe the various molecular vibrations of molecules. This method relies on the Raman, or inelastic scattering of light passed through a certain compound, which emits its very own, very unique signal, true to that material and that material only. So this Raman signal, or spectrum, can be thought of as the material’s spectral fingerprint. Raman Spectroscopy provides a non-invasive, precise method of determining the internal components of materials without altering the material itself. One of the issues with Raman Spectroscopy is the low signal strength, only about one millionth of the light sent in via laser is Raman scattered. Methods including Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) have been developed to allow scientists to magnify the weak Raman signal so that it may be recorded and analyzed. This method becomes increasingly important when the sample of interest consists of only a small amount of molecules. Which is the case with collagen and biofilms.

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151. Time-correlated fluorescence spectroscopy of microspheres and assorted proteins

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Jacob Cole Physics Brooke Hester Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy May 17, 2013
Project Description: We propose to first complete the construction of our fluorescence spectroscopy apparatus, housed in the ASU Biophysics and Optical Sciences Facility. The apparatus requires the addition of the item(s) listed here. Once these final items are acquired and added to the setup, it will be capable of frequency- domain fluorescence anisotropy studies. These types of studies allow for the measurement of steady-state orientations of a fluorescent particle, and also the measurement of changing orientations of a fluorescent particle. With this information, a researcher can determine the average orientation of many particles but the technique is capable of measuring the orientation of a single particle as well. Additionally, the technique allows the measurement of the timing of rotation of a particle, if it is moving. The fluorescent particle, if rotating, will give off light whose polarization axis is correspondingly rotating at the same rate, with the same angular velocity. This allows for the measurement of the timing of motion of a moving biological microscopic object such as a motor protein, as long as it is conjugated with a fluorophore. Much like the ability to measure orientation, the technique allows for the measurement of many particles moving in unison or for a single moving particle. Once the apparatus is finalized, with the addition of the parts listed in this proposal, we plan to study the rotation of single optically trapped microspheres and the dependence of temperature on those rotation times. This will increase our understanding of the basic physics of optically trapped particles and the role of temperature in this system that is widely used for biophysical measurements. Furthermore, we plan to study the conformational orientation and rotational correlation times of for the changing conformations of organic anion transporters (OATs) as part of an ongoing collaboration with Dr. Jennifer Cecile in the department of Chemistry. OATs are membrane proteins that function similarly to doors, opening and closing and allowing or not allowing drugs to enter or exit a cell within the body. How these proteins function is not well understood, and a good understanding would allow for researchers to keep drugs in the body longer so that they may be more effective at their function or flush drugs out quickly in the event of an overdose. This work will allow us to learn more about these proteins with potential impacts in the fields of medicine and pharmaceuticals.

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152. Local Policies for Land Protection in Appalachian Counties

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Haylea Workman Political Science Tatyana Ruseva Arts and Sciences Government and Justice Studies May 16, 2013
Project Description: The presentation will share results from a recent review of local policies for land protection in Western North Carolina. This includes a review of county ordinances, land use regulations and other programs related to watershed protection, mountain ridge protection, farmland preservation and others. The main research goal was to document and understand the various types of local policies for land protection in the 29 counties of our study area. To this end, we compiled a database of the existing ordinances for land use and land protection in each county (e.g. Watauga County’s Voluntary Farmland Preservation Program, Burke County’s Voluntary Agriculture Districts). We identified a total of 245 ordinances for Western North Carolina, which were then coded and analyzed based on their targeted land type (mountain land, water, preservation, zoning, etc.) and purpose (health, safety and general welfare, economic development, etc.). The poster presents our results from the cross-county comparison, as well as some broad insights about how Western North Carolina counties compare to other Appalachian rural counties in southwest Virginia and east Tennessee. Our results summarize important variations in local policies that influence how people and businesses utilize, manage and protect land and other natural resource assets.

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153. Development of Sensing Systems to Monitor the Hydrolysis of ?-Lactam Antibiotics

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kaitlin Rzasa Chemistry Libby Puckett Arts and Sciences Chemistry May 15, 2013
Project Description: The problem of resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics has become widespread. When the antibiotics were first developed, most strains of bacteria were susceptible, but, due to over prescription, many strains today have developed resistance. The aim of this project is to create sensing systems to monitor the hydrolysis of ?-lactam antibiotics. These systems will utilize ?-lactamase, a gene responsible for antibiotic resistance, and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), a pH sensitive fluorescent protein. ?-Lactamase is a protein that bacteria have developed to catalyze the cleavage of the ?-lactam ring present in ?-lactam antibiotics (penicillins), thus rendering the antibiotic inactive. The ?-lactam ring is the feature that makes the antibiotic effective by preventing bacterial cell wall synthesis during replication. The inactivation of the ?-lactam ring is accompanied by the release of a proton, thereby lowering the local pH. In order to monitor this catalysis, a pH dependent reporter protein is necessary. For this reason, EGFP, a variant of green fluorescent protein containing two major mutations near and within the chromophore region, was chosen. These mutations enable EGFP to respond to pH changes. In the assay, the EGFP domain of the fusion protein recognizes the drop in pH due to ?-lactam hydrolysis, and its level of fluorescence decreases over time. This information can then be used to perform kinetic experiments and inhibitor studies. This project has three major directions – the development of an in vitro protein-based assay, which is concluded; the validation of the pH theory, in which the ?-lactamase and EGFP proteins are expressed separately; and the development of an in vivo whole-cell based system to measure the bioavailability of new ?-lactam antibiotics. Both the in vitro and in vivo systems will be useful in exploring new ?-lactamase inhibitors as well as new antibiotic cocktails. The individual proteins will be used for side-by-side comparisons with the previously developed in vitro assay.

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154. Plant genetic identity as determined by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism and colonization by a dominant herbivorous insect

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Beatrice (Bess) Smith Biology Ray Williams Arts and Sciences Biology Apr 24, 2013
Project Description: The purpose of my project is to investigate how intraspecific genetic variation in Solidago altissima (goldenrod, a dominant species) impacts abundance of the aphid Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum (the dominant insect herbivore) in an old-field plant community. This research is part of a long-term study in the laboratory of Dr. Ray Williams in the Department of Biology. The project uses 16 plant clones (presumed distinct genotypes) collected from four different habitats. The plants were grown in a common garden since 2011. In 2012, leaf samples were collected for chemical analysis and the insect was observed. The first step of my experiment is to determine the genetic identity of each Solidago altissima clone. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) will be used to confirm genetic variation between plants. After using a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to amplify the DNA in each leaf sample, a restriction digestion using the MSE I enzyme will be used to cut the DNA into smaller pieces. A ligation reaction using T4 DNA Ligase will then bind specific adaptors to each DNA fragment and the DNA will be run on a polyacrylamide gel. The presence of unique banding patterns on the gel will conform different genotypes for each plant clone. After the genetic identity of the plants is confirmed, the second step of the project is to compare plant genotypes to previously collected data on the colonization of the aphid to determine whether it demonstrates a preference for different plant genotypes. This comparison will provide insight into the mechanism of insect choice. Previous studies by the Williams laboratory strongly suggest that plant defensive chemicals (terpenoids) affect the insects associated with Solidago. In the third step of the study, gas chromatography will be used to determine the amounts of terpenoids in each leaf sample. Samples are ground using a tissue homogenizer in the volatile solvent pentane, and injected into a Shimadzu 14-A gas chromatograph. Finally, each of the three parts of the study will be analyzed together to determine if terpenoids impacted levels of aphid abundance between plant genotypes. The results will contribute to our understanding of plant-insect interactions in old-field plant communities. After working in the Williams lab for over a year, I have learned a variety of molecular and chemical techniques. This project will allow me to gain more valuable, hands-on experience and develop greater expertise in my field of concentration. Community genetics is essential to understanding interspecific interactions, as well as the role of genetic diversity and specific adaptations in an ecosystem. Investigations such as mine help develop greater knowledge of how insects choose host plants. Because insects are the dominant consumers of plants on earth, insect choice is critical to understanding the broader mechanics of how ecosystems work.

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155. Religious Discrimination at Appalachian State University

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Alexis Lefkowitz Psychology Twila Wingrove Arts and Sciences Psychology Apr 24, 2013
Project Description: I will be presenting the poster at Creative Endeavors and at the NCPA conference in Chapel Hill. The broader study was aimed at examining what participants would award a person in a civil lawsuit and if the amount of money would fluctuate depending on the religion of the plaintiff. Our specific poster focuses on stereotypes of three religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. We wanted to see which demographics participants identified with would change their perception of a certain religion.

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156. Meta- Substituted Monomer Synthesis Development for a Sonogashira Catalyst Transfer Polycondensation

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kameron Singer Chemistry Pamela Lundin Arts and Sciences Chemistry Apr 24, 2013
Project Description: The delocalized ?-orbitals of conjugated polymers allow transfer of electrons along the polymer backbone. Since electrons are capable of moving from point to point, the polymers can be used in electronic devices such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), solar cells and supercapacitors. This project will be focused on the synthesis of meta- oriented poly(pheylene ethynnlene) (PPE) polymer by process of Sonogashira cross- coupling chain- growth polycondensation. The majority of synthesized PPEs possess in the para- orientation of the chain, which results in a straight backbone. Less research has been done with respect to meta-substituted PPEs, which would result in a kinked polymer chain and may lead to interested macroscopic properties. The goals for this project will be to 1.) synthesize an appropriate monomer for a meta-substituted PPE; 2.) polymerize this monomer; and 3.) analyze the properties of meta-oriented polymers and better understand the process of Sonogashira chain-growth polymerization reaction. The requested budget will be used to obtain reactants and solvents for the synthesis of the monomer in order to move on to polymerization and analysis.

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157. Effects of Display size on Search. (Title still being decided by the lab)

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Ian Mullins Psychology Christopher Dickinson Arts and Sciences Psychology Apr 24, 2013
Project Description: This is a research presentation and a general interest-gathering poster session at an annual conference in Chapel Hill. We will be providing information on the background of our research position as well as an exhibition through visual images of our methods. We will also include tables and analyses of our initial results as well as a 'future research and implications' section to discuss the future of our research questions. IRB Approval code: 12-0113 The project itself focuses on eye movements and search patterns recorded by an eye tracking camera. We measure a large number of variables across subjects and use/will use that data in the future to understand the effects of display parameters and stimulus quality on search methods; long term questions to address the effects, if any, of memory on search. The data collection process for this research could take months or years more but in order to get feedback and design further research questions we feel it is appropriate to present what we have so far.

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158. Comparisons of Cover Models on Men's Health and Women's Health Magazines

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Amanda Pepper Psychology Doris Bazzini Arts and Sciences Psychology Apr 24, 2013
Project Description: Previous research has found many differences between the content of covers of popular men's and women's magazines. Most of this research has compared magazines such as Sports Illustrated and Cosmopolitan, which differ greatly in content. The purpose of this project was to control for magazine content by examining differences between cover models presented on Men's Health (MH) and Women's Health (WH) magazines. Additionally, findings from this study may have implications on the likelihood of consumers experiencing self-objectification as a result of exposure to objectifying images of cover models. Three female coders independently examined the covers of MH and WH from 2006 through 2011 for the following characteristics: amount and type of clothing, body parts shown, hair characteristics, race, and whether the body was wet or dry. Coders met all at once to compare responses and resolve any discrepancies. Findings from this study were presented on a poster at the Southeastern Psychological Association's (SEPA) annual conference in Atlanta, Georgia. This budget is proposed to cover the cost of printing the poster and handouts that were given out during the poster session.

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159. Exercise, Risky Eating, and Body Esteem: College Women's Struggles and Successes

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Amanda Pepper Psychology Doris Bazzini Arts and Sciences Psychology Apr 24, 2013
Project Description: Women are continuously exposed to societal standards of beauty, which results in a preoccupation with attaining the "thin-is-ideal" appearance. To achieve this ideal, females commonly resort to exercise and dieting. Previous research has demonstrated reasons for exercise associated with attractiveness, weight control and tone to be positively associated with disordered eating; whereas reasons for exercise associated with enjoyment, mood, health, and fitness have no relation to disordered eating. Research further suggests a positive relationship between self-esteem and exercising for weight control. This study further explores the relationships for reasons for exercise, disordered eating, and body esteem among college-aged females who participate in sports activities. Female participants who indicated current participation in sport activity completed the Reasons for Exercise Inventory (REI), Body Esteem Scale (BES), Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT) and measures of height and weight to compute body mass index (BMI). Correlations were conducted within low and high BMI women. These findings will be presented during a poster session at the Women's Health 2013 21st Annual Congress on March 22, 2013 in Washington, D.C. Funds are requested to print the poster presentation.

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160. Direct Radiative Forcing in the South Eastern United States

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Hadi Morrow Chemistry Brett Taubman Arts and Sciences Chemistry Apr 24, 2013
Project Description: Owing to the large loading of anthropogenic and biogenic aerosols in the summer months of the Appalachian region, the Appalachian Atmospheric Interdisciplinary Research (AppalAIR) facility’s location is the ideal place for a long-term investigation of aerosol properties. As a consequence of convection and other atmospheric processes, aerosols transported from polluted areas can contaminate a clean environment hundreds of miles away. AppalAIR is equipped to quantify a wide range of optical, physical, and chemical aerosol properties. Thus we aim to better understand the influences of various aerosol source regions on local radiative forcing. Integrating these estimates with chemical composition measurements may help approximate real-time forcing as a function of composition and optical depth. The HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model1 (HYSPLIT) will be used to determine the source regions by incorporating a statistical cluster analysis of the back trajectories. In order to achieve this goal, continuous measurements must be made using various particle counters, one of which uses Butanol to saturate the atmosphere. Other instruments on site use impactors which require constant maintenance and cleaning with various alcohols, lubricants and greases.

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161. What factors influence food and nutrition behaviors among rural Appalachians with chronic disease.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Ellie Lawrence Nutrition and Healthcare Management Melissa Gutschall Health Sciences Nutrition and Healthcare Management Apr 03, 2013
Project Description: Rural populations face unique barriers when seeking preventative health care. The Appalachian region of the United States is forty percent rural and has a higher rate of obesity, heart disease, and diabetes than the US average. Research has shown that access to health care is limited in Appalachia. Appalachia culture emphasis the importance of reliance on self. This cultural barrier deters rural Appalachians from seeking care from outsiders. Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT) is proven to equip patients with the tools they need to prevent and control many of the chronic diseases cause the high morbidity and mortality rates in Appalachia. Dietitians need to understand how to best provide MNT to their clients in rural Appalachia. The purpose of this research is to understand the barriers Appalachian residents with chronic disease face related to food and nutrition. Interviewing residents from rural Appalachia will provide information on what barriers prevent them from seeking care and what interventions will help them overcome these barriers can be obtained. Twelve participants will be recruited from rural Appalachia to participate in a sixty-minute semi-structured interview. The interview guide includes questions in the areas of access to health care, sociocultural issues, traditional foods and health behaviors. The interviews will be recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcriptions will be coded for themes and phenomena. A brief questionnaire will be administered to the participants. The questionnaire examines common food practices in Appalachia, as well as areas that past research have found to be linked deterring clients from seeking health care. This information will then be incorporated into the curriculum for training dietitians, and published to strengthen the practice of dietitians working in rural Appalachia. Incentives are needed to compensate rural Appalachians for their time.

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162. Hemodynamics and Sleep Architecture following acute alcohol consumption in College Aged Males

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Daniel Payseur Exercise Science Scott Collier Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Mar 28, 2013
Project Description: This project will assess the interrelation of alcohol use, blood pressure, sleep, and individual differences (i.e., personality, stress, socialization) in college men. More specifically, this project will approach this interrelation two ways. First, a small set of male volunteers (n=25) will consume alcohol in a laboratory setting under the supervision of the conducting graduate students and their faculty adviser. This will be done in order to observe the acute impact of alcohol on blood pressure, sleep, and individual differences. This group will also monitor their nocturnal ambulatory blood pressure and sleep architecture over a period of two nights (before and after the alcohol administration). Second, a larger group of men (n=135) will complete the same self-report measures of sleep and individual differences and some of the physical measures of blood pressure as the smaller alcohol administration group described above. However, they will complete a self-report measure of their alcohol use versus consuming alcohol in the lab.

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163. Does sleepiness hinder a pilot's decision making process?

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Linsey Smith Economics Dr. David Dickinson Business Economics Mar 28, 2013
Project Description: The goal of my research is to prove or disprove my hypothesis that sleepiness hinders pilot’s decision making. I will collect data through an online survey to pilots regarding their sleep habits and how a lack of sleep can affect their risky decision making process while flying. My survey for the aviators is structured to discover how they make decisions based on the amount of sleep they have obtained. Besides the basic questions to obtain knowledge about a specific pilot, there are also standardized questions that measure the fatigue levels at the time of the survey include the Karolinsk and Epworth standardized sleepiness scales. The key outcome variables I will analyze involve choices on two decision tasks. One task is aimed at measuring rationality. A second task involves risky choice and how framing the choice affects outcomes. Responses to these questions will provide knowledge on aviators in various types of positions within the aviation industry. The budget is important because the more responses I receive the more accurate my findings. To get more responses, I will need to offer an opportunity for the pilots to be compensated for their valuable time spent.

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164. Making Laser-Scribed Iron-doped Graphene for Use as a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Catalyst

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Jason Luther Physics Phillip Russell Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Mar 28, 2013
Project Description: The research project aims to produce a cheap graphene-based fuel cell catalyst. Currently platinum, an expensive metal, is used to separate hydrogen-oxygen bonds. Our proposed design uses iron in place of the platinum to dramatically reduce the cost of hydrogen fuel cells; fuel cells could then be more a more viable renewable energy source. In order to achieve this, we will expand upon a design based on research done at UCLA. The first step will be to replicate the experiment performed by El-Kady, et al. in the paper published in Science, Laser Scribing of High-Performance and Flexible Graphene Based Electrochemical Capacitors. The UCLA team made flexible graphene sheets on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. This was accomplished by mixing a Graphite-Oxide powder in water, drop-casting the mixture on the PET and allowing it to dry. Once dry, the Graphite-Oxide, now arranged in a thin layer on the substrate, is placed in a LightScribe DVD drive and “laser –scribed” into the desired pattern. The results showed the Graphite-Oxide reduced to monolayer graphene. Once we verify the results of the paper, we will modify the initial compounds to include both Graphite-Oxide and Iron(II) Oxide. We will evenly mix these powders according to a pre-determined ratio (2% Iron to Carbon). We expect the Iron(II) Oxide to distribute evenly amongst the Graphite-Oxide. Repeating the remaining steps we expect the Iron to fill two-Carbon-atom holes by bonding with the four remaining Carbon atoms around the vacancy making an Iron doped graphene material which may be suitable for use as a hydrogen fuel cell catalyst. In order to verify the percentage of embedded Iron to Carbon we will be using an atomic resolution microscope capable of Z-contrast imaging through connections with our research advisor, Dr. Russell. Our budget will be used to purchase the Graphite-Oxide and Iron(II) Oxide powders as well as the necessary plastic substrate and external LightScribe DVD drive used for etching. If this experiment is successful, we will continue research with mechanical and chemical stability tests of the doped graphene. We hope that these mechanical and stability tests will show this material’s viability as a fuel cell catalyst.

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165. The comparative effects of ozone on two varieties of cutleaf coneflower

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Jennifer Johnson Biology Howard Neufeld Arts and Sciences Biology Mar 28, 2013
Project Description: Ozone is a major air pollutant, known to have deleterious effects on plants. Ozone impacts both agricultural crops and natural ecosystems. To improve our understanding of ozone effects on plants, I am investigating the differential effects of ozone on two closely related varieties of the cutleaf coneflower Rudbeckia laciniata var. digiata and R. laciniata var. ampla. These two varieties are reported to have varying degrees of ozone tolerance. However, a side-by-side comparison of the two varieties has not yet been conducted under controlled conditions. Over the past two years I have established populations of both varieties at the ASU Biology Greenhouse. During 2012, nine ozone fumigation chambers were established and the two varieties were subjected to three ozone treatments: high (ambient + 40 ppb), medium (ambient ozone), and low ozone (charcoal filtered air). Each of these ozone treatments was performed in triplicate. Within each chamber, four individuals of each variety were grown under identical conditions for 45 days. During this time macroscopic ozone leaf injury (leaf stipple), stomatal conductance and photosynthetic carbon assimilation (H2O and CO2 gas exchange measurements), and photosynthetic efficiency (chlorophyll fluorescence) were monitored. Preliminary results indicate that under high ozone conditions the more sensitive eastern variety has a higher stomatal conductance than the western variety. This correlation suggests a mechanism for the differential ozone sensitivity that was observed in that a higher conductance means greater uptake of ozone. This experiment needs to be repeated during the 2013 growing season. This year ozone fumigation will be extended for the entire growing season, and the frequency of plant monitoring will be increased. One focus area will be to improve the quality of chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. This technique allows monitoring of photosystem II, a key protein implicated in ozone injury in plants. Chlorophyll fluorescence is dynamic and the response varies widely over the course of a day. Hence measurements must be completed in a timely fashion. However, each measurement requires a specialized clip to be left in place for thirty minutes, in order to dark-adapt the leaf. At present our lab possesses nineteen of these clips, allowing comparison of only one measurement per variety per chamber at each time point. I am requesting funds to purchase an additional twenty fluorometer clips, doubling the amount of data I am able to collect. Also, I am requesting funds to purchase computer software for the analysis of the gas exchange data. At present this analysis is highly time-consuming, which limits the amount of data that can be assessed. Both of these purchases will enhance my research productivity and allow me to collect higher quality data that can improve our understanding of ozone injury in plants.

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166. The effects of interspecific competition on pair coordination of nestling provisioning

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Morgan Harris Biology Lynn Siefferman Arts and Sciences Biology Mar 28, 2013
Project Description: Animal personality – or consistent, predictable behavioral responses of individuals – is thought to influence monogamous relationships by better allowing mates to coordinate territory defense and parental care behaviors. My data show Eastern bluebirds exhibit distinct personalities (repeatable aggressive behavior) and that mated pairs display similar personalities. Moreover, similarity in within pair personality increases nestling mass. These relationships, however, disappear when bluebirds experience competition with tree swallows for nesting sites. Tree swallows are expanding their range southward and have been at my NC field site for <40 yrs. Nest-box use data from my field site over the last 4 years shows locations of high and low interspecific competition (IC). I hypothesize that the intensity of IC with tree swallows represents a new selection pressure that interferes with otherwise adaptive relationships between pair personalities and reproductive success. I will investigate the mechanisms that lead to decreased fitness in the face of IC. I predict that high IC causes female bluebirds to invest more energy toward nest defense and thus are less able to coordinate parental care behavior leading to decreased fitness. I will monitor >200 nest-boxes in Watauga Co, NC, measure nestling mass on days 2, 5, 8, 11, and 14 post-hatch and measure nestling survivorship until fledging. I will estimate harassment by tree swallows by observing each bluebird box for 30min every other day from territory establishment to nestling fledging. I will quantify parental provisioning rates via video-recording nests twice during nestling rearing. Pairs that feed offspring in predictable intervals will be considered highly coordinated; thus I will compare the variance in provisioning behavior at locations of high and low IC (t-tests). I will use Mixed Effects Models (random factor=nest) to understand the effects of tree swallow presence and mean and variance of provisioning rates on nestling quality and survivorship. Globally, communities and ecosystems are presently undergoing rapid change caused by urbanization, climate change, and numbers of invasive species. Research suggests that these changes are leading to higher levels of stress and changing selection pressures. As more invasive species are being introduced throughout the world, it is important to quantify how personality traits are affected by and/or affect the outcome of competitive interactions. Species that are successful invaders are often more aggressive and out-compete native species. This research uses a natural experiment - recent range expansion - to explore the effects of interspecific competition on relationships between personality of individuals, within pair similarity in personality, and fitness in monogamous species. These results can have far-reaching applications to questions of how changing environments and selection pressures shape personality traits in animals.

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167. Differential Gene Regulation as a Possible Factor Affecting Sensitivity of Soybean Cultivars to Ozone

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Tongji Xing Biology Howard Neufeld Arts and Sciences Biology Mar 28, 2013
Project Description: Current background ozone concentrations ([O3]) are high enough to damage crops and are projected to increase. Soybean (Glycine max), one of the four major global food crops, is particularly sensitive to O3 and considerable genetic variation between cultivars exists in its sensitivity to O3, though the mechanistic bases for these differences remain poorly understood. Previous studies show that elevated [O3] causes upregulation of genes involved in defense, such as antioxidant genes in plants and downregulation of genes involved in carbon metabolism, such as photosynthetic genes. Furthermore, the sensitivity to O3 stress is suggested to be a function of the relative differential regulation of these two classes of genes in plants. However, such research is still in its beginning stages, and few studies have yet been done on soybeans. My goal is to examine the molecular bases for resistance to O3 among tolerant (Fiskeby III) and sensitive (Mandarin Ottawa) soybean cultivars. In particular, I want to address two hypotheses: H1: Tolerant cultivars upregulate defensive genes sooner and/or to a greater extent than sensitive cultivars; H2: Sensitive cultivars, conversely, downregulate photosynthetic genes sooner and/or to a greater extent than tolerant cultivars. My study is a collaboration with USDA researchers at the Plant Growth lab in Raleigh, NC who developed the soybean cultivars. We have chosen soybeans because the entire genome has been sequenced, which facilitates obtaining primers for molecular investigations. Each cultivar will be exposed to either charcoal-filtered air (low O3), or high O3 (70 ppb O3 for 12 hrs/day) using exposure chambers in the USDA greenhouse. There will be five replications of each treatment (2x5x5=20 plants per genotype; 100 plants total). At 1, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hrs after exposure, immature and mature leaflets from one plant of each genotype/trt will be harvested and flash frozen in liquid N2. Leaf mRNA will be extracted using Qiagen’s RNeasy Plant Mini Kit and transcribed into cDNA using Applied Biosystems’ RNA-Cdna Kit. Fluorescent Taqman Primers will be developed for each of our four candidate genes, as well as for a gene to be used as an internal control (F-box protein). Time courses of their activity will be determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), which is the most accurate way to follow temporal trends in gene expression. The candidate genes are two genes known to be upregulated in the presence of O3 (Superoxide dismutase and Glutathione peroxidase), and two known to be downregulated (Light-harvesting complex5a and Ferredoxin thioredoxin reductase). A two-way repeated measures ANOVA will be used to determine O3 and cultivar effects. Our study may allow incorporation of effective genes into high yielding cultivars of soybean and also form the basis for a broader understanding of those factors that lead to greater O3 sensitivity in all plants.

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168. Interpreting Prehistoric Mountain-top Stone Mounds in the Southeastern United States

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Hugh Bowman Anthropology Cheryl Claassen Arts and Sciences Anthropology Mar 28, 2013
Project Description: For my senior honor’s thesis in Anthropology I am interpreting mountain-top stone mound sites in the southeastern United States using archaeological, ethnographic, and spatial analysis. Because of the removal of the Cherokee and other southeastern tribes in the nineteenth century, much information has been lost concerning prehistoric sacred landscapes, including the stone mound sites, in the region. In my thesis I will compare the stone features to other similar sites in North America. I am requesting funding through the Office of Student Research to accompany my professor, Dr. Cheryl Claassen, on a Nahua pilgrimage and rain calling ceremony at a sacred mountain-top location in Acatlan, Guerrero, Mexico. This project aims to collect ethnographic information on a mountain-top site that can be compared to prehistoric mountain-top sites and shrines in the southeastern United States. Because the prehistoric landscapes retain their connection and sacredness to indigenous peoples in modern Mesoamerica, this rain calling ceremony offers a unique opportunity to learn more about Native American mountain-top shrines and ritual landscapes. Airfare to Mexico will be the largest expense of the proposed research. Current prices listed on kayak.com for airfare from Charlotte, NC to Mexico City, Mexico at $630.00. I will be requesting the maximum amount to help alleviate some the cost of travel to carry out this research.

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169. Ecosystem consequences of genetically-mediated leaf chemistry in invasive and native black locust (Robinia psuedoacacia L.) ecosystems

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Cameron Houser Biology Mike Madritch Arts and Sciences Biology Mar 28, 2013
Project Description: My primary goal is to understand how black locust influences ecosystem processes in native and introduced ranges. As a manipulative study on such a large scale is impractical, I will use established black locust stands. Using established stands will confound black locust sites with spatial variation and site history prior to black locust establishment. To correct for these confounding factors, my collection sites will be paired with sites without black locust. Such a paired sampling scheme had been shown to be useful for both ecosystem and community responses to overstory plants. For appropriate genetic analysis, I will choose a total of at least 30 paired sites, half within the native range and half within the introduced range. I have four types of data to collect at my sampling sites: (1) Soil biogeochemical- Soil C:N, NO3, NH4, and respiration (Li-Cor 8100 with survey chamber) , (2) Leaf Chemistry-C:N, total phenolics and lignin, (3) Genetic- ten microsatellites markers, (4) Soil microbial-frozen soil samples will be processed symbiotic bacteria as outlined by Wei et al. 2009. I will use a Student’s T-test to compare the soil biogeochemical metrics in paired sites (e.g., Soil Nblack locust- Soil Nno black locust) between native and invaded ranges. The influence of leaf chemistry on belowground responses will be will be analyzed using multiple linear regressions . Using a Mantel test I will test for a correlation between genetic distances and litter chemistry differences. Although microsatellite markers are neutral, genetic distances can correlate with distances in litter chemistry and belowground processes. A multi-response permutation procedure (MRPP) will be used to detect significant differences in community rhizobial composition. Currently, I have funding for leaf C:N chemistry analysis. I am requesting funds for lignin analysis. Next to cellulose, lignin is the second most abundant polymer on earth and is an important driver of belowground processes. Lignin inputs into belowground systems can affect soil carbon dynamics and plant productivity through inhibition of microbial activity and decomposition. Understanding how invasive leaf litter lignin compounds affect below ground processes is essential to understanding the full impact of invasive species on ecosystem function.

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170. Monitoring Concentrations and Quantifying Temporal Trends of Trace Gases in the Southern Appalachians

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Chastity Holt Biology Howard Neufel Arts and Sciences Biology Mar 28, 2013
Project Description: Good air quality is crucial for the health of people and natural ecosystems. As population size increases and urban areas advance worldwide, concentrations of ozone (O3 ) and carbon dioxide (CO2) have been increasing. Elevated O3 concentrations can exacerbate respiratory problems and negatively affect vegetation and ecosystems. Increased CO2 concentrations have been correlated with increased temperatures globally and subsequent climate shifts. The purpose of this project is to monitor the concentrations of these two important trace gases and to quantify any existing trends. This may help us understand the mechanisms governing future climate change in this region. The AppalAIR Monitoring Station at Appalachian State is equipped with CO2 and O3 analyzers that monitor the air continuously. Trace gas concentration data collected at this site will be analyzed to quantify temporal trends, such as diurnal patterns of ozone. At high elevations, ozone often exhibits a flat diurnal profile, while at low elevations O3 concentrations rise steadily in the morning, reach peak values midday, and then begin to decrease overnight [1][2]. The AppalAIR Monitoring Station is located at a transitional elevation, so diurnal patterns of O3 may exhibit a flat profile or the pattern typical of low elevations, or perhaps both. This research will help discern which patterns prevail and why. Such patterns are important because uptake by both people and plants depends strongly on the time of day when high concentrations occur. Trace gas concentration data will also be analyzed to identify and quantify correlations with meteorological parameters, such as temperature, precipitation, and cloud cover. Research suggests that this region may be shielded from climate change associated with increased CO2 concentrations because of aerosols that reflect incoming solar radiation [3]. This project may identify important processes driving future climate of the region. To ensure the quality of data collected, particulates must be prevented from contaminating the sampling lines. To do this, Teflon membrane filters (five micron pore size) are placed at the inlet of the sampling line and just before the input port of the analyzers. These need to be replaced monthly. In addition to filtration, the CO2 analyzer must be calibrated biweekly using a secondary carbon dioxide standard. A gas cylinder filled with CO2 has already been acquired but to be in compliance with safety standards the cylinder must not be standing freely. A wall-mount bracket with safety strap and chain will allow the cylinder to be secured to a wall within the research facility. The identification of the trends and correlations of these two trace gases is critical to air quality control and to understanding regional climate change. This project is one of the few to do so in northwest North Carolina. 1. Puxbaum et al. Atmos Environ 25A, 1990. 2. Yang et al. Atmos Environ 46, 2012. 3. Goldstein et al. PNAS 106, 2009.

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171. Virtual Warfare: Cyber-Bullying as the Weapon of Choice

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kelly Welch Psychology Mary Ballard Arts and Sciences Psychology Mar 28, 2013
Project Description: I am presenting my research at NCUR and need to make a poster. My project focuses on cyber-bullying occurring during online video game play. Here is my abstract: The popularity of Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs) has elicited concern that this is yet another context for the perpetration of cyber-bullying. The purpose of the present study is to examine the prevalence and correlates of cyber-bullying during MMOG play. Adults, aged 18 and over, who play MMOGs will be asked to complete an anonymous online survey based off the widely used Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. The questionnaire was adapted to include specific situational questions focusing on relational, verbal, and sexual cyber-bullying in the context of MMOG play. The goal of the study is to examine the characteristics of perpetrators and victims of MMOG bullying and typical bullying behavior in the game context. Based on the aggressive nature of MMOGs, and research findings that other web-based technologies have high rates of bullying, we predict that we will find cyber-bullying to be a common occurrence during MMOG play.

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172. Establish a C57BL/6 mouse colony

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Betty Ray Biology Kevin Zwetsloot Arts and Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Mar 16, 2013
Project Description: My research project will investigate the mechanisms involved in skeletal muscle repair from damage in C57BL/6 mice. The C57BL/6 mouse strain the most commonly utilized mouse model for research across a variety of areas in the biological sciences, such as studies investigating muscle injury and repair. Dr. Zwetsloot has extensive use with C57BL/6 mice in previous research. The cost of purchasing mice for my research study from a commercial breeder would be extremely expensive; at approximately $30 per mouse, 160 mice would cost over $5000. Currently, there is no in-house source of C57BL/6 mice available at ASU for my research study. Establishing and maintaining a colony of C57BL/6 mice would provide a convenient, cost-effective, and pathogen-free mouse resource for my research and possibly other students behind me. Therefore, the overall aim of this proposal is to establish and maintain an in-house colony of C57BL/6 mice in the ASU Vivarium and provide mice for my research study investigating mechanisms involved in skeletal muscle repair after a bout of damage. Dr. Zwetsloot (HLES) and Dr. Edwards (Biology) have received approval from the Director of the ASU Vivarium, Ms. Monique Eckert, to establish and maintain a colony of C57BL/6 mice at ASU. Also, the Dean of the College of Arts & Sciences has agreed to pay for maintaining the colony (including housing and food) for the mice. However, I do not have any money to purchase the mice needed to start the mouse colony. Therefore, this proposal is requesting funds to obtain 6 female and 4 male mice for breeding purposes. All mice will be housed in the ASU vivarium under standard housing conditions. If a colony of C57BL/6 mice can be established a colony of mice, my research project will investigate the mechanisms involved in skeletal muscle repair from damage or injury. This is a very important research question because findings from this study will help explain critical mechanisms in muscle repair and could lead to the development of therapies for muscle dysfunction in humans. It is essential to perform these preliminary studies in rodent models before moving to humans.

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173. Associations of Dietary Calcium and Phosphorus and Intima-Media Thickness and Blood Pressure

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Summer Spires Nutrition and Healthcare Management Martin Root Health Sciences Nutrition and Healthcare Management Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. Calcium and phosphorus are nutrients found within the food supply that play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. Studies have shown these nutrients to impact blood pressure (BP) and intima-media thickness (IMT). HYPOTHESIS: High levels of dietary calcium and phosphorus are positively correlated with IMT, and negatively correlated with blood pressure. METHODS: Dietary calcium and phosphorus were obtained from 15,792 individuals between 45-64 years of age using 30-day food frequency questionnaires from the ARIC study datasets. IMT data were obtained from averaging the far wall width of the left and right common carotid arteries using MRI measurements. Systolic blood pressure was measured at visits 1, 3, and 4 and then averaged together. Linear regression models were controlled for BMI, age, education, smoking, gender, and race. RESULTS: Dietary calcium and phosphorus at visit 1 were positively correlated (p<0.05) with IMT at visit 4, 12 years later. Dietary calcium and phosphorus were negatively correlated (p<0.05) with BP cross-sectionally at visit 1 only. In subgroup analysis, dietary calcium and phosphorus were shown to be associated with increases in IMT longitudinally (p<0.05) in males, non-black individuals, non-smokers, and with higher education levels. CONCLUSIONS: Adequate, but not excessive, amounts of dietary calcium and phosphorus should be consumed in accordance with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to prevent an increase in IMT and a decrease in BP. The proposed budget is needed to complete this project as it is a requirement for the completion of my degree in May 2013.

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174. Challenging the Rote Teaching Plague: The Integration of Aural Skills into the Performance Ensemble

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Christopher Langdon Music Education Steve Hopkins School of Music Music Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: In a recent article in the NAfME Journal, Andrew Goodrich stated that "An ensemble performs no better than the musicianship of its director." In many secondary and collegiate choral programs, rote singing has become an overwhelming illness that many instructors are finding hard to cure. The cure to this rote singing plague is the integration of aural skills. In performance based programs, finding the time to incorporate ear-training exercises can be an overwhelming task, especially when students do not readily understand the importance of aural skills or simply have a difficult time mastering the skills. This research presentation seeks to prove that an ensemble that regularly practices aural skills will be able to learn music quicker, more accurately, and, most importantly, more musically. Since the acquisition of aural skills does not come naturally for many young musicians, daily exercises are vital to any choral program. This poster presentation will also provide an array of useful, easily integrated teaching techniques and exercises, to be used to ensure that every student has mastery of aural skills, thus enhancing both the individual student and the ensemble as a whole. By including a few minutes out of daily rehearsals to enhance aural skills development, we will be able to take a step away from rote teaching to create well-rounded young musicians.

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175. How Diet Changes at Retirement

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Karolyn Huffman Nutrition and Healthcare Management Martin Root Health Sciences Nutrition and Healthcare Management Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: When approaching retirement, there are major economic implications as well as changes in lifestyles and needs for health services. Researchers have an interest in the promotion of a successful transition to retirement now that the baby boomer generation (people born between 1946 and 1964) have reached retirement age. Retirement is accompanied by many basic life changes that may include income streams, dietary alterations, and overall health status. Those who have reached retirement age are at high risk of several chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, and various cancers. Little research has been conducted regarding dietary patterns at retirement; however, older adults have low intake of dietary fiber sources such as fruits and vegetables compared to dietary recommendations indicating an urgent need to research diet at retirement as well as encourage good nutrition and healthy food choices in order to facilitate healthy aging. Secondary data analysis was conducted on the datasets of the on-going prospective study, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC). The ARIC study began in 1987 in order to investigate the etiology of atherosclerosis in about 16,000 community-dwelling individuals aged 45-65 years. Many were approaching retirement. The purpose of this study was to determine how diet changes at retirement. Foods of interest included: fruits and vegetables, fruit and vegetable variety, meat as a main dish (beef, pork, lamb, steak, roast, and ham), and overall dietary fiber intake. Dietary intake of individuals between 45-64 years of age was assessed using a 30-day food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) from the ARIC study datasets. The studied population include those who, over a 6-year period continued working (n=1,245), retired (n=1,068), or were already retired (n=6,681). The FFQ included fruit, vegetable, and meat intake. These were standardized into servings per week. The fruit and vegetable variety score calculated sum of subjects’ consumption of specific foods. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze dietary change at retirement while controlling for age, educational level, gender, and race. My proposed budget of $70.00 is needed to complete this project because the research poster is a required part of the Master of Science degree requirements for Nutrition. I will be representing Appalachian State University by presenting my 3’4’ poster at the North Carolina Dietetic Association (NCDA) Annual Meeting on March 17, 2013.

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176. Resistance to Change: What Influences Acceptance of Data-based Decision Making?

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Matthew Gonsiewski Psychology Jamie Fearrington Arts and Sciences Psychology Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: Examines the relationship between acceptability and implementation of Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM) and individual teacher variables. This information could be used to increase the success rate of CBM implementation in schools. Utilizes an online survey issued to teachers at a local elementary school that is currently attempting to implement CBM. These funds are to cover the costs of poster printing, the poster has already been accepted for presentation at the NASP annual conference in Seattle, WA.

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177. Resistance to change: What influences acceptance of data-based decision making?

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Chelsey Watson Psychology Jamie Fearrington Arts and Sciences Psychology Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: This study will explore variables that may influence adoption of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) in schools. Researchers will test hypotheses that certain contextual factors (i.e., teacher concerns, job stress, beliefs, and practices) influence acceptance of CBM. Data will be collected on these variables as a web-based benchmarking and progress monitoring system is introduced in an elementary school that is transitioning to a data-based decision making framework. Results will inform our understanding of the system change process in schools. The project has been accepted to be presented as a poster at the 2013 Annual Convention of the National Association of School Psychologists in Seattle, Washington. The requested $40 will help with the cost of printing the poster.

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178. Implementing Social Skills Strategies to Reduce Tantrums With ASD Students

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Alexandra Finn Psychology Jamie Fearrington Arts and Sciences Psychology Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a Teach, Practice, Play structured social skills small-group intervention for decreasing tantrum-like behavior and increasing positive behaviors in a student with Autism Spectrum Disorder. A single-subject A-B design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. Tantrum-like target behaviors were defined as flailing body parts, yelling, throwing objects, and hitting head. Data were collected via frequency recording, duration recording, and an intervention log as a treatment integrity measure. Baseline and intervention data were analyzed to determine the impact of the intervention on target behaviors. A discussion of the empirical support for the intervention techniques used, a detailed overview of the results, and implications for future research will be discussed to inform participants of the efficacy of this intervention. The requested $40 will cover the cost of printing a poster to present this research at the National Association of School Psychology Annual Convention.

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179. Physiological responses of the bio-energy crop Miscanthus × giganteus to biochar

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Alyssa Teat Biology Howard Neufeld Arts and Sciences Biology Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: Fossils fuels add a significant amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) to our atmosphere. Most mitigation strategies either focus on eliminating new GHG by using alternative fuel sources or reducing GHG already present in the atmosphere. Miscanthus x giganteus, a perennial C4 grass, has emerged as a potential high-yield biofuel crop due to its ability to grow in marginal soils, where it does not compete with crops for food production. Because M. giganteus is sterile, there is little threat of invasiveness. Biochar, a black carbon compound produced through pyrolysis during the burning of biofuels, can sequester CO2 in the soil due to its long-term recalcitrance. When added as a soil amendment, it improves soil quality by increasing soil pH, water retention, while reducing nitrate leaching. Biochar has also been shown to increase plant yield, water-use efficiency and drought tolerance of plants. My goal is to study physiological responses of Miscanthus to biochar, specifically whether biochar improves water status, nutrient uptake, and growth. I propose testing the following hypotheses: H1: Biochar soil amendment will improve water-holding capacity and nutrient retention due to its porous nature and thereby stimulates root proliferation of Miscanthus, in turn improving drought tolerance and nutrient uptake, H2: Greater drought tolerance and nutrient uptake will improve stomatal conductance and photosynthesis, either through enhanced diffusion into the leaf, or greater biochemical activity due to higher nitrogen and RUBISCO content, H3: Greater physiological activity will result in enhanced crop yields. In a greenhouse pot experiment, two treatments, biochar (50 g/kgdw; 0 g/kgdw) and drought (well-watered; 25% of well-watered), will be applied with 10 replicates for each treatment combination. Soil moisture and growth will be monitored biweekly (height, number of stems, leaf size). Plants will be allowed to grow until early summer at which point drought will be induced by limiting water supply. At the end of the growing season, leaves will be analyzed for nitrogen and chlorophyll using a C:N analyzer and leaf disks in N,N-dimethlyformamide before reading absorbances on a spectrophotometer. Light and CO2 response curves of photosynthesis will be generated using a Li-Cor 6400 gas exchange system to characterize photosynthetic responses. Plants will be harvested and dried to determine biomass yield and roots analyzed for architectural structure. While many studies have documented biochar’s benefits to plants through enhancement of soil properties, this will be one of the first studies to understand how biochar exerts effects on the physiology of the plant. Funding is being requested to supplement the purchase of a soil moisture meter. This device will allow us to accurately determine the amount of moisture within the soil and determine whether biochar will influence the water holding capacity.

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180. Investigating the Stat3 signal transduction pathway by which VEGF mediates epithelial cell proliferation in the cervix of mice

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Susan Zhao Biology Chishimba Mowa Arts and Sciences Biology Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: Birth-related complications, such as preterm labor, can occur as a result of dysfunction in birth canal remodeling. Factors that regulate birth canal remodeling may include vascular agents, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We have previously looked at various actions of VEGF on birth canal remodeling, including, more recently, its growth-promoting effects on birth canal epithelium of non-pregnant mice.. However, we do not know the signaling pathway that mediates this effect of VEGF on mouse birth canal epithelial proliferation.. For this reason, I want to decipher the signal transduction pathway by which VEGF induces birth canal epithelial cell growth in the non-pregnant mice. I hypothesize that the transcription factor STAT-3 mediates the growth-promoting effects of VEGF on birth canal epithelial cells. STAT-3 plays a key role in cellular processes, including, generally, epithelial cell growth and inhibits apoptosis. This hypothesis will be tested rigorously using a specific aim in mind, i.e., to examine whether VEGF induces birth canal epithelial growth via the STAT-3 signaling pathway. I will use the following methods to analyze the tissues: Western blot and confocal immunofluorescence to analyze expression of activated STAT-3 following treatment of different animal groups with recombinant VEGF, VEGF and STAT-3 inhibitors. I have used previous funds received from OSR to purchase a Stat3 antibody. The animal subjects have been treated with recombinant VEGF, and VEGF inhibitor. However, I was not able to follow through with the third portion of my project - using STAT-3 inhibitors to qualify the expression of STAT alongside VEGF and VEGF blocker. This is a detail of my project proposal that is crucial to prove a positive correlation between VEGF and upregulated STAT3 in the cervical tissues I am studying. I am requesting funds for the purchase of the Stat3 inhibitors Stat3 Inhibitor VI and Cucurbitacin I from Santa Cruz.

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181. A Mathematical Approach to Fretboard Design

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Nathan Greene Mathematics Bradley Conrad Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: The basic equation describing frequency, tension, linear mass density, and length was modified to show the properties used vary upon the position and action height in guitars and other stringed instruments. Experimental data has been recorded confirming the validity of the new equation. All that is required is a printout of the poster.

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182. The characterization of a novel Meis2 linked gene and protein product

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Zachary Williams Biology Ted Zerucha Arts and Sciences Biology Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: By examining the structure and function of genes that play a role in an organism's development, insight can be gained into the regulation of growth, gene expression, and the subsequent protein product. Recently, the Zerucha lab has identified a novel gene that appears to be utilized during embryonic development. This new gene is genomically linked to the Meis2 gene in all animals we have been able to examine. The Meis2 gene is known to be involved in the embryonic development of the anterior to posterior axis as well as other major roles in brain and eye development. Initial experiments have shown this linked gene is active early in development in zebrafish and also highly conserved among mammalian species. My research project is further characterizing the zgc:154061 gene of which little is currently known, by examining protein localization of the gene’s protein product and overexpression analysis of the gene’s function. In order to further study and characterize the zgc:154061 gene and its protein product I am currently working on expressing it in bacteria. This will allow me to obtain sufficient quantities of the protein product to perform future biochemical studies on. I am using current bio-molecular technology to insert the coding sequence of the zebrafish zgc:154061 gene into an expression vector called pGEX-3X. This expression construct will then be transformed into bacteria which will follow the zgc:154061 instructions to produce its protein product which I can then purify from the bacteria. In order to determine that the correct expression vector was transformed into the bacterium I must first isolate the plasmid DNA and confirm the correct sequence using a restriction digest. Using a ‘miniprep’ kit I will be able to isolate plasmid DNA from the host genomic DNA and purify it. Once the DNA has been purified, various restriction enzymes, which cut the DNA at specific points, can be utilized to fragment the DNA for visualization on a gel.

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183. Comparison of Physiological Variables during Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Ligia Vasquez Exercise Science Jeffrey McBride Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) scales, which evaluate the psychological exertion of a physical activity, were originally developed to increase linearly as aerobic exercise intensity increases. Recent studies have found that there is also a strong relationship with RPE and resistance exercise intensity. Maximal tests for both aerobic and resistance exercise require volitional failure, but do not always require RPE. Blood lactate, heart rate, and oxygen uptake have also been used as indicators of physical exertion and can be used with RPE in order to ensure maximal effort. The purpose of this study is to compare perceived exertion to different physiological variables that occur during exercise to three different types of maximal exercise. A minimum of 12 Male subjects between the ages of 18-25 who have at least 2 years experience in both resistance and aerobic exercise will be recruited from the student population of Appalachian State University. The subjects will be required to visit the Holmes Convocation Center a minimum of three times with at least four days between each visit. During Visit 1, the subject will complete an informed consent form ensuring voluntary involvement in the study. Body mass and height will be recorded in addition to a medical questionnaire screening for contraindications to exercise to be completed by the subject. A randomized test of maximal exercise will then be completed. On either Visit 1 or Visit 2, the subject will undergo a VO2max test, which evaluates maximal oxygen uptake during incremental treadmill exercise. While wearing a mask which records oxygen and carbon dioxide levels throughout the exercise, the subject will also give a RPE value and heart rate and blood lactate will be measured at various phases during the test. The test will be concluded once the subject has reached volitional failure and can no longer continue running. On the alternating visit (Day 1 or Day 2), the subject will undergo a one repetition maximum test (1RM) in a traditional back squat. The subject will be allowed a warm up consisting of three sets of increasing resistance and decreasing repetitions. The subject will then find the maximum amount of weight he can squat properly without the help of a spotter. Throughout the test, oxygen uptake, RPE, blood lactate, and heart rate will be recorded. During a final visit, the subject will undergo a resistance training protocol using 50%, 70%, and 90% of the previously determined squat 1RM. The subject will perform six randomized sets at both a predetermined number of repetitions (3) and to volitional failure at each of the three percentages of the 1RM. At the end of each set the subject will have oxygen uptake, RPE, blood lactate and heart rate recorded. This project aims to find the point at which failure occurs during both resistance and aerobic exercise and determine what is occurring physiologically to ensure failure. A lactate analyzer is necessary to complete the project as written.

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184. Tracking and Orientation Improvements On Photosensitive, Arduino-Powered Solar Tracker

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Andy Bratton Physics Brad Conrad Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: Last semester a group of physics students, myself included, received a grant to construct a dual-axial, photosensitive solar tracker for the purposes of developing an apparatus to maximize sun exposure for a solar panel. A panel that tracks the sun gathers much more energy and is far more efficient than fixed-position counterparts, producing an estimated 30-40% more yield. This semester, we plan to to improve on our prototype model so that we may submit and publish it as a working model for future Undergraduates in a research journal such as JURP. Improvements will be made to increase the utility and efficiency of the tracker. In order to aid in accurate alignment on particularly cloudy days, a GPS tracking system is to be added to supplement the tracker’s current orientation method, photosensitive resistors. These resistors work well in sunlight, but are not sufficient in the absence of clear skies. This addition would require azimuthal and tilt sensors and a more robust microcontroller, such as the Arduino Mega. This improvement would also go a long way toward improving the tracker’s utility if other pieces of data-collecting equipment could be attached to the solar panel assembly. Devices used for atmospheric observation like, those used by the Appalachian Atmospheric Interdisciplinary Research (AppalAIR) facility, could be aided greatly by a self-orienting solar tracker. To make these additions maximally effective, an onboard data-recording storage device would also be included in the design. Also, the current minimum angle of the panel is too high to achieve maximum event during the summer, when the sun is higher in the sky. To solve this problem, the back end of the tracker is to be extended so that the minimum actuator can be lowered. Finally, a system for adapting any solar panel to the rig without having to alter the panel frame will be designed and added to the rig so that larger panels can be used. The funds outlined in the attached budget will enable this system to track the sun and therefore collect more energy, be able to withstand the environmental conditions needed for long term testing, incorporate other instruments such as atmospheric data-gathering and local weather-monitoring devices, and help empower future ASU students to build and improve upon such a system in the future.

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185. Solar Tracker Weatherproofing and Long Term Reliability Testing

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Nikolai Hesterberg Physics Brad Conrad Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: Last semester I was granted money from the Office of Student Research to build a solar tracking system. With the help of a group of physics students, we were able to build a working solar tracker prototype and perform some basic testing. The mechanism works well based on initial tests, but a long term monitoring must be conducted for the tracker to transition from prototype to implemented service tool. For the long term testing, the prototype must be placed on a rooftop or other sunny area for an extended period of time, to prove its resilience and self-reliance. For this test to be conducted, weather proofing and other basic upgrades must be made. The base for the tracker is currently made out of wood and paneling, which is susceptible to rotting and warping. The base is going to be replaced with heavily lacquered wood and plexiglass to prevent it from rotting or getting sun damaged. Similarly, the tracker frame is made from steel, which can rust and get worn down very quickly when sitting outside for prolonged periods. The vulnerable steel will be replaced with aluminum, which is corrosion resistant and much lighter, preventing rust while reducing weight and decreasing the amount of power necessary for moving the tracker. Lastly, the electronics are currently completely exposed to the elements. They must be waterproofed if they are to be used long term. To do this, an aluminum box will be constructed to fit the electronics and it will be rubberized on the inside to prevent short circuits. The batteries are going to be placed in a sealed box on the ground, which will make them waterproof and will decrease the load on the motors by reducing the weight of the rig. If the tracker is weatherized, it will be able to sustain itself outside for prolonged periods and can gather valuable solar and atmospheric data. This data will include power generation for a solar panel using our tracking system compared to a fix panel. Appalachian’s air quality research group, Appalair, will also be able to add their sensors to the rig and gather data about the atmosphere. With a new OSR grant, I will be able to accomplish these tasks and move the solar tracker from a prototype phase to a permanent machine.

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186. Effort and Rational Decision Making

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Nakisa Asefnia Psychology Todd McElroy Arts and Sciences Psychology Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: The goal of this study is to be able to provide a definitive answer to the big question of whether effort influences rational-risky decision making. The objective is to conduct a methodologically sound study that is viable and the results of which will be academically and empirically sound and deemed acceptable by researchers in the field. Because I am endeavoring to be a scientist I have a hypothesis but no specific intended outcome. The hypothesis of my study is that when people engage a decision making task with more effort, they will rely on more deliberative thinking and as a result their decision making responses will be more rational. In this study I operationally define rational as less susceptibility to framing effects. There is an extensive literature base that supports this view. The design of this study includes the manipulated variable of monetary compensation (high effort) or no monetary compensations (low effort). Included in the design is gain/loss framing. Thus, the design of this study is a 2 (effort: hi or low) x 2 (gain or loss) mixed design. The task that I will be using to determine rational responding has already been designed by Drs. Dickinson and McElroy and they are aware that I will be using it in this study. The money that I am requesting is at the heart of my study and is absolutely necessary for me to conduct this study and answer this important question.

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187. "Effect of 6-week Daily Blueberry Ingestion on Natural Killer (NK) Cell Counts and Antioxidant Capacity"

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Sydeena Isaacs Nutrition and Healthcare Management McAnulty Lisa Health Sciences Nutrition and Healthcare Management Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: The purpose of this study is to reinforce initial findings of daily blueberry ingestion related to increases in NK cells and to further explore changes in subclasses of NK cells as well as antioxidant capacity. The current study utilized a parallel design and investigated antioxidant capacity and immune function after blueberry powder consumption. The above budget is needed to print our poster for the annual NCDA meeting.

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188. Method Development for the Analysis of Estrogens Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) by Alec Daye and Carol Babyak

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Alec Daye Chemistry Carol Babyak Arts and Sciences Chemistry Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: Elevated estrogen concentrations in natural waters cause mutations in certain fish, affecting their reproductive abilities, and susequently the population balance in an aquatic ecosystem (Croley, Timothy R.; Mass spectrometry applied to the analysis of estrogens in the environment). Estrogens are released into the environment via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and agricultural runoff. We hypothesize that estrogen concentrations in the surface water downstream from the Boone WWTP may corresponded directly with the fluctuation of the student population. We expect to see higher concentrations during the school year, and lower ones in the summer. The goal of this research is to develop a robust analytical method using solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in order to confirm or refute our hypothesis. We confirmed that the separation and electrospray ionization parameters developed by a previous student were optimized. Currently a preventative maintenance schedule for the LC-MS was developed to ensure better reproducibility. It was determined that 95:5 acetonitrile:water (LC-MS grade) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) should be back flushed through the system for a minimum of 4 hours after every 15 hours of use. We are in the process of determining a method detection limit (MDL). The lowest quantifiable concentration is 0.01 parts-per-million (ppm), but the MDL may be lower. We currently optimizing the SPE method by extracting aqueous solutions containing very low estrogen concentrations (0.5 parts per billion). Preliminary experiments have yielded unsatisfactory results, with percent recoveries ranging from 22% to an improbable 171%; hence further method development is needed. Future goals are to conclusively determine the MDL and optimize the SPE method. The items listed in the budget are currently in high use, very low, or needed for cleaning. Our current methods require a large amount of acetonitrile, methanol, and water and there is not much methanol and water left. It has been seen that the time until degradation of eluents and standards occurs faster than expected requiring standards and eluents to be made more often. The ENVI-18 SPE tubes are needed for the extraction of estrogens from water samples. THF is needed for column cleaning and isopropyl alcohol is needed for glassware cleaning.

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189. Bachelor of Fine Arts Senior Exhibition

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Lauren Bennett Art Michael Grady Fine and Applied Arts Art Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: The Senior BFA show is the capstone in an art student's undergraduate career. The previous years spent at ASU served for teaching art students such as myself the skills necessary to hone their craftsmanship in specific materials and the time required to develop a deeper understanding of what and why they personally create art. I intend to use this opportunity for the exhibition of my artwork as a means to further my portfolio and jump-start my career as a professional ceramic sculptor. In order to produce the work I have proposed for my senior show, I am requesting financial assistance from the Office of Student Research in order to purchase the materials required for my art pieces. My proposal consists of five ceramic and steel sculptures portraying the theme of sensuality. These sculptures will be large scale, approximately 4' x 2' x 2' . The ceramic pieces will be hand-built using a range of techniques that include coil-building, hand-building, and the use of press molds. The ceramic pieces will be supported by steel armatures that add height and interplay with the forms. My material needs include things such as the clay and steel, glaze materials, welding rod, mold-making materials such as wood and plaster, as well as gas money to travel to Highwater Clays in Asheville, in order to purchase the large amount of clay needed for my sculptures.

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190. Stratigraphic correlation of stream terraces using geophysics and sedimentology

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
William Ballow Geology Ellen Cowan Arts and Sciences Geology Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: My senior thesis project focuses on river terraces found by Dr. Ellen Cowan and students along the New River in Ashe County, NC. These terraces, up to 42 meters above the modern river level, preserve landscapes that can be used to understand a river's down-cutting history. Terraces are relic floodplains that remain intact as broad, flat areas on the sides of river valleys that occur in stair-step sets. Fluvial terraces can aid in understanding paleofluvial processes such as stream incision rates, which can reveal a history of climate change. This project will utilize previously collected data to correlate terraces found on the North Fork of the New River with those on the South Fork for the purpose of developing a basin-wide model of fluvial response to climate change in the Blue Ridge Mountains. In December, I collected data from a set of terraces located on the North Fork of the New River, in Lansing, NC. I utilized two geophysical methods in order to gather information about the composition and characteristics of two terraces. Resistivity surveys were done in order to help determine what types of materials (gravel, sand and mud) may be present in the subsurface and a ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey was done in order to determine the geometry of the terrace sediments. The goal of this project is to compare the terraces at Lansing to correlate stratigraphy with a known terrace set near Jefferson, NC, along the South Fork of the New River. Similarities between the types of deposits in the two terrace sets could signal a regional response to climate change over the last 100,000 years. I am requesting funding from OSR to hire a backhoe and operator to dig trenches following a survey line on each of the terraces. This is necessary in order to ground-truth the GPR and electrical resistivity profiles. Using augers, probes, and shovels is ineffective for this because the large quartz cobbles in the subsurface make it difficult to penetrate. Once the backhoe pit has been dug, I will use standard geological methods of soil description and sample the soil mineralogy to determine the relative age of each terrace. Using the data from the collected trenches with the geophysical surveys, I will make a model of the fluvial depositional environment of each terrace. Funding is being requested for gas costs as well in order drive from campus to the Ashe County terraces. Only one round trip will be necessary in order to dig the trenches and acquire soil descriptions and samples. I plan to present the results of this research at the Annual Celebration of Student Research and Creative Endeavors at Appalachian State. This project is my senior thesis research, therefore towards the end of the Spring 2013 semester I will submit a senior thesis based on the final results.

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191. SPIP License Renewal for Organic Solar Cell Characterization

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Eitan Lees Physics Brad Conrad Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: I plan to characterize the morphology of organic solar cell bulk heterojunctions using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The RMS roughness of solar cells composed of 1,3-bis[4-(N,N-diisopentylamino)-2,6-dihydroxyphenyl]squaraine [DiPSQ(OH)2] and phenyl[C61]-butyric acid methyl ester [PCBM] through spin casting will be measured. Solar cells of various blend concentrations, anneal times, and cooling methods are going to be characterized. Through RMS roughness analysis we can study the crystallization process in solar cell fabrication. Morphology will be related to device characterization. SPIP is the image processing software utilized in our lab. SPIP is essential to our image processing and data analysis of all AFM, KPFM, C-AFM, and SEM data. We are able to analyze electrical data, characterize surface morphology, and identify structure within organic thin film solar cells.

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192. Doping of Grain Boundaries in diF TESADT Transistors

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Cortney Bougher Physics Brad Conrad Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: Organic electronics have begun to be adapted into the market through solar cells and via organic LED displays in cell phones and large displays. Organic devices have the potential to improve applications in several emerging fields, including solar power and chemical sensing. Notably, organic semiconductors can be used in easy-to-manufacture, flexible, and lightweight devices. They can be easily deposited by solution on a variety of surfaces, an advantage over traditional, rigid silicon semiconductors. While single organic crystals have carrier mobilities greater than 35 cm2/Vs at room temperature, which is comparable to the silicon currently used in photovoltaics, the structures that form in the most common organic thin-film fabrication methods are often polycrystalline, displaying large grains 10-100 µm in size. During deposition on bottom contact substrates, the boundary regions between crystal grains in the conduction channel inhibit electric mobility. These boundary regions can be amorphous or consist of alternative crystal orientations. The electric properties of the entire device are affected by these boundary regions, as the conductivity across the boundaries will differ from that of the immediate crystalline area. Such regions are also prone to environmental alteration. We propose to quantify how grain boundaries alter local conductivity and device performance as a function of doping in 2,8-difluoro-5,11-triethylsilylethynyl anthradithiophene (diF TESADT) thin-film transistor surfaces. diF TESADT, an acene derivative, exhibits well-ordered polycrystalline films and highly defined grain boundaries in the conduction channel of transistor devices. We will utilize Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM), an Atomic Force Microscopy mode which acquires topographical and surface voltage data simultaneously. This enables us to directly correlate surface morphology with changes in surface potential. We will measure changes in surface potential (dV/dx) across grain boundaries and conduction channel. Previous work has shown that intercalation of atmospheric gases occurs at the surfaces and crystal boundary regions of organic films and this alters conductivity. This gas doping is exaggerated at grain boundaries because they naturally behave as defect rich regions in the conduction channel. Atmospheric molecules will become physically and chemically trapped within these regions, potentially enhancing the amount of trapping and acting as scattering sites, thereby changing film conductivity. These scattering sites slow the charge migration through the conduction channel, decreasing electric mobility in the device. Preliminary results show an overall increase in device resistance over time when transitioning from a pure nitrogen environment to ambient laboratory air. Quantifying these changes will be used to determine the doping strength of different atmospheric gases, estimate scattering densities, and quantify gas intercalation.

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193. Building A Fluorescence Microscope On A Budget

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Stephen Dellinger Physics Jennifer Cecile Arts and Sciences Chemistry Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: The goal of this project is to build a fluorescence microscope for use in biological screening applications in Dr. Cecile’s lab. Two biological systems are typically utilized, nematodes (worms) or bacteria to study drug transporters that may be similar to human drug transporters. Some experiments require fluorescence detection of these biological samples (a drug that fluoresces or a protein that fluoresces). Currently, the CAP building does not have a fluorescence microscope available. Rankin Science Building has two high quality commercial fluorescence microscopes within the William C. and Ruth Ann Dewel Microscopy Facility, but there are several issues regarding its use. First is convenience – the use microscopes requires a short walk, causing possible temperature changes in the samples that might prohibit additional viability. Also, for screening applications, sometimes no documentation of the biological system is needed as you might determine whether the experiment is functioning as needed. The trip to Rankin takes longer then the measurement itself. In addition, the microscopy facility is a shared use facility. This means that other users could be using microscopes during times desired. Purchase cost of a commercial microscope with these capabilities would be several thousand dollars. Thus, a modified used commercial microscope would save research funding as well as time for future research. Building the microscope would allow me to gain valuable knowledge for future research. Manipulating stock vendor parts into custom ones is common in a research environment. Working with the ASU machine shop would allow me to, not only make custom parts, but also give me experience with machinist programs, like AutoCAD. Buying a new fluorescence microscope (~$2000) is much more expensive than retrofitting a light microscope. Since the design will be completely customized, future upgrades will be available, such as new light filters or temperature control. Typical dyes output light ranges from blue to red and the microscope could easily have different filter sets to accommodate many different types of samples. Currently, a microscope platform has been obtained as well as a color camera. In order to view the fluorescence, filters will be needed to block unwanted light from the sample. Using color filters from Rosco© are a cheaper alternative to the high quality optical filters, which can cost hundreds of dollars each. The color filters do not have the same quality as the expensive optics but for simple diagnostics they are appropriate. To further increase the fluorescence signal, a narrow band light source can be used, such as a LED, giving a better signal-to-noise ratio. The outcomes expected from this project are to have a fully functional fluorescence microscope and to learn about the biological systems being studied. The customized fluorescence microscope will be extremely useful for identification of samples and their conditions.

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194. Changes in Food Choices of Rural Adolescent Children Following an After School Nutrition Education Program

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Sina Sagatchi Nutrition and Healthcare Management Melissa Gutschall Health Sciences Nutrition and Healthcare Management Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: Introduction: One-third of adolescents in North Carolina are overweight or obese. Rural children, in particular, are at increased risk of overweight and obesity due to barriers such as economic conditions, and lack of access to healthcare services and healthful food selections. Nutrition education plays an integral part in prevention, and utilizing hands-on nutrition education programs that focus on food exploration provide positive experiences with a variety of foods. This study implemented a behavioral nutrition intervention, as part of an after-school community program, to identify its impact on food choices among rural adolescent children. Methods: Adolescents (n=23), ages 11 to 15 years, attended 9- weekly nutrition sessions of 45 minutes duration. Pre- and post-test measures included a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participants. Paired samples t-tests comparing pre/post-test data were conducted using SPSS, version 13 (Chicago, IL). Results: Data results revealed a significant decrease in weekly servings of sweetened beverages (from 12.55±14.8 to 3.42±5.48 p< 0.01) and a significant increase in weekly servings of salty snacks (from 2.2±2.79 to 6.9±6.54, p=0.04). Conclusion: Rural adolescents reduced consumption of sweetened beverages and altered snack selections following nutrition education. The significant increase in salty snacks may be due to perceived healthier snacks such as popcorn and pretzels. These results suggest greater changes to diet may occur in situations where adolescents are able to choose or purchase their own food. Nutrition educations that involve parents may increase healthier food choices and meal preparation among adolescent children more than standard interventions. Longer term interventions would also allow for greater detection of relationships between food choices and health outcomes. Support: Appalachian State University, and The Western Youth Network. This budget is important for the reason of being able to present this research to a state wide audience in front of professionals and masters in the field. This project will also be presented at the Annual Celebration of Student Research and Creative Endeavors.

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195. New Cobalt Glyoximes as Potential Hydrogen Catalysts

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Corbin Ester Chemistry Dale Wheeler Arts and Sciences Chemistry Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: Due to the decreasing supplies of fossil fuels, the need for alternate energy sources is increasing. For sustainable initiatives, the focus on solar to chemical energy is of current importance. Molecular hydrogen, which can be produced through the utilization of photochemical water splitting, is a clean, convenient, and promising source of energy. In Dr. Dale Wheeler’s lab (and Dr. Michael Hambourger’s lab), several research students have been exploring potentially new hydrogen catalysis systems during the past 2 years. Currently, the focus is on the synthesis and characterization of new complexes that alter the molecular ligands surrounding the cobalt catalytic site by changing the electron donating and accepting groups on the coordinating ligands. My contribution to the project will be to synthesize several new complexes that will then react forming the cobalt catalyst. I have been involved in this research project since October 2011, and currently I am using oxalyl chloride to replace the chlorines and synthesize various ethandione derivatives. This semester, my goal is to create seven different derivatives (two of which are near purification) using methoxy, pyrrol, n-hexyl, p-methylphenyl, and pyridine groups; these derivatives will be converted into their analogous glyoxime complexes, and subsequently coordinated with cobalt. Several solvents and reagents (for Grignard, Friedel-Craft’s, and acyl reactions) are required for these syntheses.

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196. Alcohol Consumption, Individual Differences, Sleep, and Blood Pressure in College Men

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Jacqueline Belhumeur Psychology Lisa Curtin Arts and Sciences Psychology Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: Hypertension affects one in three adults and is becoming increasingly more prevalent among young adults. Nearly 18% of young adults have pre-hypertension, a preliminary condition that increases the risk for full-blown hypertension in addition to a number of associated medical conditions. A number of behavioral risk factors predispose pre-hypertension, including alcohol consumption. The literature is inconsistent regarding the association between alcohol intake and blood pressure in men, with some studies supporting a J-shaped association and some studies supporting a dose-response association. The inconsistent findings may be a function of the individual differences mediating the relationship between alcohol intake and blood pressure. High extraversion and neuroticism and low conscientiousness are associated with increased alcohol consumption; and high hostility (a facet of neuroticism) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, consistent with hypertension. This project will assess the interrelation of alcohol use, blood pressure, sleep, and individual differences (i.e., personality, stress, socialization) in college men in two ways. First, a subset of male volunteers (n=25) will consume alcohol in a laboratory setting under the supervision of the investigating graduate students and their faculty advisers. Among this subsample, the acute impact of alcohol on blood pressure will be assessed via in laboratory measures and a nocturnal ambulatory blood pressure cuff, as well as sleeparchitecture (assessed using a ZeoTM headband monitor) over a period of two nights (before and after the alcohol administration). Overall, participants will present to the laboratory three times to allow for pre-post comparisons and self-report assessment of individual differences. In addition, a larger group of men (n=135) will complete self-report measures of alcohol use, sleep duration and quality, and individual differences, as well as physical measures of blood pressure in the laboratory. Also, we are nearing IRB approval and submitting final changes today. IRB#:13-0116

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197. Holding a Paper Tiger By the Tail: Wei-Liang Yin and the Untold History of Taiwanese Diplomacy During the Cold War

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Frank Byrne Political Science Benno Weiner Arts and Sciences History Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: Nearly 70 years after the end of WW II and the emergence of the Republic of China (on Taiwan) as a leading oppositional force against Chairman Mao and the People's Republic of China, the "Taiwan Question" remains unanswered as a result of a diplomatic, political, and economic stalemate that centers equally on Cold War questions of national sovereignty and cultural identity that are still relevant today. Taiwan's status is significant in a globalized, post-colonial era for two reasons: first, it remains a strategic node for international trade between the East and West; second, it serves as a potential example of what is/not possible for other formerly-colonialized territories in search of their own independence. As historian Robert McMahon has argued, " Although Cold War-derived priorities often prompted U.S. economic initiatives, governmental and private … [the essay makes] clear that the fate of such initiatives was determined in the end by the shifting currents of Third World political and economic nationalism. Those currents formed a critical part of the larger pattern of conflicting institutional and individual agendas within host societies ..." (11). Thus, the importance of understanding how and why Taiwan was able to achieve these ends requires historians, economists, and political scientists alike to question some of their assumptions about the relationships between democracy, diplomacy, foreign aid, and the the management of international reputation via public relations and other ways of engaging the public, policymakers, and the people. As noted by experts familiar with Cold War history, the"Taiwan Miracle" cannot be fully explained by official history alone. Thus, this project stems from my personal and intellectual interest in the public and personal archives surrounding my maternal grandfather, Wei-Liang ("Bill") Yin and his 40+ year career as a Taiwanese diplomat stationed in Houston, London, New York, Malaysia, Liberia, and the ROC in Taipei. Over winter break, I completed preliminary research at the National Archives (NARA) in College Park, MD and discovered both classified and declassified materials in the State Department Archives. My goal is to return to NARA to complete the work, to speak with diplomats at Taiwan Embassy in DC, and to access materials about Taiwan and international diplomacy that are only accessible at the Library of Congress. Under Dr. Weiner's guidance, I will be able to add primary and secondary source materials to produce an historical biography that tells my grandfather's untold story, as well as that of other diplomats facing similar constraints during the Cold War. This is an important addition to the contemporary history of Taiwan because it helps explain why people like my grandfather remained committed to what many perceived to be an unwinnable geopolitical outcome: the formal recognition of the nationalist government on Taiwan as the legitimate representative of China.

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198. Anisotropy of organic anion transporters

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Tyler Foley Physics Brooke Hester Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Feb 28, 2013
Project Description: The isolation and optical investigation of single Organic anion transporter (OAT) membrane fragments within hydrosomes for time-correlated fluorescence studies. In mammalian tissues and organs, OATs assist with molecule movement across membranes. The study of this important family of proteins is crucial for understanding drug absorption and release into and out of cells. There is a great deal of value for the pharmaceutical industry in knowing in detail how these drug-regulating proteins function as new drugs are developed. Here, two fluorescent analogs (2-nitroprobenecid and 2-hydroxyprobenecid) of the nonfluorescent OAT inhibitor, probenecid, are utilized. An inhibitor may covalently bind to the OAT in the active site preventing transport of other substrates. As a competitive inhibitor, probenecid is believed to interact directly in the substrate binding site.2 In this project, the result will be the quantification of these binding events of fluorescent anions to OAT membrane fragments by single molecule fluorescence anisotropy within optically trapped hydrosomes. The student presented in this proposal will construct and integrate the optics and electronics necessary for the experiment described here into the current functional optical tweezers apparatus, then confine single OAT membrane fragments and inhibitor within single hydrosomes, and finally use optical techniques to study the OAT binding events.

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199. The Effects of Exercise and Dietary Supplementation on Avascular Necrosis; A Case study

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kojo Thompson Exercise Science Scott Collier Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Jan 30, 2013
Project Description: Avascular necrosis (AN) is the death of bone tissue due to lack of blood flow to the afflicted area. The non-nutrient supplied bone will soon lose strength and the bone may collapse or rapidly progress into severe arthritis. Exercise and supplementation (Glucosamine-Chondroitin and Fish Oil) have been shown to improve bone-mineral density however there are no data regarding this treatment. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review the post-surgery bone remodeling on a hip joint within a patient receiving hip arthroscopy. A young, healthy male subject was studied after suffering a semi-dislocation causing AN before and following surgical intervention. Rehab included physical therapy as soon as the surgery was completed, two months of crutches, and progressive running with weight training. Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were performed monthly on the affected and contralateral hip to assess bone area (BA), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD). RESULTS: An average Initial decline in all variables were seen in the left hip, however 3 months post-surgery the subject had an average percent change in each dependent variable. Results Initially a 28, 16 and 16 % decline in BA,BMC, and BMD respectively when compared to the right hip, however at 3 months the left hip realized 9, 6 and 10 % increases from pre-surgery condition. Conclusion: This novel therapy of specific exercise and dietary supplementation is effective for treatment of AN.

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200. A Comparative Look at Charge Controllers and Their Response to Human Electrical Generation.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Jay Schulte Appropriate Technology David Domermuth Fine and Applied Arts Technology Jan 30, 2013
Project Description: The overall goal of this research project is to justify whether or not different types charge controllers respond similarly to human generated power compared to that of wind or solar generated power. The human generated power will be produced using a bicycle that is linked to a generator and many other electrical components. Four scenarios will be looked at to determine which type of charge controller is best suited for a human powered electrical system. A secondary goal of this study will be to determine how much power a human is capable of producing for a sustained amount of time. The expected outcome of this project is that certain charge controllers with perform more efficiently than the others. In the wind and solar industry, the performance of each type of charge controller is known but little is known about how they perform for a human powered input. The first step of the research project is to document the output relationship between the current and voltage produced by the generator. After this is achieved, it will easier to determine whether the system will respond similarly to a wind or solar powered system. The next phase of the research will be to determine how much energy a human is able to produce and for how long. As mentioned earlier, four different scenarios will be looked at to determine which charge controller operates the most efficiently. Test subjects will be asked to perform a series of tasks while on the bicycle powered generator. First, they will be asked to warm up for several minutes to get a feel for the bicycle and its components. Next, the rider will be asked to perform a sustainable and consistent ride for 10 minutes to determine a rate of electrical output. Finally, the rider will be asked to pedal as hard as they can for a 30 second interval to achieve a maximum power output. Using the data collected from these tests, it will then be determined which charge controller operates most efficiently or if their response is similar to one another. My role in this project is to design a system that monitors the electrical output from a generator powered by a bicycle. This will include purchasing a bicycle trainer with an attached generator and a voltage regulator for the generator. All other materials have already been obtained or will be borrowed from the Appropriate Technology Department.

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201. All Faiths Campus Chapel for Appalachian State University

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Abbey Reynolds Interior Design John, Alex Poorman Arts and Sciences Technology Jan 30, 2013
Project Description: I hypothesize that architecture offers unique symbolism to the path and goals of spirituality. Conceptualized sacred architecture may be used to connect the spiritual goals of diverse populations at Appalachian State University. Our campus population is approximately 18,000 people yet, there is no dedicated space on campus for groups to practice religious worship and reflection. ASU needs to better attend to the religious interests of its global residents. I am proposing an up-fit design of the newly vacant site of the First Presbyterian Church in Boone. The re-design will accommodate all beliefs systems and the desire for spiritual growth and acceptance among students, faculty and staff. The final product will be an All Faiths Campus Chapel. During the course of my research I will explore and investigate the cultural issues facing the university and propose a variety of potential solutions for an All Faiths Chapel. I will survey a variety of people, aiming to understand the religious needs of Appalachians residents. A possible survey group will be the First Year Seminar Sacred Spaces class at ASU. In addition to the survey, I will conduct face to face interviews with interested students and faculty offering diverse viewpoints. The cultural research will further support evidence-based design. Design related investigations will explore sacred properties of the built environment. I will create 3D architectural study models in order to experiment and illustrate elements including volume, path, mystery and day light. By developing interior renderings of the proposed environment I will have the opportunity to receive feedback about my design decisions. Further research will consist of precedent and case studies for similar purposed spaces such as Kresge Chapel at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Evidence will prove that the addition of an All Faith Campus Chapel will foster a community of peace while removing cultural voids at Appalachian State University. The proposed design will be displayed during the Undergraduate Research Fair, Interior Design Senior Studio Critique, and Interior Design Senior Portfolio Review. I also plan to submit my design proposal to show at the EDRA (Environmental Design Research Association) Conference which is themed around ‘Healthy and Healing Places’. “The purpose of EDRA is the advancement and dissemination of environmental design research, thereby improving understanding of the interrelationships between people, their built and natural surroundings, and helping to create environments responsive to human needs.” Religious principles have stayed the same, but the way by which followers are engaged is shifting with modern methods of expression. As a progressive university it is important that Appalachian meet the needs of progressive students and modern culture. An exploration of this research will discover many benefits for an All Faiths Chapel for Appalachian State University.

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202. Single nanoparticle temperature measurements within a membrane profiled with fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Angela Chang Physics Brooke Hester Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Jan 30, 2013
Project Description: Optical tweezers and Raman spectroscopy can be used as a thermometer to measure temperature variations in supported lipid bilayers. Supported lipid bilayers are biological sensors, as they transition between a fluid phase and a gel phase according to temperature variations. Metallic nanoshells are embedded in the bilayers and heated by optical energy from laser light. Direct measurements of temperature caused by infrared optical trapping of gold nanoshells can be taken at each location of a nanoshell, and profiled using the fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy techniques as an effect of laser irradiation. Because the vibrational modes of a system are specific to chemical arrangement, which is a function of sample phase, temperature data can be further collected by using techniques other than fluorescence, such as Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy measures the inelastic scattering of light from the vibrations of molecules and the change in Raman signal can be used to determine the temperature effects on bulk lipid samples. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy uses the characteristic trait of silver- and gold-containing substances to amplify the electric field from the laser excitation and thus, the Raman signal. Temperature data was collected from the fluorescence technique and results of the data yielded from the Raman spectroscopy techniques are being characterized. Optical techniques are used to study the photothermal response while varying laser wavelength and nanoshell concentration and geometry and strategizing to further improve Raman signal collection. This method of utilizing the synthetic biological matrix can be used to model real biological systems at biologically relevant temperatures in order to understand the role of nanoshells in noninvasive cancer therapy. The budget requested here will cover the necessary supplies for the project. Each component listed here is integral for executing the project.

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203. Engineering Collagen Networks

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Jenna Osborn Physics Brooke Hester Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Jan 30, 2013
Project Description: Collagen is one of the most abundant structural proteins in the body. The molecules are covalently cross-linked to form networks in the body called fibrils. Two pairs of amino acid present in collagen molecules are key for forming these cross-links. The first pair is lyrsine and hydroxylysine. The second pair is proline and hydroxyproline. The hydration reaction to form more hyrdroxyproline and hydroxylysine is enzyme catalyzed in the body by prolyl hydroxylase and lysyl oxidase. The more of these two amino acids that are present, the more cross-linking occurs. Collagen cross-links have a major influence over wound healing, aging, and preterm labor. The networks are going to be made varying the temperature from 25 degrees Celsius to 50 degrees Celsius and manipulating the time that is spent at that particular temperature (5 minutes to 120 minutes) to see if there is a difference in the concentration of cross-linking patterns. After the networks are engineered, they will be attached to beads and manipulated using a Raman tweezers system to test the elasticity and the strength of the networks. While being manipulated, a Raman spectra will be taken to see the difference in the networks as they are stretched.

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204. Exposing College Students to a Visual Art Instillation Versus Biofeedback Treatment as a Means of Stress Relief

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Rachel Ginder Psychology Jim Deni Arts and Sciences Psychology Jan 30, 2013
Project Description: The goal of this pilot study is to determine the efficacy of exposure to a play-based art installation as a means of stress relief for college students. The paint will be used as part of the installation for the students to draw on and interact with. I believe this will be a major way for these students to express their stress in order to relieve it. Each student will be exposed to the environment for 30 minutes during each of 5 visits. Their scores on a perceived stress scale, answers on self-report questionnaires, and blood pressure will be used to determine effectiveness of treatment. Each student will also receive biofeedback treatment for a comparable amount of time. Effects for biofeedback will be measured the same way. At the end, the results of the two methods will be compared. Because this is such an extensive study, funds will be used to improve student commitment throughout the study, as the number of participants is already extremely minimal. Each student will be committing 9.75 hours over 7 weeks to this study, meaning they will be earning roughly $8.20/hr for participation.

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205. Preventing Metabolic Syndrome in Both Obese and Normal Weight Individuals

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Haley Johnson Nutrition and Healthcare Management Martin Root Health Sciences Nutrition and Healthcare Management Jan 30, 2013
Project Description: The overall goal of my research project was to determine what factors in an individual's lifestyle contribute to preventing Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in both obese and normal weight individuals. Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a combination of metabolic risk factors that can lead to various diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. The definition for MetS assigned by the American Heart Association is three or more of the following risk factors: fasting blood triglyceride level ? 150 mg/dL, HDL cholesterol <40mg/dL in males and <50 mg/dL in females, systolic blood pressure ? 130/85 mm/Hg, fasting blood glucose >100mg/dL, and abdominal obesity >40 in males and >35 in females. Also, one of the underlying factors that can cause a person to acquire MetS is obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2). This is frightening because excessive body weight can lead to premature mortality, considerable morbidity, decreased quality of life, and increased health care costs. Hence, a specific aim of this research project was to increase awareness about the negative affects of obesity and how it can lead to MetS. Data for this research project was provided by the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, which was composed of 15,792 individuals derived from four regions of the United States. Further selection for this secondary analysis was based on the criteria required to be either Metabolically Healthy-Obese, Metabolically Obese-Obese, Metabolically Healthy-Normal Weight, or Metabolically Obese-Normal Weight. Each of the risk factors for MetS, previously listed, including age; were evaluated to determine how to group the subjects. A total of 4,727 participants within the ARIC Study qualified to be classified within the four groups. The MHO group was composed of 382 individuals who were obese (BMI>30) but met none of the criteria for MetS except for waist measurement. The MOO group had a total of 1,352 individuals who were obese and met the criteria for MetS. The MONW group consisted of 535 individuals who were normal weight (18.5? BMI ? 25) and met the criteria for MetS. The MHNW group was made up of 2,457 individuals who were normal weight and met none of the criteria for MetS. Follow up was 12 years. All statistical analyses were carried out using IBM’s SPSS statistical software. Binary logistic regression was used to predict MetS using demographic, dietary, and lifestyle risk factors from the previous 12 years for the obese and normal weight separately. The $70.00 grant I requested is needed in order for me to pay for my research poster and printing costs. The research poster I created, along with presenting it at ASU Student Research day and the Annual North Carolina Dietetic Association Conference in April 2013, are a required part of my degree requirements.

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206. Semantic Consistency in Boundary Extension

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Daniel LaCombe Psychology Christopher Dickinson Arts and Sciences Psychology Jan 30, 2013
Project Description: Justification/Goal: The proposed budget is to cover the costs of poster printing so that my thesis findings can be shared with the scholarly community at the 2013 North Carolina Cognition Conference. Abstract: Research in scene perception suggests that more attention is allocated to objects when they are inconsistent with the background context than when they are consistent with the background context. Findings in boundary extension (BE; false memory for scene layout beyond a view’s edges) suggest that attention is a moderating variable. To test the hypothesis that object-background semantic consistency affects BE, we presented participants with a masked 250-ms scene that contained either a semantically consistent (e.g., a football player in a football stadium) or inconsistent (e.g., a football player in a church) object-background relation. Memory for view’s spatial expanse was tested with a view recognition/rating task (rate view as same, more close-up, or more wide-angle on a sliding scale). Overall, participants tended to remember having seen a more wide-angle view than shown (BE); however there was no significant difference in BE between scenes with a semantically consistent or semantically inconsistent object-background relation. These findings suggest that object-background semantic consistency may not impact BE, or alternatively, that the brief image duration used here was not long enough to observe an impact of object-background consistency on BE.

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207. Differential Effects of Continuous vs. Discontinuous Aerobic Exercise on Hemodynamics

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Megan Clarke Exercise Science Scott Collier Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Jan 30, 2013
Project Description: Four weeks of exercise has been shown effective in decreasing blood pressure in older pre-to-stage-one hypertensives. However, there is a lack of evidence if the protocol (continuous vs. discontinuous) or individuals age (young vs. old) effects the decrease in blood pressure following the intervention. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine systolic and diastolic blood pressure changes in continuous versus discontinuous exercise in college-aged versus middle-aged subjects. Methods: Forty five male and female subjects (young = 21.62±0.4 years; older 48.29±0.8 years) were recruited for this study and each subject was randomly assigned a protocol prior to baseline testing for VO2max and hemodynamic measurements. Participants were given a four week, wait-listed control before returning to repeat the testing and to begin one month of either continuous aerobic treadmill work (30 minutes at 70-75% HRmax) or three bouts of 10 minutes of exercise at 70-75% HRmax with two 10 minute break periods in between, totaling 30 minutes of aerobic work. Results: Both continuous and discontinuous groups demonstrated a significant improvement in VO2max (p<0.001), heart rate max (p<0.05), and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.05), with systolic blood pressure exhibiting a more pronounced decrease in the young continuous group and the older discontinuous group (p=0.012). Conclusion: These data suggest that for young individuals, that continuous aerobic exercise is more effective at reducing SBP, whereas middle aged persons will gain more benefit from discontinuous training. The research presentation costs associated with this are the cost to print the poster.

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208. Mechanisms underlying expression of VEGF in the birth canal of mice: Role of estrogen and relaxin

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Takako Ohashi Biology Chishimba Mowa Arts and Sciences Biology Jan 30, 2013
Project Description: One of the most prominent features in birth canal during pregnancy includes drastic vascular changes. Although the exact role of these changes are not known, they are likely involved in birth canal remodeling, a process that ensures a timely passage of the fetus at full term. Our lab has characterized the expression pattern of the best known vascular regulator, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and its receptors in the birth canal of rodents, and delineated VEGF-related genes. We have also shown that VEGF promotes birth canal growth and inflammation. Previous grants from OSR enabled me to complete my initial thesis work; I investigated factors that influence expression of VEGF and its receptors in the birth canal, specifically, 17 b estradiol and hypoxia using ovariectomized mice. Both were found to up regulate VEGF expression in a dose dependent manner, as it did with protein expression of its receptors, KDR and Flt-1. The current proposal builds on these earlier findings of estrogen's effect on VEGF expression and focuses its investigation on the likely pathway and or mechanism of estrogen-induced expression of VEGF in the birth canal. I hypothesize that estrogen's effects on increased VEGF expression is mediated by relaxin via the genomic estrogen/ER pathway and relaxin, in turn, induces VEGF expression via the cAMP/PKA pathway. This hypothesis will be tested using two specific aims: Specific Aim 1: will investigate whether VEGF expression in the birth canal is estrogen- dependent and whether it is mediated by the estrogen/ER genomic pathway. We will use estrogen agent [17b estradiol and ER antagonists (ICI 182,780), ovariectomized mice and tissues will be analyzed using Western blot, Real time PCR and confocal immunofluoerescence]. Specific Aim 2: will examine whether estrogen induces VEGF expression in the birth canal via mediation of relaxin, which directly promotes VEGF expression via the cAMP/PKA-signaling pathway. We will use estrogen agents (same as above), VEGF and relaxin agents [recombinant proteins (VEGF and relaxin), VEGF and cAMP inhibitors, and relaxin primary antibodies)]. The rationale for the hypothesis and specific aims are: a) relaxin robustly induces expression of VEGF and exhibits signature VEGF-like biological effects in other tissues, such as angiogenesis and vascular permeability; and b) in the birth canal of rodent models, both relaxin and VEGF have been shown to promote birth canal growth and remodeling (Yale group reference and Sherwood). Thus, it is likely that these two molecules work either synergistically or in a complementary manner. The long term goal of our lab is to identify the role and mechanisms of the birth canal remodeling, as it relates to pre-term labor, which is a major obstetrical problem affecting both the mother and babies. Funds from this award will be used to purchase various materials to test our hypothesis. Any financial assistance will be greatly appreciated.

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209. Mechanism underlying recruitment and migration of white blood cell into mouse cervical lumen by VEGF: Induction of IL-8 signaling

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Molly Fike Biology, Pre-professional Chishimba Mowa Arts and Sciences Biology Jan 30, 2013
Project Description: Vascular epithelial growth factor [VEGF] causes recruitment and migration of white blood cells [WBC] into the cervical lumen, via chemotaxis and increase in inter-epithelial paracellular spaces. Previous research in the intestine has indicated that Interleukin-8 [IL-8] is responsible for the chemotactic trans-epithelial migration of WBC in mouse . We are currently investigating the exact mechanisms of VEGF in trans-epithelial migration of immune cells and its significance in local surveillance using the same premises. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that VEGF induces expression of the cytokine IL-8 in cervical epithelial cells that in turn promotes the chemotactic recruitment and migration of WBC into the mouse cervical lumen. Therefore, the specific aim of this study will be to test whether IL-8 is explicitly mediating this migration. For this particular study, we request funds to purchase antibodies against IL-8, both the primary and secondary, for protein analysis via western blot. This work builds on previously funded OSR grants which were used for the initial stage of this study.

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210. Sex Differences Following Four Weeks of Discontinuous versus Continuous Exercise in Central Pulse Wave Velocity

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Misty Parsons Exercise Science Scott Collier Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Jan 30, 2013
Project Description: Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of mortality in both men and women, yet recent data suggests inherent differences in the response to exercise training on arterial distensibility when comparing men and women. Currently, the prescription of 30 minutes may show differences when compared to discontinuous exercise, therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the oxygen uptake and pulse wave velocity differences in continuous (CON) versus discontinuous (DCT) exercise in men and women. Methods: Forty-five subjects were randomly assigned to a CON or DCT group and all subjects were evaluated at baseline for VO2max and central pulse wave velocity (cPWV). Subjects were then brought back to the lab after a four week control period and re-evaluated before beginning one month of either CON (30 minutes at 70-75% HRmax) or DCT (3 bouts of 10 minutes of exercise at 70-75% HRmax) aerobic exercise. Results: Both continuous and discontinuous groups demonstrated a significant improvement in VO2max (p<0.001) and HRmax (p<0.05) regardless of sex. However, females displayed a significant sex effect on cPWV (p=0.022) Conclusion: These data suggest that either continuous or discontinuous aerobic training is effective in improving measures of fitness and vascular health, yet females may receive greater decreases in arterial distensibility (decrease in cPWV) when compared to their male counterparts. I need the money to print the poster for this presentation as I have finished data collection with Dr. Collier and Michael Landram.

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211. Delineating mechanisms underlying Echinacea’s anti-inflammatory activities in the birth canal of LPS-treated mice

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Benjamin Coe Biology, Pre-professional Chishmba Mowa Arts and Sciences Biology Jan 30, 2013
Project Description: Bacterial-induced preterm labor is the biggest cause of preterm births and current therapies are either ineffective or harmful to either the mother or the fetus. Medicinal herbs, such as Echinacea, have been shown to be safe and effective in blocking infection and inflammation in multiple tissues. the birth canal of mice through induction of heme-oxygenease-1 (HO-1) expression, which is mediated by the c-Jun N –terminal Kinase (JNK) mitogen activating protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. The primary purpose of this project is to examine anti-inflammatory effects of Echinacea in the birth canal of infected mice to determine whether the primary signaling pathway responsible is HO-1 via JNK signaling pathway. Through our previous OSR funding, We we have generated preliminary data generated this past summer and through the Fall 2012 semester that shows that Echinacea: i) blocks infection-induced expression of pro-inflammatory factors ion in the birth canal, and ii) promotes expression of HO-1 , a potent inhibitor of multiple insults, including inflammationmRNA, in the birth canal of mouse same tissue. Supporting literature also says that HO-1 is a potent inhibitor of multiple tissue insults, including inflammation and that Echinacea has been shown to block inflammation via HO-1 in tissue types, such as liver and lung. The primary purpose of this project is to delineate the mechanism or signaling pathways underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of Echinacea in the birth canal of infected mice. We hypothesize that Echinacea’s anti-inflammatory activities are mediated by HO-1 via the c-Jun N – terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. Funding from OSR is requested to build upon preliminary data through baseline studies using purchase inhibitors of the two c-Jun N – terminal kinase ( potential pathways responsible for inducing HO-1 expression, namely a) JNK,); b) and mitogen activating protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. This current proposal builds on work previously funded from OSR aiming to quantify protein expression in non-pregnant and pregnant cervices treated with HO-1 inhibitors and further delineate the signaling pathways of Echinacea. These Therefore, in the current proposal we request funding funds will also be utilized for purchasing supplies for Western Blot supplies, which include gels, stacks, and film.

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212. An Examination of Math Anxiety in College Students with and without ADHD

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Monica Elizondo Psychology Will Canu Arts and Sciences Psychology Jan 30, 2013
Project Description: The mathematic difficulties of children with ADHD have not been studied to the extent that reading difficulties have. Additionally, most ADHD research in math focuses mainly on children and this study will be among the first to investigate math performance in adults with ADHD. The effect of ADHD on mathematical achievement is very important given the stringent mathematics requirements for high-staked exams and college graduation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between test anxiety and math performance in a sample of college students with and without ADHD. Students will be administered a battery of questionnaires in person. First, students will be asked to complete the 25-item version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS; Ward, Wender, & Reimherr, 1993) and the Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale-IV (BAARS-IV; Barkley & Murphey, 2006) to examine levels of ADHD symptomology in childhood and current adult populations. To investigate stress and test anxiety subjects will complete the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS; Brown, Chorpita, Korotitsch, & Barlow, 1997) and the 5-item short form of the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI-5; Taylor & Deane, 2002). Afterwards they will complete the 20-item Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS; Watson et al., 1988), followed by the 14-item Math Anxiety Scale-Revised (MAS-R; Plake & Paker, 1982) in order to investigate general mood and anxiety during mathematics tasks, respectfully. Lastly, the students will complete the Wide Range of Achievement Test – 4 (WRAT-4; Wilkinson & Roberston, 2006), followed by the PANAS, with instructions to reference their current state (to test for any change induced by the math test). Comparisons will be made between reports of ADHD symptomology, math anxiety and their performance on the math exam. Students will fill out this battery of questionnaires on one occasion and it will take approximately one hour to complete. The $10 payment given to eligible students with ADHD is an incentive for completing the lengthy surveys. All procedures will be conducted in a reserved classroom or private laboratory setting during the Spring 2013 semester.

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213. Changes in Food Choices of Adolescent Children Following an After School Nutrition Education Program

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Georgeanne Little Nutrition and Healthcare Management Melissa Gutschall Health Sciences Nutrition and Healthcare Management Jan 30, 2013
Project Description: Introduction: One-third of adolescents in North Carolina are overweight or obese, showing the need for effective interventions aimed at prevention. Nutrition education is an integral part in prevention, and utilizing hands-on nutrition education programs that focus on food exploration and cooking provide positive experiences with a variety of foods. This study implemented a pilot behavioral nutrition intervention, as part of an after-school physical activity program, to identify its impact on food choices. Methods: Adolescents (n=14), ages 11 to 14 years, attended a 9 week nutrition sessions of 45 minutes duration. Pre- and post-test measures included a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participants. Paired samples t-tests comparing pre/post-test data were conducted using SPSS, version 13 (Chicago, IL). Results: Data results revealed significant incline in weekly servings of salty snacks (from 2.2±2.79 to 6.9±6.54, p< 0.05), and a decline in sweetened beverages (from 12.55±14.8 to 3.42±5.48 p< 0.05). Conclusion:Pre-adolescents reduced consumption of energy dense snack foods following nutrition education. Greater changes to diet may occur in situations where pre-adolescents are able to choose or purchase their own food. Interventions of longer duration with additional parental involvement are likely needed to see significant changes in areas where youth have little choice over food selection. Support: Appalachian State University, and The Western Youth Network. The proposed budget is needed for the completion of this project as it is a requirement for the completion of my degree in May 2013.

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214. “Loss, Textiles, and My Mother: BFA Spring 2013 Senior Studio Exhibition”

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Dianna Loughlin Studio Art Karen Cleveland Fine and Applied Arts Art Jan 30, 2013
Project Description: Video and storage equipment purchased with provided OSR grant money would be utilized for the videographic documentation of my mother and me interacting with NC-based textile mills and industries, a project happening in correspondence with the capstone requirement for Bachelors of Fine Art: Studio Art majors at Appalachian State University. My mother and I plan on forming a constructive conversation of memories and dialogue, paired with on-site visuals (textile mills), that cover recent happenings involving the changing textile industry and my mother’s relationship to it as a previous textile designer. These videos will be edited and placed on public display as part of a gallery installation in the BFA Spring 2013 Senior Studio exhibition, which will also include my on-site drawings and hand-woven fabrics with which the video will interact. Without full and constant access to my own high-quality video camera and storage, this project will not be possible. On-campus EdMS equipment for rent is not feasible for this project, as the equipment would have to be kept for the full duration of the Spring 2013 semester rather than the usual allotted time of one week. Video data requires a vast amount of storage, to which an external hard drive would be necessarily utilized. Aside from the general degree requirement, an overall goal for this project would be to educate a public audience on the history, contemporary standing, and impact of the loss of the NC textile industry through the viewpoint of the visual arts.

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215. Electrochemical Analysis of Recyclable Rubber Polymer, Iron (II) Tris(Bpy-PDMS)

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Daniel Cryer Chemistry Alexander Schwab Arts and Sciences Chemistry Dec 19, 2012
Project Description: In the proposed project, we will synthesize recyclable rubber using silicon-based poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) polymer chains ending in 2,2’-Bipyridine groups (Bpy-PDMS), blended with a metal salt to form a rubber. Current industrial techniques synthesize rubber using a vulcanizing agent to form covalent bond cross-links between the rubber polymer chains. However, this means that conventional rubber cannot be broken down again. Used rubber must then be utilized in other capacities or thrown in a landfill. In this project, we are using the complexes formed between Bpy-PDMS and the cations in the metal salt. This complex, also known as metal tris(bipyridine), is theoretically capable of being broken down and re-synthesized any number of times, giving the rubber a recyclable capacity. We have already successfully synthesized rubbers using iron (II) chloride to form iron (II) tris(bipyridine) cross-links. One strategy to recycle our materials would be to use an electrical stimulus to reduce the iron (II) to iron, which would effectively un-cross-link the material. We would like to perform electrochemical analysis to see whether this would be possible. Electrochemical analysis should theoretically show whether we will have the capability to break down and reattach the tris(bipyridine) molecules at the flip of a switch. The electrochemical analysis will be performed in collaboration with Dr. Hambourger. In order to cross-link Bpy-PDMS with iron (II), Bpy-PDMS and iron (II) chloride are dissolved in the correct proportions using 2-butanone. Once the 2-butanone has evaporated, the remaining blend of Bpy-PDMS and Iron (II) is sandwiched between two glass plates and heated at 100°C for a period of 6 days. For the electrochemical analysis, a Teflon plate will replace the top glass plate, and an electrode will replace the bottom glass plate. If the top and bottom plates are replaced with Teflon, stand-alone rubber sheets can be made for mechanical analysis at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

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216. NAHB Residential Construction Management Competition

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Laura McCree Building Sciences Ok-Youn Yu Fine and Applied Arts Technology Dec 07, 2012
Project Description: Creating a business proposal for investors, the same that is used to obtain financing to start a new construction business and build a model complex. This is a 150 page document that includes; marketing study, financial plan, cost estimates, building schedules, sales strategies, a project management structure, and a green building strategy for our proposed company and its model complex. The proposed business will be in Saratoga Springs, Utah. The western boundary is Redwood Road and the eastern boundary is Utah Lake. We began working on the proposal at the start of the fall semester and will continue working through the Christmas Holiday break. Our team members are from Building Science and possibly Finance. To put the proposal together we must also work with professionals from across the state and nation. A 15 minute (timed) visually aided oral presentation is given before a board of six judges and a large audience. The judges then have time to ask specific questions about the proposal. The judges are construction industry professionals and building experts, each representing home building companies nationwide. One judge is the President and CEO of the actual company. The presentation has to be a “professional” presentation with visual aids covering all aspects of our development proposal, including: marketing and sales, finance, project management and organization, estimating, scheduling and our green building strategy. This year we will be competing against 40 other major universities from across the nation. This will be our fifth year in the competition. Four years ago our team was proud to be placed 4th of 40 teams and was awarded “Rookie of the Year” making it the first time a rookie team had placed in the top 5. That year our team out placed teams from schools considered to be the best in construction science and management like Michigan State, Texas A&M, Georgia Tech and Purdue. Thank you for your consideration for our success in the past years. It is greatly due to the support of Appalachian State University.

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217. NAHB Residential Construction Management Competition

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Austin Westmoreland Building Sciences Ok-Youn Yu Fine and Applied Arts Technology Dec 07, 2012
Project Description: Creating a business proposal for investors, the same that is used to obtain financing to start a new construction business and build a model complex. This is a 150 page document that includes; marketing study, financial plan, cost estimates, building schedules, sales strategies, a project management structure, and a green building strategy for our proposed company and its model complex. The proposed business will be in Saratoga Springs, Utah. The western boundary is Redwood Road and the eastern boundary is Utah Lake. We began working on the proposal at the start of the fall semester and will continue working through the Christmas Holiday break. Our team members are from Building Science and possibly Finance. To put the proposal together we must also work with professionals from across the state and nation. A 15 minute (timed) visually aided oral presentation is given before a board of six judges and a large audience. The judges then have time to ask specific questions about the proposal. The judges are construction industry professionals and building experts, each representing home building companies nationwide. One judge is the President and CEO of the actual company. The presentation has to be a “professional” presentation with visual aids covering all aspects of our development proposal, including: marketing and sales, finance, project management and organization, estimating, scheduling and our green building strategy. This year we will be competing against 40 other major universities from across the nation. This will be our fifth year in the competition. Four years ago our team was proud to be placed 4th of 40 teams and was awarded “Rookie of the Year” making it the first time a rookie team had placed in the top 5. That year our team out placed teams from schools considered to be the best in construction science and management like Michigan State, Texas A&M, Georgia Tech and Purdue. Thank you for your consideration for our success in the past years. It is greatly due to the support of Appalachian State University.

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218. Thesis Title: Qualitative Analysis of Taiwanese Integration of Eastern Medicine and Cost Implications: Lessons Applicable to the U.S. healthcare. The title is subject to change- but any modification will be slight.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Charles Chuang Business Betty Coffey Business Management Dec 05, 2012
Project Description: Taiwanese healthcare system has been marveled as one of the most successful healthcare transformation in the modern era. They completely swiped their system and switched to an extremely successful one-payer system. The scope of this thesis will identify what makes Taiwanese healthcare so successful. The qualitative aspect will come from interviews with doctors, administrators, patients, and agents. A cultural analysis will be examined to determine the differences in quality and acceptance of alternative medicine compared to the U.S. system. Furthermore, the focus of the thesis will be on eastern medicine (alternative medicine) and the cost implication in its integration into the Taiwanese system. I believe there is a cost-saving incentive associated with this integration and my research abroad will examine this topic. The healthcare system in the U.S. is fragmented and chaotic. A healthcare reform alone is not enough to decrease the total cost of care. I am a huge advocate of prevention versus last-minute treatment. This research should elucidate some ambiguity between alternative medicine and its actual economic benefits. My committee and I had discussed the quality of work that is to be produced and we came to the conclusion that this has the potential to be a 6 hour thesis written with the intent of publication in a journal. The majority of data collection will be done between now and January. The final thesis and thesis defense will be in the spring.

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219. Religion and Its Effects on Organ Donation Intentions

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Rafaella Sale Psychology Courtney Rocheleau Arts and Sciences Psychology Nov 27, 2012
Project Description: The poster accepted for presentation is the final results and comprehensive discussion of my graduate thesis, that was successfully defended in May of 2012. It addresses the issue of religiosity and its effect on organ donation behavior. American Christians vary in their beliefs. The study (n=176) distinguished Fundamentalist Christians from Progressive Christians with a new scale (i.e., Christian Absolutism Scale). The effect of Christian Absolutism (CA) on intentions to donate organs was examined and interesting findings were discovered. The effect of religious orientation (Intrinsic, Extrinsic, or Quest) on intentions was assessed. Using a series of multiple regressions, intentions were regressed onto CA, each orientation, and their interactions. CA was associated with intentions, t(138)=-2.08, p=.04; those higher on CA reported less intentions. Extrinsic depended on the level of CA, t(142)=-3.46, p=.001; CA had a stronger negative effect on intentions when Extrinsic was high. A trend for those higher on Quest to report more intentions when lower on CA emerged, t(144)=1.67, p=.10. Findings help further research in religious identity and the steadily growing field of health psychology. My role is first author of this project and the sole presenter for the research at the conference.

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220. Urbanization and Chemical Parameters of Boone Creek

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Barbara Hobbs Environmental Science Carol Babyak Arts and Sciences Chemistry Nov 27, 2012
Project Description: I will be presenting this poster at the upcoming NCURCS conference. The poster will outline preliminary findings from monthly sampling at five sites along Boone Creek, including relationships between location and conductivity, temperature, and nutrient amounts over time.

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221. PDMS Polymer Networks with Iron (II) tris(bipyridine) Crosslinks

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Miriam Pippin Chemistry Alexander Schwab Arts and Sciences Chemistry Nov 27, 2012
Project Description: As a senior chemistry major, this is my third year participating in an undergraduate chemistry research program at Appalachian. I began research in the fall of 2010 with Dr. Alexander Schwab and spent the summer of 2011 as a full time undergraduate research assistant in his lab. The area of focus for our research has been metal coordination polymer networks. Typical rubber materials consist of long chains of polymer molecules that are linked to one another via covalent bonds. These bonds prevent the rubber from being recyclable. Our goal is to create a rubber material that retains the properties of rubber, yet also possesses the recyclable qualities of plastic. The covalent bonds that exist between the long polymer chain molecules are replaced with amide bonds by the attachment of a ligand in an attempt to create these special properties. The ligand, 4-methyl-2,2’-bipyridine-4’-carboxylic acid was attached to bis(3-aminopropyl) terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS, either 2,500 g/mol and 27,000 g/mol). This was accomplished by a carbodiimide coupling reaction which formed bipyridine terminated poly (dimethylsiloxane) or BPY-PDMS. Formation of this molecule was characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and H1NMR. BPY-PDMS has been blended with iron (II) chloride which led to the formation of an iron (II) tris(bipyridine) cross-linked PDMS upon heating. Further research includes continuing to cross-link the BPY-PDMS with various metals such as ruthenium, copper and cobalt. The crosslinking has been characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and in the future will be characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

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222. Expression of Drug Transporters and Interacting Proteins in C. Elegans

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Taylor Gaffney Chemistry Jennifer Cecile Arts and Sciences Chemistry Nov 27, 2012
Project Description: Drug transporters are membrane bound proteins with key roles in the transport of charged molecules across a membrane. In humans these transporters are found in the liver and kidney as well as other epithelial organs. In this research a Caenorhabditis elegans (C.Elegans) can be used as a model organism for human drug transporters as gene expression confirms the presence of organic anion transporters (OATs), organic cation transporters (OCTs), p-glycoprotein (Pgp), and multidrug-resistance proteins (mrp). Little work has examined protein expression levels of these genes. In order to examine the protein expression of these transporters in these C. Elegans gel electrophoresis, Western blotting, chemiluminescence detection and density quantification will be utilized. C.Elegans proteins will be isolated in soluble (cytosolic) or insoluble (membrane) fractions. Using known proteins in fractions (markers), tubulin (50 kDa), myosin (210 kDa), and caveolin (26 kDa) antibodies will be used as positive controls with a mouse secondary, to show the expression using Western blotting and antibody staining techniques. The next step will then be to identify the transporters that are in the fractions, especially the C. Elegans OAT (60 kDa) and C. Elegans Pgp using corresponding antibodies. The C. Elegans OAT antibody uses a rabbit secondary. The use of chemiluminescence detection will allow for visualization of proteins and Image J (NIH) will allow us to find the total amount of a specific protein present in the blot. The proposed budget will allow for another 10 blots to be completed in order to probe for the proteins of interest. This will last through next semester. The blocking buffer allows for non-specific binding of the antibody to the protein so that only the protein of interest is detected. The blocking buffer will last through 2013.

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223. Method Development for the Analysis of Estrogens Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) by Alec Daye and Carol Babyak

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Alec Daye Chemistry Carol Babyak Arts and Sciences Chemistry Nov 27, 2012
Project Description: It has been shown that high estrogen levels in natural waters can cause mutations of fish genitalia (Croley, Timothy R.; Mass spectrometry applied to the analysis of estrogens in the environment). We hypothesize that the estrogen levels in the surface water downstream from the Boone waste water treatment plant (WWTP) may corresponded directly with the fluctuation of the student population. The goal of this research is to develop a robust analytical method using solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in order to confirm or refute our hypothesis. We confirmed that the separation and electrospray ionization parameters developed by a previous student were optimized. Currently a preventative maintenance schedule for the LC-MS is under examination to ensure reproducibility throughout the future. It was determined that 95:5 acetonitrile to water (LC-MS grade) needs to be flushed through the system every two weeks for five or more hours at least. We are in the process of determining a method detection limit (MDL) and have estimated it at 0.06 parts-per-million (ppm); however, recent experiments on injection volume and injection speed indicate that a much lower MDL is feasible. Future goals are to optimize the injection volume, determine the MDL, and determine concentrations that will be detectable via SPE. The items listed in the budget are currently in high use, very low, or needed for the next step of the project. Our current methods require a large amount of acetonitrile, methanol, and water and there is not much acetonitrile left. It has been seen that the time until degradation of eluents and standards occurs faster than expected requiring standards and eluents to be made more often. The ENVI-18 SPE tubes are needed for the next step of the experiment, which is to optimize extraction of estrogens from water samples.

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224. Development of a Protein-Based System for Detection of Organophosphates Using the pH-Dependence of Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Ashlyn Henson Chemistry Libby Puckett Arts and Sciences Chemistry Nov 27, 2012
Project Description: The purpose of this project is to create a fusion protein between organophosphourus hydrolase (OPH) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) to determine the presence of organophosphates (OPs). OPs are known neurotoxic inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) that are commonly found in pesticides and chemical warfare agents. OPs inhibit AChE by phosphorylating the active site of the enzyme, resulting in its deactivation. OPH is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of OP products, and can thus be used in remediation efforts. In order to monitor this process, a reporter protein, EGFP, is attached to OPH in a fusion protein. EGFP is a red-shifted variant of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and is pH dependent. The fusion protein components will work together so that when OPH catalyzes the cleavage of the OP substrate (resulting in two protons being released into the local environment), the fluorescence intensity of EGFP will decrease with the decreasing pH. After expression and purification, the fusion protein will be utilized to detect and quantify organophosphates.

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225. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) metal coordination polymer networks with ruthenium(II), copper(II), iron(II), or cobalt(II) tris(bipyridine) complex cross-links

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Mallory McVannel Chemistry Alexander Schwab Arts and Sciences Chemistry Nov 27, 2012
Project Description: The goal of this project is to synthesize a rubber compound that will maintain its desirable rubber properties and yet be recyclable. This is will accomplished by replacing the carbon carbon covalent bond cross links with the rubber compound with a metal coordination polymer network which will allow the new crosslinks to be broken apart and the material to be recycled. I am presenting this research at SERMACS/SNCURCS in Raleigh and will need 35 dollars to print a poster board.

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226. GIS Analysis of Street Noise in the Town of Boone, NC

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Ryan Lavery Geography Chris Badurek Arts and Sciences Geography and Planning Nov 27, 2012
Project Description: Since the movement to implement a noise ordinance in the Town of Boone this past year there has been a stir among local establishments along with the general public of Boone. Some businesses and local citizens are for the ordinance and some oppose it. Prior to the ordinance being enacted, it would be beneficial to the community to contribute a concrete analysis of how necessary this ordinance is and who would be most affected. It has the possibility of technically making events such as football games or performances at Legends to be noise ordinance violations. To my knowledge, as of now there are two businesses that are taking a legal dispute against the ordinance passing. This is due to the fact that they see it as unfit and would have a detrimental effect to their businesses. Whether or not this ordinance comes to fruition will effect both Appalachian State University's student population and the population that calls Boone home year round. This project uses GIS analysis of data taken from decibel meter readings collected at random points (N > 40) within the downtown area of Boone. Spatial analysis will provide more detailed information on relative intensity of noise across the study area. The importance of our study will be to provide those deciding on this issue with valuable evidence to support an informed decision.

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227. Investigating the STAT-3 pathway of VEGF effects on epithelial cell proliferation in the cervix of mice

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Susan Zhao Biology, Pre-professional Chishimba Mowa Arts and Sciences Biology Nov 02, 2012
Project Description: Birth-related complications such as preterm labor can occur as a result of dysfunction in cervical remodeling. Based on previous research conducted in the Mowa lab, we have looked at the relationship between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and a corresponding growth in the cervical epithelium of non-pregnant mice. We were able to optimize the vehicle, dosage amount, and dosage interval of growth factor treatments to observe the maximum effect of cervical growth. Although we know that VEGF and mouse cervical endothelial cell proliferation are positively correlated, however, we do not understand the underlying mechanism. I want to investigate the signal transduction pathway by which VEGF induces epithelial cell growth in the cervix of non-pregnant mice. I hypothesize that the transcription factor STAT-3 mediates the effect of VEGF on cervical epithelial growth. STAT-3 plays a key role in cellular processes such as cell growth and apoptosis in response to stimuli. The hypothesis will be tested with one specific aim in mind: to see whether VEGF induces cervical epithelial growth using the STAT-3 signaling pathway. I will use methods of Western blot to analyze expression of activated STAT-3 in response to treatments of VEGF, VEGF with a VEGF inhibitor, and VEGF with a STAT-3 inhibitor. The tissue samples will be analyzed using confocal immunofluorescence to visualize mitotic cells. I am requesting funds for the purchase of VEGF inhibitor, phosphorylated STAT-3 primary antibody, and STAT-3 inhibitor.

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228. A Comparison of the Effects of a Single Bout of Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Exercise on Anxiety Sensitivity

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Mitchell Plemmons Psychology Joshua Broman-Fulks Arts and Sciences Psychology Nov 01, 2012
Project Description: Anxiety sensitivity, or the fear of anxiety-related sensations, is a known precursor to panic attacks and panic disorder. Research has suggested that repeatedly exposing anxiety sensitive individuals to feared physical sensations in the context of aerobic exercise can reduce anxiety sensitivity (e.g., Broman-Fulks, Berman, Rabian, & Webster, 2004; Broman-Fulks & Storey, 2008; Smits et al., 2008), with anxiety sensitivity scores beginning to decline after the initial bout of aerobic exercise. However, little is known regarding the efficacy of alternative forms of exercise (e.g., anaerobic exercise) on anxiety sensitivity. Anaerobic exercise generally involves repeated exposure to physiological arousal during a single exercise session, which can be contrasted with the prolonged exposure to arousal sensations that occurs during aerobic exercise. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to compare the relative efficacy of a single bout of aerobic and non-aerobic exercise on anxiety sensitivity scores. The proposed amount is needed to print a professional poster for a conference I will be presenting the poster at.

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229. Network of Support: An Interactive Fiber Art Installation to be on exhibit at the Turchin Center for the Visual Arts starting December 7, 2012

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Lauren Jordan Studio Art Jeana Klein Fine and Applied Arts Art Nov 01, 2012
Project Description: I am inspired by the organic patterns seen in the repetition and clustering of cellular structures seen in microscope imagery. In my work I explore how these small parts come together to make a complex whole, working together to maintain a healthy and mutually beneficial balance. I also explore how antagonistic forces such as viruses, parasites, and abusive individuals can upset this balance. While I have always had a strong interest in biology, my interest in parasitic relationships grew out of my own experiences in an abusive relationship. Creating artwork addressing how I was treated has helped me work through complicated emotions of denial, self-blame, and helplessness. In addition to my artwork I have had an incredible group of individuals who have helped me face, accept, and recover from what happened to me. I want to acknowledge and honor these people by creating a piece that addresses each of them as individuals coming together to form my support net. I am creating an interactive hanging installation piece to hang in Gallery B of the Turchin Center for the Visual Arts. The installation will be a large net made up of small individual nerve cell-like structures that connect together to support the weight of a human adult, much like how these individuals have come together to support me. Each of these cells represents one of these individuals, and will be made from clothing they have donated so that they physically become part of the piece. The project begins with these donated clothes, which will be discharged of their colors and over-dyed in order to obtain a cohesive color scheme. These fabrics will be sewn into pillows and stuffed with polyester filling to become the body of the cells. I will use a combination of fiber reactive dyes and PRO Washfast acid dyes to color the fabric. For discharges, I will use bleach, hydrogen peroxide, and thiox. Wool yarn that I have purchased will be knit into lengths of cord using the Clover and Caron knitting machines. These cords will then be hand and machine felted to ensure their strength. These lengths of knit cord will then be crocheted around the cell pillows to secure them in place and connect them to teach other, as well as to add visual interest. Additional cords will be knit and felted together further to form even larger and stronger cords. These stronger cords will be what suspend the piece from a steel I-beam in the gallery. There are also many concrete beams in the gallery so I will have some flexibility with how it hangs in the space. The finished installation will be a physical representation of the emotional support network that all people have, while paying tribute to the specific individuals in my life that make up my own. These individuals come together to create a network that supports a person in the same way those smaller elements of nature, such as cells, work together to form a healthy living organism.

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230. Hydrogen Catalysts – Investigating Complexation of Cobalt Glyoximes onto Glassy Carbon Electrodes

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
David Tomblin Chemistry Dale Wheeler Arts and Sciences Chemistry Nov 01, 2012
Project Description: Clean energy is an important current global issue as the continued consumption of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide, green alternatives must be investigated. The focus of current research utilizes solar energy for catalytic hydrogen production. Working in collaboration Dr. Dale Wheeler and Dr. Mike Hambourger’s labs have been investigating potential hydrogen catalysts for the past two years with numerous students. An important goal of this project is the synthesis and characterization of new complexes that alter the molecular ligands surrounding the cobalt catalytic site by changing the electron donating and accepting groups on the coordinating ligands. One component of this project will be my research which will investigate modifying functional groups for complexation of cobalt for potential catalytic hydrogen production. Glassy carbon foam can be formed into electrodes with large surface area that can be employed in the electrochemical analysis by Dr. Hambourger’s group. Oxidation of the surface will use nitric acid to increase the number of carboxylic acid groups on the surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) will be used to confirm the increase of carboxylic acid groups. These will be converted to acid chloride groups be the reaction with oxalyl chloride. Subsequent reaction with an amine will create an amide bond and the carbon surfaces will be further analyzed using fluorescence to confirm surface modification. To carry out the various reactions needed to further my research, I will require various solvents and reactants, as well as standard compounds utilized in the analysis throughout the duration of my work.

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231. Effects of a cavity-filling mutation in the enzyme choline acetyltransferase.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Corbin Ester Chemistry Dale Wheeler Arts and Sciences Chemistry Nov 01, 2012
Project Description: I will need funding to print a poster that has the above title and below abstract. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) synthesizes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and point mutations in the enzyme cause congenital motor disorders. We hypothesize that the susceptibility of ChAT to point mutations at sites distributed over the enzyme is due to its unusually large number of core packing defects or cavities. Using site directed mutagenesis, a point mutation converting serine 106 to a leucine residue was introduced in order to partially fill a cavity near two known congenital mutation sites. The wild type and S106L mutant proteins were then expressed, purified, and analyzed for activity and thermal stability. The S106L mutation reduced maximal activity of the enzyme by approximately two fold and increased the thermal stability by almost 5 degrees Celsius. This shows that the internal cavities are linked with enzyme function and stability. The next step will be to test the cavity-filling mutant in the presence of one of the nearby congenital mutations.

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232. Mechanism underlying recruitment and migration of white blood cell into mouse cervical lumen by VEGF: Induction of IL-8 signaling

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Molly Fike Biology, Pre-professional Chishimba Mowa Arts and Sciences Biology Nov 01, 2012
Project Description: Recently our lab demonstrated that vascular epithelial growth factor [VEGF] causes recruitment and migration of white blood cells [WBC] into the cervical lumen, via chemotaxis and increase in inter-epithelial paracellular spaces. Previous research in the intestine has indicated that the cytokine, Interleukin-8 [IL-8], is responsible for the chemotactic trans-epithelial migration of WBC in mouse. We are currently investigating the exact mechanisms of VEGF in trans-epithelial migration of immune cells and its significance in local surveillance using the same premises. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that VEGF induces expression of the cytokine IL-8 in cervical epithelial cells that in turn promotes the chemotactic recruitment and migration of WBC into the mouse cervical lumen. Therefore, the specific aim of this study will be to test whether IL-8 is explicitly mediating this migration. We will determine the optimal concentrations of IL-8 using a dose-dependent experiment. We will then set up five treatment groups to test for the activity of VEGF and IL-8 using VEGF agents (recombinant and inhibitor) as well as IL-8 recombinant and inhibitor. For the study, we only request funds to enable us to purchase the recombinant and inhibitor forms of IL-8.

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233. Fungal Oxidation of Mn in Cave Systems

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kelley Burns Biology Suzanna Brauer Arts and Sciences Biology Nov 01, 2012
Project Description: The kingdom of fungi are well known to be prominent waste matter recyclers that are present in all biomes. Contribution to geologic process have also been well documented via fungal oxidation of manganese. Production of manganese oxides by fungi and bacteria are up to five orders of magnitude faster in comparison to abiotic processes alone. In doing so, highly reactive crystalline structures are created. Manganese oxides in forms produced by fungi has, most notably, multiple industrial and bioremediative applications. Because karst-type cave systems have been proclaimed as an analogue for Mars geology, NASA has taken a special interest in understanding manganese oxides for the detection of life in our solar system. Several strains of Mn(II) oxidizing fungi have already been cultured from the field. There is empiracle evidence that indicates that Mn(II) oxidizing bacteria thrive when sufficient nutrients enter the cave via flowing water. Fungi, however, tend to use recalcitrant sources left by hikers (cigarette butts, tape, socks, batteries, etc.) as a substrate. We propose to test the hypothesis that stimulation of Mn oxidation hotspots by input of recalcitrant carbon sources is caused by a bloom of fungi. leucoberbelin blue (LBB) will be used in the field as an in situ detection of manganese oxides, which will determine the sampling sites. The beginning of labratory analysis is screening the fungal 18S metagenomic DNA from sampled sites before and after the supplementation of recalcitrant carbon sources. The genetic data from these sites is used to quantify, compare, and contrast lineages of fungi that can be documented to oxidize in situ. Appalachian State University's Geology Department along with the Smithsonian Institution assist with the imaging and analysis of these crystalline structures produced in the laboratory, generating the full circle understanding of how these minerals are cycled throughout the environment. Falcon tubes are needed to obtain samples and create an ideal environment for sample storage at -80C. Petri dishes are necessary for the creation of different media, both for lab and in situ culturing. All sample sites are in karst-type cave systems, which are privately owned. Cave fees apply to every attending person (3 minimum)and must be payed for each trip to the cave.

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234. Feasibility of solar thermal energy for providing process heat in home brewing.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Devin Hollowell Appropriate Technology Brian Raichle Fine and Applied Arts Technology Oct 31, 2012
Project Description: The brewing process requires a large amount of thermal energy input. These processes include mashing and lautering the grain and boiling the resulting wort. Temperatures required for mashing commonly range from 149F to 160F and lautering temperatures range from 149F to 170F. These processes require five to ten gallons of water on average for home brewers. The main method for heating this water is to use a propane or natural gas burner or by using electric heating elements. This project will study the physical and economic feasibility of using solar thermal energy in reducing the energy demanded from fossil fuels in the brewing process. Several local home brewers will be surveyed to assess how much fuel or electricity they consume during their own brewing sessions. This data will be compiled and analyzed to form the foundation for comparison between fossil fuel energy and solar thermal energy in brewing. A solar thermal collector will be constructed and tested in different configurations to provide the second half of the data set required for this comparison. The main monetary expenditure of this project will be on the construction of a solar thermal system. Evacuated tubes, which have a high efficiency in regards to solar energy capture and thus can attain higher temperatures than other collectors, are the main component of the system. Ten 20” long evacuated tubes will be plumbed together using 3/8” outer diameter, thin-walled copper tubing. The tubes will be tested plumbed in series and parallel configurations. The copper material and fittings will be needed to plumb a series and a parallel manifold to extract heat from the tubes. The manifolds will be interchangeable to use the same evacuated tubes. Pex tubing will be used for the plumbing outside of the collector and will be sourced from scrap material. A wooden case insulated with fiberglass will encase the tops of the tubes and manifold. This case will be built from existing materials. Water will be circulated through the system using a small solar thermal pump powered directly by a PV module borrowed from the Technology Department. The PV module will act as a differential controller for the pump. The water will be circulated from a brew kettle outfitted such that water is drawn from the bottom of the kettle and returned at the top after passing through the collector. The brew kettle is outfitted with a thermometer to monitor temperature and is open to atmospheric pressure so hazardous pressures will not occur in the system. A pyranometer will be used to measure solar irradiance, and this data will be used to calculate system efficiency. This project will also build on previous research conducted on the effect of different roofing materials on solar thermal system performance. An existing sample roof from this research will be used to mount and test the collector on. This project will be submitted for presentation at the Annual Celebration of Student Research and Creative Endeavors.

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235. Creative Conversations: Case Studies of Integrative Learning within Tutoring Relationships

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Cama Duke Ed.D Leadership General Leslie Cook Arts and Sciences English Oct 01, 2012
Project Description: For my dissertation research in educational leadership, I wish to consider the rich potential for integrative learning within higher education tutoring, since I have provided related services to college students for over a decade, including training tutors, teaching study skills, and implementing assessment and strategic plans. The majority of the research on higher education content tutoring is quantitative in focus. A qualitative case study would provide nuance and rich detail that could deepen our practice and unpack the ways in which tutoring can help students from a range of backgrounds make the most out of their college education. For this interpretive study, I propose to interview and observe 8 pairs of tutors and students at Appalachian to observe integrative learning, a higher education learning outcome central to a liberal arts education. The tutor and student pairs will meet face-to-face for recurring weekly appointments to discuss specific course content. My guiding questions include the following: In what ways does integrative learning take place within one-on-one tutoring relationships? What mediational means enable or constrain integrative learning within tutoring relationships? What role does dialogue play in this process? In the course of the fall semester 2012, I will conduct three interviews with each participant and observe 3-4 tutoring sessions of each pair. I will thus collect rich descriptive data to yield insights on these key research questions. The success of this study will depend on my ability to recruit and retain participants, so being able to pay them for their extra time will help. Further, this qualitative research design requires that I manage a large amount of narrative data. Atlas TI qualitative coding software is the perfect fit for this kind of study, allowing me to code and navigate the multiple sources of data, including interview transcripts, observation transcripts, informational surveys, memos, and artifacts from classwork and the tutoring program. Finally, each of the interviews and observations must be recorded with a digital recorder that uses AAA batteries—a renewable source of such batteries would be a great help. I also foresee additional costs for printing transcriptions and occasionally taking advantage of transcription services.

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236. Are Anxiety Symptoms Expressed Differently in Rural and Urban Elderly?

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Anna Urbaniak Psychology John Paul Jameson Arts and Sciences Psychology Oct 01, 2012
Project Description: The purpose of the proposed study is to examine differences in self-reported anxiety symptoms between older adults living in rural and urban areas. It is predicted that individuals from rural areas will endorse more somatic symptoms of anxiety in comparison to their urban counterparts and urban individuals will endorse more cognitive symptoms of anxiety. For the first part of the study, the data for rural population will be obtained from senior centers located in North Carolina. The data for urban individuals will be obtained from New Jersey senior centers. For the second part of the study, the data will be collected from Appalachian State University college student pool. The participants will be asked to fill out the Trimodal Anxiety Questionnaire (TAQ; Lehrer & Woolfolk, 1982) and State-Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety (STICSA; Ree, French, MacLeod, & Locke, 2008) to assess anxiety symptoms. To assess their rural and urban upbringing will be determined through their responses on the demographic sheet. Additionally, participants will be asked to complete Geriatrics Anxiety Inventory, Penn State Worry Questionnaire and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF measure. The estimated number of participants is 156 (78 from Boone, NC and 78 from New Jersey). There will be only two requirements for the participating in the study, older adults will be 60 years old and older and they have to be Native English speakers.

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237. Measuring the Effectiveness of MPG (miles per gallon) Driver Support Tool Presence in Improving Automobile Fuel Efficiency

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Charles Davidson Appropriate Technology Marie Hoepfl Fine and Applied Arts Technology Oct 01, 2012
Project Description: Goals: - Research study wishes to collect data on a group of volunteer drivers to determine if automobile fuel efficiency is changed through the use of a driver support tool (scangauge II device). - Student researcher wishes to work with one study volunteer per week until graduation (Dec 2012). - Student researcher wishes to pass research study on to interested Appropriate Technology graduate students for continued data collection/analysis. Outcomes: - Student researcher believes that study will reveal an increase in MPGs and more efficient driving habits after volunteer driver's are exposed to driver support tool. Student researcher role: - Student researcher will be responsible for collecting volunteers and materials for study. - Researcher will attempt to meet with one volunteer/week to explain and carry out a road test and survey to be used for data collection. - Researcher will be responsible for recording, compiling, and analyzing data from quantitative study and presenting findings to an academic body.

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238. The Music of Play: Using Play in Music Therapy to Develop Fine Motor and Speech Skills in Preschool Children with Developmental Delays

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Aaron Dallman Music Therapy Christine Leist School of Music Music Oct 01, 2012
Project Description: This study will examine the use of play in music therapy to improve the fine motor and speech skills in preschoolers who have delays in the aforementioned areas. The researcher will identify several interventions in music therapy that target the goal areas and will evaluate the effectiveness of these treatments. During the music therapy intervention, the researcher will use a variety of objects including instruments, toys, and drawing to develop both fine motor and communication. Toys will be individualized to the interests and preferences of the child. Sessions will be held twice weekly for ten weeks. Each session will be video recorded so the researcher can implement the music therapy treatment and be fully present for the child. After the sessions, the investigator will view the recording and code the client behaviors and responses.

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239. Comparison of water filtration systems and their appropriateness to a developing village

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Jacob Murray Appropriate Technology William Pfleger Fine and Applied Arts Technology Oct 01, 2012
Project Description: I will be comparing four different systems of purification based on effectiveness, ease to build/repair, cost, and the materials used. The four systems are as follows: 1. Moringa Seed Flocculation 2. Rapid Sand Filtration 3. Charcoal Filtration 4. Biological Filtration I will take a fish tank and fill it with a set volume of water and put a pump in it which has a connection with the piping to go to 1" piping which each system will hook up to. The first system will have water poured into a second fish tank. Crushed moringa will be added and stirred in and I will wait for it to flocculate and settle, then skim it. The Second & Third system will take the sand and biochar and put them into a cut and sewn bag made from a cotton pillowcase, since cotton cloth is readily available. The bags of material will fit inside a section of 2" piping that will hook to the outtake from the pump. The Last System will employ a long narrow fishtank with dirt and plants in it to act as a living system, such as the project Bobbi Jo Swinson did. The reason I want to do this is firstly so there can be a solid comparison between the systems. Secondly, I want to evaluate how appropriate each system would be in a poor village. Lastly, I want to evaluate how easy they are to build and potentially how easy to fix them. The reason for this is most people in a developing village have not had enough money to afford an education, so sticking a high technology solution in there would be useless to them if it breaks and they cannot repair it. Overall the whole purpose will be to identify which type of purification system can be easily made, employed and kept up with, using available local materials and be affordable and effective. People seem to be in the habit of bring over some great new technology and leaving it in some village, but the technology breaks and no one is there to fix it so it sits there wasted. I want something they can build and maintain themselves that will benefit them the most.

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240. Separation and Quantitation of Ursolic and Betulinic acids from Apple Peels

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Christina Zehia Nutrition and Healthcare Management Martin Root Health Sciences Nutrition and Healthcare Management Sep 28, 2012
Project Description: Ursolic and betulinic acids are two compounds that are found in apple peels. Many people know that fruit has many very beneficial health properties but not many know exactly why. Ursolic and betulinic acids house properties with numerous health benefits that are antiproliferative (anti-cancer), hypglycemic (anti-diabetic), anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory in nature. These two compounds are of growing interest within the health sciences. However, this field of study is one that has limited research among human subjects. In order to successfully develop a method that effectively separates and quantifies the two acids from the apple peels there are several key techniques that are needed. The budget items that have been requested are those necessary to use high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)in order to extract the compounds being researched from the apple peels. Our plan is to first work with pure standards to develop a method to separate and identify these two acids by HPLC. We will then develop methods to optimally extract these compounds from apple peels by extraction with organic solvents and then separation by HPLC. Once successful separation and extraction methods have been achieved we will then move forward in our research and measure the levels of the acids in a variety of apples. Analyzing the results that are produced from the HPLC (through both standards and unknowns) yield percentages and standard curves that can be used to further conclude results about the acids. If the proposed budge items are provided we aim to have developed optimal methods for both separating and extracting ursolic and betulinic acids from apple peels so that further research and analysis may be continued.

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241. Investigation of VEGF regulatory factors under normal pregnancy and mimicked natural conditions

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Takako Ohashi Biology Chishimba Mowa Arts and Sciences Biology Sep 28, 2012
Project Description: For my graduate thesis study, I have investigated factors that regulate the synthesis or regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor using non-pregnant mice treated with these regulatory factors in order to mimic conditions under natural and normal pregnancy. Some of these factors or conditions include sex steroid hormones (e.g., 17?-estradiol) and hypoxia. Prior to these studies, I performed a number of foundational studies, including Characterizing the normal protein expression of VEGF and its receptors ( KDR and Flt-1) in the cervix of non-pregnant and pregnant mice using various techniques, such as confocal H and E staining, immunofluorescence, real time PCR and Western blot. The same techniques have been used to analyze changes of VEGF and its receptors in treated mice (estrogen and hypoxia), except for real time PCR. My next step is largely to perform real-time PCR on cervical tissues from mice treated by various factors likely to regulate VEGF expression (cited earlier) in order to determine gene expression of VEGF and its receptors, e.g., under hypoxic and following sex steroid treatment, and some limited amount of Western blot and confocal immunofluorescence. . The long term goal of our lab is to identify the role of the vasculature in cervical remodeling, as it relates to pre-term labor, which is a major obstetrical problem affecting both the mother and babies. From the previous OSR awards, I have been able to generate data that presented at several conferences, and am very close on sending my manuscript for publication, as soon as I am done with the last project, i.e., real time PCR, a bit of and confocal immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Funds from this award will be used to purchase real time PCR supplies, including RNA isolation kit, cDNA generation and real time PCR supplies. Any financial assistance will be greatly appreciated.

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242. Characterizing Seasonal Change in Ericoid Mycorrhizal Community Composition in Response to Edaphic Factors

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Emily Price Biology John Walker Arts and Sciences Biology Sep 28, 2012
Project Description: In this study I will assess the community structure of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi associated with Rhododendron maximum, a forest understory shrub. This shrub shapes the tree community composition in a forest by suppressing recruitment via shade creation and altering soil chemistry via recalcitrant litter production in areas where it has grown. Previous studies have shown that the mycorrhizal fungi associated with R. maximum form diverse communities in the roots as they exchange nutrients with the plants. My study will be the first to characterize shifts in diversity and composition in these communities in response to seasonal change. I hypothesize that the structure of R. maximum mycorrhizal communities changes in diversity and composition in response to shifts in edaphic factors across the growing season. If this hypothesis is supported, it would imply that such changes in response to environmental shifts give R. maximum greater plasticity in its ability to acquire nutrients from the soil through its symbionts. My study site is located at Gilley Field Station, a 120 hectare research preserve in Ashe County, NC owned by Appalachian State University. The site contains forested land that includes stands of R. maximum. Two transects consisting of ten R. maximum plants each were set up in fall 2010. At each plot, I collected a soil sample and 3 root samples. I isolated fungi from 3 root tips separated from each root sample. Thus far, I have taken 60 soil samples and cultured 428 fungal samples from roots I collected from these plants in April, July, and October of 2011. I will extract DNA from all fungal cultures and amplify the ITS region using universal primers and PCR. After the PCR amplification in our lab, I will send the DNA to Eurofins MWG Operon where the samples can be sequenced. Around half of the fungal cultures have been analyzed already. Then I will BLAST search viable reads as a means of comparing my samples to known fungal taxa. The soil samples will be analyzed for C:N ratio, cation and anion content, and pH by the Department of Chemistry at Appalachian State University. Finally, I will use PC-ORD to determine through statistical analysis whether edaphic factors influence the seasonal community structure of the R. maximum-associated ericoid mycorrhizal fungi.

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243. Echinacea attenuates inflammation-induced expression of pro-inflammatory proteins in the birth canal

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Jordan Estes Biology Chishimba Mowa Arts and Sciences Biology Sep 28, 2012
Project Description: We have hypothesized that medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activities, such as Echinacea, the top botanical product in the US, could be used to modulate inflammation-induced preterm labor, the leading cause of preterm labor. Therefore, the purpose of my thesis project is to test whether whole ethanolic extracts of Echinacea can attenuate infection-induced inflammation in the birth canal of mice and inflammation-induced preterm labor. We have determined optimal concentrations of Echinacea by analyzing expression of pro-inflammatory genes in whole cervices of mice. Based on our preliminary data, funded by previous OSR grant, our ex vivo and in vivo studies show that 1 mg of Echinacea is the most effective (optimal) dose for attenuating inflammation-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes. In the current proposal, which builds on the previously OSR-funded project, we will analyze changes in the protein expression of pro-inflammatory factors. We will also request funding from the Cratis D. Williams student research grant to help gather supplies for gene expression studies on other aspects of this project. We, therefore, request for protein supplies to enable me to perform protein expression experiments.

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244. Potential new hydrogen catalyst systems: Synthesis and characterization of new cobalt-coordinated glyoxime complexes

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Corbin Ester Chemistry Dale Wheeler Arts and Sciences Chemistry Sep 28, 2012
Project Description: Due to the decreasing supplies of fossil fuels, the need for alternate energy sources is increasing. For sustainable initiatives, the focus on solar to chemical energy is of current importance. Molecular hydrogen, which can be produced through the utilization of photochemical water splitting, is a clean, convenient, and promising source of energy. On Sep 4, 2012, a research paper from CalTech (see citation below) was published describing the reaction intermediate as a Co(II) hydride in the conversation of water to hydrogen. In Dr. Dale Wheeler’s lab (and Dr. Michael Hambourger’s lab), several research students have been exploring potentially new hydrogen catalysis systems during the past 2 years. Currently, the focus is on the synthesis and characterization of new complexes that alter the molecular ligands surrounding the cobalt catalytic site by changing the electron donating and accepting groups on the coordinating ligands. My contribution to the project will be to synthesize several new complexes that will then react forming the cobalt catalyst. I have been involved in this research project since October 2011, and currently I am using oxalyl chloride to replace the chlorines and synthesize various ethandione derivatives. This semester, my goal is to create five different derivatives (two of which are near purification) using methoxy, pyrrol, n-hexyl, p-methylphenyl, and pyridine groups; these derivatives will be converted into their analogous glyoxime complexes, and subsequently coordinated with cobalt. To complete these syntheses, several solvents and reagents (for Grignard and Friedel-Craft’s reactions), NMR solvents (in order to analyze our products), and IR spectroscopy materials will be required.

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245. Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes synthesized using Chemical Vapour Deposition with cyclopentadienyliron dicarbonyl dimer as a precursor

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Andrew Zeidell Physics Brad Conrad Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Sep 28, 2012
Project Description: Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are a fascinating material, with numerous possible applications ranging from better and smaller electronics to improved body armor and reinforced epoxies. A roadblock to widespread implementation is efficient synthesis, specifically quantity and quality. This project involves characterizing the growth of CNTs in the Physics and Astronomy Department at ASU; where using a recently acquired CNT reactor, several growths were performed. The injector needles often get clogged during reactions and will require a cleaning kit as well as replacement needles for when they become irreversibly clogged. To investigate the CNTs as-grown, quartz slides are required to provide a substrate for the CNTs to form on, since as of now they can only be removed from the sides of the furnace. In an effort to prepare our initial findings for publishing in a scientific journal, further characterization is required. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used as the first analysis tool, but only gives a cursory measurement of samples. To fully characterize the efficiency of the reactor and the purity of the samples, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Raman Spectroscopy, and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) will need to be done. TEM of CNTs will provide a look at individual formation of nanotubes, essential for applications and will require Dimethylformamide and TEM grids to investigate the samples. To place the samples on the grids, CNTs will be suspended in Dimethylformamide, and dropped onto each TEM grid. TGA will provide an in-depth analysis as to the composition of samples and concentration of contaminants and will require us to send the samples to collaborators off-campus for analysis. The collaborators will also perform the Raman Spectroscopy on the samples. The completion of characterization will yield data that will be used in our publication.

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246. Delineating mechanisms underlying Echinacea’s anti-inflammatory activities in the birth canal of LPS-treated mice

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Benjamin Coe Biology, Pre-professional Chishimba Mowa Arts and Sciences Biology Sep 28, 2012
Project Description: : Medicinal herbs such as Echinacea have been shown to block inflammation in the birth canal of mice through induction of heme-oxygenease-1 (HO-1) expression, which is mediated by the c-Jun N –terminal Kinase (JNK) mitogen activating protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. The primary purpose of this project is to examine whether the anti-inflammatory activities of Echinacea in the birth canal of bacteria-infected mouse is mediated by HO-1 via the JNK signaling pathway. We have preliminary data generated this past summer that shows that Echinacea: i) blocks infection-induced inflammation, and ii) promotes expression of HO-1 mRNA, in the birth canal of mouse. Supporting literature also shows that HO-1 is a potent inhibitor of multiple tissue insults, including inflammation and that Echinacea has been shown to block inflammation via HO-1 in tissue types, such as liver and lung. Funding from OSR is requested to build upon the generated preliminary data through baseline studies using inhibitors of the c-Jun N – terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen activating protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Therefore, in this proposal, I request for funds to enable me purchase three different inhibitors of the MAPK pathways.

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247. Evaluating Solar Panel Tracking Compared to Fixed Axis Panel with Photovoltaic Arrays

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Alexander Merwin Chemistry Brad Conrad Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Sep 28, 2012
Project Description: The need for efficient solar power and renewable energy sources is becoming exponentially greater every year. This research project is to develop a solar panel tracking system with which we can log its power output in comparison to a fixed angle array. Solar technology is becoming more prevalent in the private sector. The market for solar energy doubled in the US over the last four years, but the use of fixed-angle panels accounts for most new installations. A tracking mechanism is a simple way to improve solar system performance. Tracking systems follow the Sun across the sky to maximize exposure and collect more energy than fixed panel arrays throughout the day. Tracking is estimated to add between 35-45% efficiency to a solar panel system. This research will help further ASU’s reputation as a steward of the environment. It is also an interdisciplinary learning experience for those involved as it requires skills from Astronomy, Technology, Computer Science, Mathematics, Physics, and Chemistry. We will build a small scale solar tracker that emulates larger-scale renewable energy technology. The module will be used for classroom demonstration purposes, public outreach, and modeling of solar energy systems. This model will later be used as a prototype for a larger system that will be installed on a campus rooftop. The model will be large enough to place on a tabletop but be easily transported. An Instapark 10-Watt Mono-crystalline solar panel with the capability to charge a 12 volt battery will need to be purchased (~14 V Voc). Standard 12 volt batteries will store energy for use later, such as during demonstrations. A microcontroller will take light sensor data to track the Sun, control small motors to orient the panels, and record panel statistics. This data can be used to further optimize the solar tracking and model the output of a tracker as opposed to a fixed panel array. This will be valuable data to have when scaling up to larger physical systems. To protect the batteries and optimize charging, a charge regulator will be needed to control the amount of energy going into the batteries. This will stop current when the battery is fully charged and stop the flow of energy back into the solar array. Wires and connectors will also need to be purchased to connect the solar panel to the regulator, to the batteries, and to the microcontroller. The design plan is to use a light isolator with photo sensors on a dual axis tracker to update the panel’s position in real time. This project will be done in conjunction with a number of other undergraduates; we expect to be finished by mid November.

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248. Advanced Arduino Powered Solar Tracking Device using CdS Photocells

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Nikolai Hesterberg Physics Brad Conrad Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Sep 28, 2012
Project Description: Photovoltaic panels are one of the most important and practical sustainable living technologies on the market but to maximize efficiency the surface of the solar cells must be perpendicular to the sun’s light. The goal of our joint project is to build a prototype sun tracking system that can be used to increase the efficiency of solar panels. To always be facing the sun means that the sun must be tracked throughout the day and the front face of the panels must be rotated along two axes to orient directly at it throughout the year. One axis is primarily used to account for the day to day motions of the sun across the sky. Since the path the sun takes through the year changes with our orbit, a second axis is needed to account for this. My particular research project will involve designing and building a frame and electronics system that effectively controls the movement of the photovoltaic panel to track the sun throughout the day. The tracking device is composed of four main parts. First, there is a base that allows for two directions of motion, rotating left and right and tilting up and down. Next, a system of servo motors and gears is set up to move the tracker along the two axes. A microcontroller and photo resistors are used to sense the location of the sun and send a signal to the motors about which position to turn to. With my simplistic design, this system will be easily adapted for many multidisciplinary purposes. Lastly, the Arduino will be programmed to use the sensors to detect the sunlight, as well as double check the location with astronomical data on where the sun should be. A serious challenge in the design process is to minimize the total amount of power used to run the tracker. This is very important, because solar panels will likely be attached in the future, and the tracker must not use more power than the solar panel gains from tracking the sun. Solar panels can be attached to my rig to generate electricity or it can hold an array of sensors to gather data for Appalachian’s atmospheric interdisciplinary research center, Appalair. There are plans for the tracker to be adapted into a heliostat for the Astronomy department’s Dark Sky Observatory under supervision from Mr. David Sitar. The work will span the fields of Physics, Appropriate Technology, Environmental Science, and Astronomy, making it truly interdisciplinary. My project will be completed through collaboration with two other undergraduate students -working together will allow us to fully develop an operational sun tracker that has the potential for continued learning as we scale up this design and weatherize it for the winter months.

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249. Portable Mechanical Heliostat For Use In Both A Classroom Setting And Public Demonstrations

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Nathan Conners Physics David Sitar Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Sep 28, 2012
Project Description: This project is aimed to create heliostat for use in examining this coming Sun spot cycle. A heliostat is a mechanism used to create a real-time white light image of the Sun through multiple mirrors with one lens used to enlarge the image. The image can then be casted onto a surface and viewed on the large scale or the small scale depending on the audience. As the Sun spot cycle approaches solar maxima in the next year I want to perfect a heliostat design for instructional purposes as well as general outreach. The proposed heliostat will be portable and could be a fundamental tool in solar studies within the classroom. This portable heliostat, mounted onto a table, will make an engaging lab. Unlike the conventional automated heliostat this one will be manipulated through two gears that will move the heliostat along two axes. These changes will allow students to manipulate the device on their own and make solar observations. This type of instruction will allow one instructor to address a larger group of students without having to move from telescope to telescope to answer questions and change filters. This simple instrument would be a vital method to lecturing about solar surface features and differential rotation. The use of two mirrors and one lens will allow for a variable focal length. This could potentially double as an activity for experimenting with calculating the required focal length to focus the image. This would help students understand the inner workings of a telescope and allow them to verify the equations for focal length with real world application. Another application is for public outreach at facilities like Appalachian’s Dark Sky Observatory (DSO) where they are hosting public observation sessions. But this is not the only application. The heliostat will make an excellent demo for the entire Physics and Astronomy department not only in astronomy classes. This would allow faculty, staff, and the Physics and Astronomy Club to use a heliostat to describe a complex cosmological object to the public in a simple and engaging fashion. This would serve to bring attention to the wonderful facilities we have at Appalachian State University. It would also serve as a beautiful aesthetic piece that would engage not only the visual senses with the image of the Sun but also the mind in allowing for hands on manipulation with little wear on the instrument. The applications for this instrument are also varied as the mirrors could be placed onto an automated solar tracker and a large scale of this model could be displayed onto a wall or floor within DSO creating a magnificent display. Funding this heliostat could potentially serve as the backbone for instruction creating an engaging hands on experience for both the avid astronomer as well as the general public.

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250. The characterization of a novel Meis2.2 gene and protein

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Zachary Williams Biology Ted Zerucha Arts and Sciences Biology Sep 28, 2012
Project Description: We have identified a novel gene, zgc:154061, that appears to be utilized during embryonic development. This new gene is genomically linked to the Meis2 gene in all animals we have been able to examine. The Meis2 gene is known to be involved in the embryonic development of the anterior to posterior axis as well as other major roles in brain and eye development. My research project is looking at the characterization of the zgc:154061 gene of which little is currently known. We have recently produced antibodies against the protein. These antibodies bind to the zgc:154061 protein, allowing us to determine where and when the protein is present and therefore likely functioning in developing embryos. This is an important tool when examining a novel gene, giving us the ability to pinpoint the places the gene is expressed at different developing time points. In order to ensure that the antibody is accurately targetting the zgc:154061 protein, additional experiments need to be performed. Currently, we need to perform an immunoprecipitation experiment. This procedure will link together our antibody, protein to beads allowing us to pull them out of solution together and separate them out. After running our results on a gel, we will be able to confirm that our antibody is selecting for the novel protein specifically and analyze the protein via mass spectrometry in order to further characterize this new linked gene.

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251. Walking with Giants

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Alexandra Cirulis Studio Art Ali Raza Fine and Applied Arts Art Sep 28, 2012
Project Description: My name is Alexandra B. Cirulis. I am a senior at Appalachian State University, earning a Bachelor of Fine Arts in Studio art, concentrating in Sculpture and currently working on my thesis show as I plan to graduate in December 2012.Thesis: The creation of art is deeply rooted within human nature. The compelling feeling to express oneself has been a part of human culture for a long time. Art is a pathway for ideas to flourish and transform allowing for the acceptance of new thoughts and the evolution of society.Personally, I love the act of creation for its meditative properties, allowing me to clear my mind of all thought while making. My personal relationship with art, and art’s social nature, are the reasons I have chosen to create a body of work that can help speak to others about the issues we are facing as a society. My generation is faced with the daunting task of securing our planet for the future: accepting a more sustainable way of life, one that is not saturated with over-consumption and production. I want to share my thoughts on this subject through the creation of a body of work for BFA Senior Show 2012 at Turchin Art Center. The pieces will be open for public display on December 7th, 2012. Through the work I want to invite the viewer to acknowledge issues about sustainability, specifically through my own personal inspiration, my family background. My grandparents emigrated a half a century ago from a Northern European country, Latvia. This country is still quite rural and many of my family members live off of the land, not taking too much from it and treating it with an ancient respect.Baltic peoples, despite centuries of occupation, still practice sustainable processes to this day. These practices are deeply rooted within the Latvian people. I feel that many young Americans lack a heritage or culture that lived in balance with the Earth. As a young American artist, I feel it is my social responsibility to take the gift I have been given, my heritage, and use it to express the need for change. Methodology: I want to pay homage to my ancestors through the creation of two large steel and leather creatures that loosely allude to my grandmother and grandfather. The general form of the steel pieces will be large nine-foot boat-shapes. The vessel shape is inspired by the Nordic Viking ship forms. Nordic culture has greatly influenced the Baltic area. Vessels have the ability to carry things, provide support, and be a safe haven across a sea of obstacles. These great ancestral boats will stand eight feet high on eight steel rod legs. These legs reference oars, as if they are boats carrying ideas from the past, helping us make progressive altruistic decisions. They will be covered in pig intestine or sausage casing, which dries hard and transparent like a skin. This material will help give the large steel boats a humanoid quality, transforming them from steel skeletons into prehistoric deified characters. The boats allude to sustainable practices as they are carried over through generations. I want the viewer to feel motivated to think and act in a more balanced way, propelled by the omnipotent and protective nature of our ancestors.

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252. Dopant Effects on Grain Boundaries in diF-TES-ADT Thin Film

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Cortney Bougher Physics Brad Conrad Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Aug 20, 2012
Project Description: The proposed project will examine the organic molecule difluorinated triethylsilylethynyl anthradithiophene (diF-TES-ADT) which is a high performance material, with a single crystal mobility of at least 6 cm2/Vs and a subthreshold slope of 1V/decade. DiF-TES-ADT (synthesized by collaborator Dr. John Anthony at the University of Kentucky) consists of a carbon ring backbone structure, where delocalized electrons form a pi electron cloud which encourages charge transport, and silicon side chains to improve molecular solubility. The molecule has been fluorinated to alter packing motifs. For molecular packing such that there is large overlap of the pi-pi orbitals, the charge carrier mobility will be relatively high between molecules. Other crystal structures may produce less desirable orientations, resulting in lower overall mobilities. During deposition, these molecules will form well-ordered crystals on the substrate. However, at the boundaries between crystals molecules will arrange in structures that are both less dense and have less pi-pi overlap yielding greater resistance to charge carriers. Thus, when a voltage is applied across such a region a relatively large voltage drop will arise. The presence of dopants at the grain boundaries is expected to partially alleviate this local increase in resistivity. Specifically, we are interested in dopants which can be removed without disturbing the overall structure. This will allow for kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurement of the same grain boundary set immersed in dopants including dry air, molecular nitrogen (N2), and other trace molecular dopants, such as water and carbon dioxide. KPFM is a mode of tapping mode atomic force microscopy, in which the tip mimics the topography of the surface at a height above the surface. A voltage is applied to the tip to minimize tip vibration, thereby equalizing tip and surface potential, enabling potential mapping in conjunction with normal AFM topographical images. We will study diF-TES-ADT in a thin-film transistor device configuration, from samples fabricated by collaborator Dr. Oana Jurchescu at Wake Forest University. My mentor and I will place samples in a pure dopant environment as well as continually dope the surface over the course of the experiment. We will apply a gate voltage by attaching an electrode to the substrate, and will insert electric probes on the source and drain contacts, enabling us to vary the voltage across the conduction channel. I will then perform KPFM characterization of the surface between conduction channels at crystal grain boundaries. Additionally, we will place samples in a pure nitrogen environment, and perform KPFM characterization continuously during the transition from pure nitrogen to other dopants, such as ambient or dry air. This will enable us to thoroughly examine both the effect of the dopants on the electrical properties of the devices, as well as the time scale over which the effects occur.

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253. The Source Apportionment and Characterization of Summertime Ambient Aerosols Using Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Michael Link Chemistry Brett Taubman Arts and Sciences Chemistry Aug 20, 2012
Project Description: In light of a global mean temperature rise, the south eastern United States is experiencing a net cooling effect. The microphysical and chemical properties of ambient aerosols are responsible for this effect due to their direct effect on the radiative budget of the earth through the scattering or absorbing of radiation, their indirect effects on the character of clouds acting as cloud condensation nuclei effecting cloud droplet number and size, as well as their indirect effect on the perturbation on the thermal layers between clouds effecting cloud lifetime. The microphysical properties of ambient aerosols can be characterized with relative ease using traditional off-line aerosol measurement techniques, though to obtain a comprehensive chemical picture of ambient aerosols, an instrument with a high time resolution and multi-faceted measurement capabilities is needed. The chemical attributes of these aerosols are what is being specifically addressing for this project. An ASI Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) will be used to give a size-resolved, quantitative compositional information on ambient aerosols taken from the Appalair station. Data collected over a series of weeks during the summertime will be analyzed for chemical loading trends or chemical loading events. From the samples taken, individual species will be characterized, source apportionment analysis will be performed, and eventually radiative impact estimates will be able to be quantified when integrated with information from additional data acquired from Appalair.

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254. Acute Protein Synthesis Pathway Activation by Phytoecdysteroids in Aged Skeletal Muscle

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Marcus Lawrence Exercise Science R. Andrew Shanely Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Jul 24, 2012
Project Description: Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and is associated with diminished signaling in the PI3k-Akt pathway, the key control point for protein synthesis (PS). Diminished PI3k-Akt pathway signaling leads to decreased independence and drastically increases the risk of all-cause mortality. Phytoecdysteroids (PE), from the plant Ajuga turkestanica (AT) (i.e. 20-hydroxyecdysone; 20E) activates the PI3k-Akt pathway to stimulate PS in muscle cells & increases strength in young rats. Our lab recently found that 20-mo old male mice (= 65 yr old human) supplemented (SUP) with 20E for 28 d had 31% & 40% larger muscle fiber (cell) cross-sectional area (CSA) (i.e. muscle mass) in muscles of the calf and arm, respectively, compared to control. We then hypothesized that the increased CSA could be explained by 2 different mechanisms: 1) 20E SUP induces fiber type transitions from slower, smaller fibers to faster, larger fibers (we are now investigating this) or 2) 20E SUP increases PI3k-Akt signaling. PI3k-Akt signaling was measured on Day 29 (i.e. 24 h post) following the 28-day PE SUP and no differences were observed between treatments. The goal of that aim of the study was to investigate the chronic effects of PE on PI3k-Akt signaling, thus signaling that occurred under 24 h (i.e. acute) was missed. These findings led us to hypothesize that the increases in CSA were due to acute (<24 h) PI3k-Akt activation. In support of this, research has found that PE analogues cause peak PI3k-Akt activation within 60-120 min. As part of a larger study by Drs. Zwetsloot and Shanely, we SUP 20-mo old male mice with either 20E, an extract produced from the plant AT (ATE) or control (n=7/each) and euthanized the animals 90 min. post SUP (acute SUP). Skeletal muscles were removed for molecular & histochemical analysis. The current proposed project will determine the degree to which acute PE treatment (20E & ATE) causes PI3k-Akt activation in aged mouse skeletal muscle. Gastrocnemius muscles will be analyzed for the activation of specific protein targets in the PI3K-Akt pathway using standard Western blot analyses. Western blot membranes will be analyzed for the phosphorylated form of the protein targets indicating increased activity of the PI3K-Akt pathway and putative activation of PS. Immunoblots will be measured for densitometry using NIH Image J and statistical analyses performed using SPSS 20. My goal is to present these findings at a national scientific conference in my field, in addition to these data, as part of a larger manuscript, being published in a respectable peer-reviewed journal. This will be the first study to measure acute PI3k-Akt activation by PE in muscle tissue, let alone aged muscle. I hypothesize that 20E will increase the acute PI3k-Akt activation more than ATE or vehicle alone. Increased PI3k-Akt activity by PE SUP would support further investigation of using PE in elderly people to help maintain skeletal muscle mass with aging.

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255. Comparison of the re-use of the enzyme Thermomyces languinosa via ultrafiltration versus gravity settling in the transesterification of waste vegetable to produce biodiesel.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Rebecca Hobden Renewable Energy Engineering Marie Hoepfl Arts and Sciences Technology Jul 24, 2012
Project Description: This research aims to evaluate the chemical and economic factors that influence the use of the free enzyme Thermomyces langinosa in the small scale commercial production of biodiesel made from waste oils. This will be determined through the ability to effectively recover and re-use the costly enzymes. Traditionally, biodiesel producers convert the tri-glycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) in feedstock into fatty acid acyl esters (FAAE) via an alkali and/or acidic catalyzed esterification and/or transesterification reaction with an alcohol. Once converted the FAAE needs to be purified and dried to remove excess methanol needed to drive the reaction, unwanted soaps formed during the reaction, catalyst, glycerol, and water. The catalyst influences the presence and interaction many of these by-products have during the reaction and cleaning process. Enzymes have been explored as a possible catalyst, but have not yet been used commercially. However, enzymes hold a lot of promise as an economical catalyst because they reduce energy input necessary by reacting at lower temperatures and produce purer glycerol (up to 99%), a high priced commodity. Enzymes are also beneficial in that (i)Fewer caustic materials, such as bases and acids, are needed. (ii)Purification of biodiesel is easier by avoiding the formation of soap by using less methanol to drive the reaction. (iii)It allows the use of lower quality feedstock. (iv)Less waste water is produced because less methanol, which is difficult to separate from water, is needed to drive the reaction. Historically, the largest economic deterrent for using liquid enzyme catalysts was the inability to recover and re-use the costly enzymes. Two ways in which liquid enzyme catalysts can be recovered is through gravity settling of products and decantation of by-products, enzymes and biodiesel or with a filtration system. Partnering with Piedmont Biofuels in Pittsboro, NC, this research will run two sets of five consecutive batches of biodiesel catalyzed by Thermomyces Langinosa enzymes which have been recovered and recycled from the previous batch. In both sets, the initial run will use previously un-used enzymes. The next four batches of the first set of batches will use enzymes recovered via gravity settling from the previous batch. Similarly, the next four batches of the second set of batches will use enzyme recovered with a pilot scale Tangential Flow Filtration (TFF) unit designed for and leased to Piedmont Biofuels by SmartFlow Technologies, Inc in Apex, NC. The effectiveness of enzyme re-use will be determined by the percent conversion of TG and FFA to FAAE as the enzyme continues to be re-used. A gas chromatograph will be used to determine the amount of FAAE at the end of each of the 10 runs.

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256. Waste Vegetable Oil as an Alternative Fuel in a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Eric Sapp Appropriate Technology Jim Houser Fine and Applied Arts Technology Jul 24, 2012
Project Description: According to the EIA’s Annual Energy Outlook 2012, America’s light-duty vehicle sector accounts for more than 8 million barrels of oil per day. This results in approximately a quarter of our total annual national CO2 emissions. This project is targeted at the use of waste vegetable oil (WVO) to supplement for diesel fuel. Under faculty guidance, I and a team of six others will install a WVO system in a 1987 Mercedes 190d as a class project for ASU’s Biofuels Technology (TEC 4700) course. We already possess a number of the parts required to convert a diesel engine to run on waste vegetable oil; however, there are various components that are required in order for the engine to run during all times of the year. At around 20oC, WVO begins to solidify and becomes unusable as a fuel source. We are partnering with Gerry Tygielski, the director of Mountain Mission Farms and president of New River Earth Institute, who owns and operates a Mercedes 190d on a blend of biofuel and diesel. Mountain Mission Farms hopes to convert this to run on straight vegetable oil throughout the year. They have purchased a variety of parts, and have asked the students in TEC 4700 to assist in the further development and implementation of this system. With the help of this grant we will purchase the remaining parts to modify the existing fuel delivery system for a heated, WVO system. Residential WVO substitution requires a diesel powered drive train as well as the addition of a heat-source and filtration system. With the aid provided from an OSR Grant, my group plans to develop an efficient, robust WVO loop for use in this vehicle. The design will utilize both active and passive design techniques and include an active heat exchanger. As mentioned above, we already possess some of the required components to allow this vehicle to run on waste vegetable oil; the next step is to purchase the electronic system controls and to begin construction. We will require fuel lines, fittings, and other miscellaneous components. We will use the State Farm Biofuels Teaching and Research Center as our home base for the project, and we plan to be finished by early August, 2012. Mountain Mission Farms is an experiment in sustainable resource management and off-grid energy capabilities. The completed project will be donated back to Mountain Missions Farms in hopes to further their continued interest, research, and implementation of various off-grid and green technologies.

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257. "False Indigo" This short film/dance is a black-hearted modern fairytale making a statement of plastic surgery. After being incessantly ridiculed, a girl without color makes a desperate move in order to obtain beauty when she enlists the help of an uncertified, experimental doctor. The doctor assures Indigo that he can not only make her beautiful, but even more so than the other girls. He sews a flower to her skin, and in order to avoid vanity, sends her away to earn the rest of her flowery skin. Indigo dances before audiences and leaves them in awe. After each performance she is showered in flowers, which she gathers and delivers to the doctor so that he may continue the surgery. With the surgery done, at the end of her final performance she reveals her new and flowery skin. The skin is beautiful and elaborate, but soon Indigo realizes that it has taken her humanity. The story ends in a confrontation with the unstable doctor.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Stephen Volkman Communication Derek Davidson Fine and Applied Arts Theatre and Dance Jul 03, 2012
Project Description: Since we have begun making films, my partner, Alex Wolf, and I have grown immensely in the art. We are in the beginning stages of building our own production company from the ground up, and we truly believe that “False Indigo” will give our company an incredible first impression. Over the past year, we have made four videos, with more on the way. With this project we intend to slow down the production process for the sake of precision and expertise. We are expecting to spend several months in pre-production, a few weeks filming, and approximately two months in post production. Though we have had an extremely limited number of resources, we have received incredibly positive attention for our videos. What excites us most about “False Indigo” is that we finally have the opportunity to combine several of the necessary components of film. With this project we are now able to work with a choreographer, artists for storyboarding, make-up artists, lighting technicians, set designers, costume designers, composers, sound designers and mixers, and more. These people have decided to volunteer their help out of their faith in the project’s future success. We hope this project is to be our grand entrance into the film festival world, and considering the publicity of the published play “The pursuit of Mr. Rockefeller,” any success on the part of “False Indigo” would bring tremendous attention to App State, which has been struggling to introduce film into its many educational opportunities for quite some time now. Much of the budget is to be used in either costume design or film equipment. The costume of the protagonist, Indigo, is to be quite intricate. Not only will Indigo, and only Indigo, be in black and white, but her costume will be an elaborate skin made of a variety of artificial flowers, thus the high cost of the materials involved. The film equipment includes lighting, which those advising my partner and I emphasize that lighting is of the utmost importance for an aesthetically beautiful film. The boom microphone extension and the microphone muff will allow us to receive a more potent, clear, and powerful sound, and the handheld steadicam will allow for a greater range of shake-free filming. These components are absolutely necessary to compete in the very competitive film festivals we wish to enter. Thank you for your time and consideration.

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258. Development of Sensing Systems to Monitor the Hydrolysis of ?-Lactam Antibiotics

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kaitlin Rzasa Chemistry Libby Puckett Arts and Sciences Chemistry Jul 03, 2012
Project Description: The problem of resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics has become widespread. The aim of this project is to create a fusion protein between the genes for ?-lactamase, the gene responsible for antibiotic resistance, and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). ?-Lactamase is a protein that bacteria have developed to catalyze the cleavage of the ?-lactam ring present in ?-lactam antibiotics (penicillins), thus rendering the antibiotic inactive. The ?-lactam ring is the feature that makes the antibiotic effective by preventing bacterial cell wall synthesis during replication. The inactivation of the ?-Lactam ring is accompanied by the release of a proton, thereby lowering the local pH. In order to monitor this catalysis, a pH dependent reporter protein is necessary. For this reason, EGFP, a variant of green fluorescent protein, was chosen. In the assay, the EGFP domain of the fusion protein recognizes this drop in pH due to ?-lactam hydrolysis, and its level of fluorescence decreases over time. This project has two major directions – the development of an in vitro protein-based assay, which is concluded, and the development of an in vivo cell-based system, which is ongoing. Both systems will be useful in exploring new ?-lactamase inhibitors as well as new antibiotic cocktails. The proposed budget is necessary, because, without the listed supplies, research cannot continue. The Miniprep Kit is used to isolate genomic DNA from the bacterial cultures. The PCR Purification kit is used to stop the restriction of the DNA by the digestion enzymes. The Gel Extraction Kit is used to remove the DNA from the agarose gel after it has been run through gel electrophoresis to separate the genes we want from the rest of the DNA.

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259. Method Development for the Analysis of Estrogens Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) by Katie Estridge, Carol Babyak, and Wendy Lewis

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Alec Daye Chemistry Carol Babyak Arts and Sciences Chemistry Jul 03, 2012
Project Description: It has been shown that high estrogen levels in natural waters can cause mutations of fish genitalia (Croley, Timothy R.; Mass spectrometry applied to the analysis of estrogens in the environment). We hypothesize that the estrogen levels in the surface water downstream from the Boone waste water treatment plant (WWTP) may corresponded directly with the fluctuation of the student population caused by the academic calendar. The goal of this research is to develop a robust analytical method using solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) so that water samples can be collected in order to confirm or refute our hypothesis. We recently confirmed that the tune method developed by a previous student we in fact optimized. We then determined that the eluents for the LC-MS that gave the most reproducible results were LC-MS grade water and a 1:3 mixture of methanol and acetonitrile (both LC-MS grade). Currently a preventative maintenance schedule for the LC-MS is under examination to ensure reproducibility throughout the future. It was determined that 95:5 acetonitrile to water (LC-MS grade) needs to be flushed through the system every two weeks for five or more hours at least. Also the detection limits for this method are under examination and the results are very promising as the highest concentration for an unconfirmed MDL is 0.06 ppm. Once the MDLs are confirmed the project will then examine the percent recovery of solid phase extractions using the ENVI-18 solid phase extraction (SPE) tubes and sources of analyte loss during this process. The items listed in the budget are currently in high use, very low, or needed for the next step of the project. Our current methods require a large amount of acetonitrile, methanol, and water and there is not much methanol left. The ENVI-18 SPE tubes are needed for the next step of the experiment, which is to optimize extraction of estrogens from water samples.

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260. Application of Sequential Extraction to Selenium in Sediment Affected by a Coal Fly Ash Spill

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Robert O'Reilly Chemistry Carol Babyak Arts and Sciences Chemistry Jul 03, 2012
Project Description: As a result of their low bioavailability, elemental selenium (Se0) and selenide (Se-II) generally have a lower toxicity compared to that of selenite (Se+IV) and selenate (Se+VI). Selenite and selenate are relatively more toxic due to their tendency to oxidize other compounds, resulting in the destruction of cells.8 Selenium is known to negatively affect aquatic ecosystems mainly due to its toxic impact on fish. In general, selenium poisoning in fish is not observed because adult fish can appear healthy, even though reproductive failure is occurring. Selenium poising in fish mainly effects the eggs, which they receive from the female’s diet until they are laid. Upon hatching these poisoned fish may suffer from birth defects or death, causing entire fish populations to die out over the course of a few years, due to reproductive failure.

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261. nspC Regulation by Polyamines and Iron in V. cholerae

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Anthony Angotti Biology Ece Karatan Arts and Sciences Biology Jul 03, 2012
Project Description: The gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera. V. cholerae’s potent virulence may be partially attributed to its ability to form biofilms. Biofilms are formed when bacterial cells adhere to surfaces and subsequently bind to each other to form an extracellular matrix. Biofilms provide protection from environmental hazards like antibiotics, acidic conditions, and low nutrient availability. Many signals in the environment can regulate biofilms. One signal is the polyamine norspermidine, which has been shown to upregulate biofilm formation. V. cholerae can produce norspermidine by transcribing a gene called nspC. Although it has not been studied extensively in V. cholerae, it is likely that nspC is regulated by environmental stimuli. One possible environmental effecter of nspC is iron. Ferric iron (Fe(III)+) has been shown to affect biofilm formation in many other bacteria and is important for V. cholerae. V. cholerae uses different mechanisms to acquire iron from the environment. One mechanism is the use of siderophores, which are secreted by bacteria in low iron conditions to capture Fe(III)+ and bring it back to the cell. The V. cholerae siderophore, vibriobactin, has a norspermidine backbone. This makes it is highly likely that there is a link between iron availability, vibriobactin synthesis, and norspermidine production. This project will test the expression of nspC using quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). V. cholerae will be cultured in varying concentrations of norspermidine and Fe(III)+. We hypothesize that high levels of norspermidine should reduce the level of nspC expression because if V. cholerae can acquire the polyamine from the environment there should be no reason to use energy synthesizing it. Due to the likely connection between iron availability, vibriobactin synthesis, and norspermidine production we will study the expression of the nspC gene in varying iron concentrations. Understanding the relationship between iron and nspC is necessary to determine how V. cholerae can survive in the human host where iron is extremely limited. Since there may be a link between iron concentration and biofilm formation, which can be a virulence factor, this research may lead to new treatment options for the disease cholera. To perform these assays we have successfully isolated RNA using previous funding by OSR. Using this RNA we will perform qRT-PCR with Power SYBR green master mix. We have also created mutants defective in vibriobactin production and uptake to analyze with qRT-PCR to understand the mechanism behind iron regulation of nspC. We have observed the presence of the mutations using colony PCR. To confirm that the mutations were successful at inhibiting vibriobactin production we require CAS agar (CAS, HDTMA, and FeCl3). CAS agar indicates siderophore secretion by the presence of an orange ring around cell densities.

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262. Spatial Variation of Volatile Organic Compounds Associated With Gas Production Operations in Southwestern Pennsylvania

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Brittney Mitchell Chemistry Barkley Sive Arts and Sciences Chemistry Jul 03, 2012
Project Description: Hydraulic fracturing, commonly referred to as fracking, is a method used to recover natural gas from shale rock by using highly pressurized, chemically treated water to create fractures in shale rock through which natural gas can escape to a well. The burning of natural gas recovered from shale rock is reported to release lower amounts of CO2 than that of oil or coal making it a promising new source for electrical energy (Heywood, 2012). One of the concerns associated with the recovery of natural gas from shale rock is that the emissions from this practice will have an adverse effect on the air quality of regions over or downwind of well sites. Currently, there are no definitive data on the mixing ratio of ambient trace gases at these sites. The purpose of this project is to provide information on the ambient trace gas mixing ratios of sites at or near natural gas production and exploration sites with a focus on spatial and temporal ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements. VOCs and other trace gases are often precursors to the production of ozone. According to Schnell et al. (2009), in cold, stable atmospheric conditions, precursor emissions from natural gas wells can cause rapid photochemical production of ozone. An increase in ozone could cause downwind regions to have an increase in regional haze (e.g. EPA oil and gas report, 2008). We will be collecting whole air samples from June 15-17, 2012 in Southwestern Pennsylvania. During this campaign, spatial distribution of VOCs and other trace gases will be determined by collecting ambient whole air samples along four approximately 100 mile loops radiating from Pittsburgh, PA in four separate directions. Samples will be collected every five to six miles to a total of 18 samples per loop. Daytime and evening samples will be collected along each loop. In addition, the temporal distribution of these gases will be determined by taking hourly samples at two sites over a period of 25-30 hours, one downwind and one upwind of gas production sites. In total, approximately 250 samples will be collected. In situ measurements of CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, SF6, O3, NO, NOy, and HCHO will be made using a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and a gas chromatograph (GC) which are equipped in the mobile lab trailer which will be deployed at the diurnal sampling sites. Analysis of the sampling canisters will be conducted upon return to ASU using a three GC system that is equipped with two flame ionization detectors (FIDs), two electron capture detectors (ECDs), and a mass spectrometer (e.g. Russo et al., 2010). The VOC data collected from this campaign can be used to ensure that policy makers and the public have accurate information available on the effects of hydraulic fracturing on regional air quality so that well informed decisions can be made.

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263. Ruthenium Tris(bipyridine) Cross-Linked Polymer Networks

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kristina Vailonis Chemistry Alexander Schwab Arts and Sciences Chemistry Jul 03, 2012
Project Description: Rubbers (elastomers) are three-dimensional networks of long polymer chains. In current elastomeric materials, the network branch points are permanent which makes the materials incapable of being dissolved or melted. The project proposed here will work towards replacing the network branch points with ruthenium (II) tris(bipyridine) metal coordination complex. It is hoped that the resulting metal coordination polymer networks (MCPN) will form a strong elastomeric material. Additionally, material can be recycled because the metal coordination bonds can be created and destroyed. Polymers are poly(ethylene glycol) bis(3-aminopropyl) terminated. These polymer networks act as rubbers. To make MCPN’s, first the bipyridine is attached to bis(2-aminopropyl) terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane). Gel permeation chromatography and 1H NMR will be used to characterize the bipyridine terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (bpyPDMS). Second, a ruthenium compound is blended with the bpyPDMS to yield the elastomeric material. Films of the ruthenium bpyPDMS mixture will be spread on microscope slides previously cleaned in a potassium hydroxide alcohol bath. UV-vis spectroscopy will be used to determine if the desired product was made. The films will also be monitored to track the rate in which the crosslinking complex forms. The films will be heated under vacuum to increase the rate of complex formation, and the vacuum pump oil is needed for the vacuum pump. BpyPDMS should make a material similar to silicone rubber. Bis(3-aminopropyl) terminated poly(ethylene glycol) could synthesize a material which swells in water with potential biological applications.

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264. Screening Drug Transport through Fluorescence Microscopy

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Clark Brackney Chemistry Jennifer Cecile Arts and Sciences Chemistry Jul 03, 2012
Project Description: Humans absorb anionic drugs through a family of proteins called the organic anion transporters (OATs). While located primarily in the kidneys, these transporters are also expressed in other epithelial tissues such as the brain or liver. Pharmaceutical companies employ mice and other small vertebrates as human substitutes to test drug interaction with the OATs. An invertebrate model system that contains OATs may offer an ethical alternative to animal testing. In the nonmammalian model system, the C. elegans, OATs are expressed in the intestine. While there are differences in the specific makeup of the OAT proteins between humans and C. elegans, the drug interaction sites seem to be conserved. About half a millimeter in size, the C. elegans is also transparent which makes it advantageous for fluorescence microscopy work. My research utilizes a fluorescent anion (6-carboxyfluorescein) with known OAT interaction to examine the uptake of anionic drugs into the C. elegans intestine by fluorescence microscopy. Anionic drugs that are not fluorescent may compete for interaction with the OAT and thus reduced the amount of 6-carboxyfluorescein within the C. elegans intestine. We hope to use this 6-carboxyfluorescein to show the C. elegans OAT behaves in a similar way to mammalian OATs when it is inhibited by other anion drugs and is stimulated with a nonfluorescent dicarboxylate to illustrate its usefulness as an alternative model system. Supplies requested within this proposal are utilized for the culture of C. elegans (petri dishes, agar, lab tape, bench paper, graduated cylinder) or are used for fluorescence microscopy experiments (centrifuge tubes, glass coverslips, glass microscope slides). Results from these experiments will be presented at two local conferences this Fall.

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265. New Profragrant Molecule: Triggered Release of Rose Scent

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Alexandra Cella Chemistry Michael Ramey Arts and Sciences Chemistry Jul 03, 2012
Project Description: The goal of our project is to synthesize a chemical compound that has never been made before that will release a fragrant molecule upon exposure to specific stimuli. Once synthesized the compound’s structure will be proven and tested for efficacy. The synthesis route being used in our lab consists of a series of three reactions two of which we are yet to explore. As of now we are attempting the second reaction in the series. Alternate routes may provide higher yields and ultimately be a more feasible overall synthesis if the chemicals required can be purchased. Funding from the Office of Student Research would give us the money necessary to purchase the chemicals needed to complete the existing research plan and attempt the new routes. This project consists of the chemical synthesis of new molecules that fall into a category of compounds known as tolanes. These tolane molecules can undergo a cyclization reaction with a cobalt catalyst to “easily” form a hexaphenylbenzene (HPhB) molecule. When the original tolane is substituted with a functional arm, the resulting HPhB molecule will possess 6 of these functional arms. Typically, the formation of multiple functional groups on a single molecule is difficult, but by taking advantage of the cobalt reaction, large highly functionalized molecules can be formed in a single catalytic step. Simply stated, if a single molecule contains more active sites, then less of that substance could be used in a desired application without sacrificing effect. Our group has been working on changing the chemical nature of the functionalized arms on tolane molecules to consist of “fragrant” arms that can be released from the molecule with specific stimulus producing a pleasant detectable scent (perfumes, detergents, etc.). Prior to release, the molecules have no scent. These molecules have not been reported previously and therefore require significant effort to synthesize, purify, characterize, and then test to see if they do indeed function properly in the application they were designed for. Initial syntheses were successful but the target molecules were too stable to release the scent under the milder conditions desired. Our objective is to modify our existing synthetic pathway to create a set of less stable tolanes (easier release), that can subsequently be converted to the 6 active site HPhB’s. The goal for the summer semester will to be to fully synthesize and characterize at least 1 , possibly 2, less stable tolanes and test for scent release. This investigation is in a relatively unexplored area of synthesis and will contribute to the body of new chemical knowledge through eventual publication, thereby easily qualifying as scholarship for our discipline.

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266. Development of a protein-based system for the detection of organophosphates using the pH dependence of enhanced green fluorescent protein

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Ashlyn Henson Chemistry Libby Puckett Arts and Sciences Chemistry Jul 03, 2012
Project Description: The purpose of this project is to create a fusion protein between organophosphourus hydrolase (OPH) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) to determine the presence of organophosphates (OPs). OPs are known neurotoxic inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) that are commonly found in pesticides and chemical warfare agents. OPs inhibit AChE by phosphorylating the active site of the enzyme, resulting in its deactivation. OPH is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of OP products, and can thus be used in remediation efforts. In order to monitor this process, a reporter protein, EGFP, is attached to OPH in a fusion protein. EGFP is a red-shifted variant of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and is pH dependent. The fusion protein components will work together so that when OPH catalyzes the cleavage of the OP substrate (resulting in two protons being released into the local environment), the fluorescence intensity of EGFP will decrease with the decreasing pH. After expression and purification, the fusion protein will be utilized to detect and quantify organophosphates.

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267. Testing the integration of GIS, low altitude photogrammetry, and computer vision algorithms for developing geovisualization of 3D urban environments

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Mark Jenkins Geography Chris Badurek Arts and Sciences Geography and Planning Jul 03, 2012
Project Description: Researchers have recently made use of developments in computer vision pattern recognition algorithms to develop new low cost remote sensing (RS) platforms such as kites and remotely control (RC) helicopters. These new RS platforms combine low cost digital cameras, free or open source computer vision software (Snavely et al. 2006), and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The computer vision pattern recognition algorithms identify and extract key features from the RS imagery to construct a 3D point cloud or 3D mesh of the area being photographed. Examples of current applications utilizing computer vision algorithms include MS Photosynth and Autodesk’s 123D Catch. Image capture is achieved through a variety of ways. Dandois and Ellis (2010) used a kite to provide lift for their camera platform; others such as Lucieer et al. (2011) used RC helicopters to capture aerial photographs. The objective of the project is to use computer vision algorithms to create a functional 3D model of an urban environment. Specifically, this project will make use of kites and RC quadricopters, low altitude photogrammetry, and computer vision to construct an immersive 3D environment of the Town of Blowing Rock, NC. This 3D environment with be integrated with geographic information systems (GIS) and computer aided design (CAD) datasets to produce and assess the uses of this data-rich 3D environment. Two UAV RS platforms will be used in this project: an AR Drone and an ITW Levitation Kite. Both platforms have been acquired. The AR Drone is a RC quadricopter operated by an Android or an iOS enabled application, and will be used to collect imagery at an altitude < 50m. For altitudes of 50-300m, the ITW Levitation Kite will be used. To capture higher quality images a compact digital camera is needed (e.g. Canon Elph 300 HS). To increase the range and flight time of the AR Drone, additional battery packs are needed. Spare parts for the AR Drone are also needed. Additional kite line is needed to increase image collection altitude. Free or open source software applications will be used to process the images into 3D products. The 3D point clouds will be processed using Photosynth Toolkit 7. The 3D models will be produced using 123D Catch. The 3D products will be processed using MeshLab and 3DS Max. ASU’s Computation and Visualization Laboratory will be used to complete the computationally and graphically demanding processing inherent in the rendering of 3D products. The 3D products will be integrated into CAD and GIS environments using a suite of Autodesk, ESRI, and Google products. The goal of this project is to produce functional 3D models of urban environments. To achieve this goal, three subordinate goals must be met. First, a method for combing multiple 3D products into one immersive 3D environment must be created. Second, the accuracy of the 3D products must be assessed. Third the 3D products must be integrated with existing CAD and GIS datasets.

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268. Acid excretion in the Southern Appalachian Brook Trout.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Benjamin Moore Biology Susan Edwards Arts and Sciences Biology Jul 03, 2012
Project Description: Southern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) are Western North Carolina’s only native trout species with populations are found along the Appalachian Mountain range in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM). Native southern brook trout are found only in high-elevation headwater streams of the park and the inhabit streams that are extremely soft waters and are relatively acidic (5.0-6.5 pH). The GRSM is currently faced with an increase in the incidence of episodic stream acidification events, during which there is a rapid change in environmental pH and a general disequilibrium in environmental ions available for ion exchange. Episodic stream acidification events have a damaging effect on aquatic ecosystems and fish populations. Fish are highly sensitive to alterations in environmental pH with alterations as small as 1/10th a pH unit having a detrimental effect on enzyme function. The mechanism of acid stress in fish is generally recognized as an ion regulatory disturbance that has the potential to result in circulatory collapse and death of the fish. Therefore it is thought that these events may be the primary cause of local extinctions of Southern brook trout in the headwaters of the GRSM. The long-term goal of this project is to determine the tolerance of Southern brook trout to acute periods of stream acidification. This knowledge will assist the National Parks service to develop management strategies for this native species fishery within the Southern Appalachian Mountains. We propose the following experiment to test the hypothesis that stream acidification induced by an increase in environmental CO2 concentrations results in a physiological disturbance in Southern Brook trout. Increased stream CO2 concentrations lower the stream pH and in the GRSM are the result of increases in water temperature. Method GRSM wild caught trout will acclimate to the designated laboratory tank for a period of 2 weeks and fed trout pellets every few days. A 2 liter experimental chamber containing decholrinated freshwater will be prepared by aerating from the bottom of the column with 1% CO2 in air using a GF-2 gas mixing flowmeter (Cameron Instrument Company, Port Arkansas, TX) and pumped at a rate of 1.6 l/min for a period of 1 h prior to the addition of the animal. Individual fish will then weighed and placed in the experimental chamber for a period of 2 & 4 hr during which time the water will be continuously aerated with the 1% CO2 in air mix. Control animals will be incubated in an experimental chamber and incubated in water bubbled with air only. Animals will be anaesthetized in MS222. Blood gills, kidneys and intestines will be removed. Representative tissue samples will be snap frozen in liquid nitrogen for molecular and protein studies or fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde to be processed for histology and immunohistochemical analysis. Blood will be immediately placed into heparinized eppendorf tubes for pH measurements

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269. Examination of muscle fibrosis with phytoecdysteroid supplementation in old mice

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Jennah Starr Exercise Science Kevin Zwetsloot Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science May 17, 2012
Project Description: As humans age, there is a substantial decrease in skeletal muscle mass and a reciprocal increase in the amount of fibrous connective tissue (fibrosis) in the muscle. This causes a decrease in the functionality of the muscle and can lead to declined quality of life in the elderly population. Dr. Zwetsloot and collaborators, Dr. Andrew Shanely (ASU Human Performance Lab at the NCRC) and Dr. Susan Arthur (Unc-Charlotte), performed a study last summer that investigated if 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E), a phytoecdysteroid from the plant Ajuga Turkestanica or an extract made from the plant Ajuga Turkestanica (ATE), increases muscle mass and strength in 20-month old sedentary aged mice (= 65 yr old human). After 28 days of supplementation with either 20-HE, ATE, or placebo, skeletal muscles were removed for molecular and histochemical analysis. From this study, it was discovered that 20-E & ATE significantly increased muscle fiber cross-sectional area (i.e. muscle mass) by ~25% in aged mice. It is unknown if 20-E & ATE will have any effect on the fibrous connective tissue composition in the muscle tissue in aged skeletal muscle; therefore, the purpose of this research project is to determine if 28 days of phytoecdysteroid supplementation (in the form of 20-HE or ATE) decreases fibrosis in skeletal muscle in sedentary aged mice. My role in this research will be to process triceps and plantaris muscle cross-section samples (36 aged mice total; 12 per group) using a Gomori Trichrome staining technique, a sequence of chemicals that stains the muscle fibers green and the fibrous connective tissue dark blue, and then assess the muscle tissue sections for the amount of fibrosis. I will be blinded to the treatment groups as to not influence the results. After staining the muscle sections, images of the Gomori Trichrome-stained muscle sections will be taken on the Olympus IX81 light microscopy system in the Microscope Core facility in the Rankin Science Building. Dr. Arthur will process the tissue into muscle cross-sections from each muscle, mount them on microscope slides, and send them to ASU for staining and analysis. Muscle tissue fibrosis will be assessed by the percentage of area occupied by fibrous connective tissue vs. muscle fibers in the tissue section and expressed as “the fibrotic index”. Data will be compiled in excel spreadsheets and analyzed using a one-way ANOVA to determine differences between treatments. This will be the first study to examine if phytoecdysteroid treatment affects fibrosis in aged muscle. I hypothesize that both 20-HE and ATE will decrease the fibrotic index in aged mouse muscle, compared to placebo. I will be graduating in May, but I would like to return to ASU and present these research findings at the 16th Annual Celebration of Student Research in 2013. These data will eventually become part of a manuscript for Dr. Zwetsloot’s larger project.

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270. The Effects Of A Multi-flavonoid Supplement On Vascular And Hemodynamic Parameters In Older Pre-hypertensives

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Chelsea Curry Exercise Science Scott Collier Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science May 17, 2012
Project Description: Antioxidants have been shown to increase vasodilation leading to increases in vascular distensibility which would decrease blood pressure (BP) in individuals with elevated BP; therefore an additive effect would be expected when combined with exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential additive effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout paired with two weeks of anti-oxidant on post-exercise BP in middle-aged (40-60 year old) pre-hypertensives. METHODS: 18 subjects (51.7±1.8, 50.8±1.8 years old, treatment and placebo group respectively) were randomly assigned either supplement or placebo group in double-blinded fashion. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (Finometer), Augmentation Index (AIx), central and peripheral pulse wave velocity (cPWV, pPWV, respectively, SphygmoCor) were assessed pre- and post-exercise prior to and following 2 weeks of supplementation in a double-blind, counterbalanced design. RESULTS: Following two weeks of supplementation, there was a significant decrease in SBP (132.2±5.4 pre-supplementation to 124.9±5.4 post, p<0.05) and mean arterial pressure (100.2 ±2.2 pre-supplementation to 94.6±4.4 post, p<0.05) following supplementation. No significant differences were shown in DBP, AIx, cPWV or pPWV. CONCLUSION: Two weeks of multi-flavonoid supplementation elicited a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure in the treatment group with no changes in vascular parameters.

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271. DIFFERENCES IN CARDIAC AUTONOMIC MODULATION AND BAROREFLEX SENSITIVITY FOLLOWING DIFFERENTIAL EXERCISE TRAINING

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Hannah Wheeler Exercise Science Scott Collier Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science May 17, 2012
Project Description: systems is a vital component of cardiovascular regulation. Heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) are non-invasive clinical measures used to assess cardiovascular risk. Aerobic exercise (AE) training has been shown to increase HRV and BRS; however, little is known concerning a sex specific response following AE or resistance exercise (RE) training. The purpose of this study was to assess short-term AE training versus RE training on HRV and BRS in a mixed-sex hypertensive cohort. Methods: Forty pre- to stage-1 essential hypertensives between the ages of 33 and 60 years old (20 men, 20 women) underwent either AE training [30 minutes of treadmill exercise, 3 days per week at 65% of peak oxygen consumption] or RE training (3 sets of 10 repetitions for 9 major muscle groups, 3 days per week at 65% of10 repetition maximum). Demographics, electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings, beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP), and a heads-up tilt test were performed at baseline, pre and post-4 week training period. A rmANOVA was employed to determine differences (mode (resistance vs. aerobic) x time (pre- vs. post) x sex (male vs. female)). Results: A significant increase in BRS was shown in males and females (.975 ± .23 to 1.43 ± .24 ms mm-1 Hg-1, respectively) following AE training; however, RE training, showed decreases in BRS in males and no change in females. Following RE training a significant decrease in LF:HF ratio was shown in males, yet increases in females (-242.24 ± 26.56 ms2, 45.9 ± 44.05 ms2, respectively). Conclusions: These data indicate that 4 weeks of moderate intensity AE training results in increases in BRS and HRV in both sexes however men decrease their BRS following RE while women do not change.

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272. The effect of physical activity and caloric restriction on the hippocampus and age-related brain disorders, specifically Alzheimer's disease.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Larry Canipe Psychology Amy Knab Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science May 17, 2012
Project Description: Physical activity may be an effective preventative strategy to slow the cognitive decline commonly associated with aging, and Alzheimer’s disease. The mechanism for this action likely lies partly with the dopaminergic system. The key neuroregulatory molecules in question are involved in dopaminergic signaling, and include brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a molecule important in neuronal plasticity and likely a key player in the cognitive decline associated with disease states. It is proposed that these key molecular targets act centrally (in the brain), are effected by physical activity and caloric restriction, which may lead to increased cognitive functioning. The research hypotheses from a previous study was that caloric restriction and wheel running would act in a synergistic fashion to alter expression of DRD1, DRD2, & BDNF in the striatum region of the brain. Emerging literature indicates the hippocampus may be a key area of the brain that is regulated by caloric restriction and physical activity. Similarly, BDNF levels in the hippocampus have been linked to the decline in cognitive functioning attributed to Alzheimer’s disease. The hypothesis is; wheel running & caloric restriction will cause a change in BDNF, DRD1, and DRD2 levels in the hippocampus tissues of the brain. This is a perfect model to investigate this and the pieces are already in place in order to study gene expression changes as a result of caloric restriction and physical activity in the hippocampus tissues. These experiments will serve as my senior theses for the Heltzer Honors College. It has been proposed in recent years that age related diseases can be – at least partially – treated and even prevented with the proper nutrition and specialized forms of physical activity. The proposed research aims to discover the genetic links between caloric restriction, physical activity, and changes in hippocampus with relevance to Alzheimer’s disease. In last year’s study we collected several brain tissues of interest including the hippocampus. The hippocampus brain tissues from all mice have been stored at -80° and are still able to be used for further study. Thus, this summer, I will take the hippocampus brain tissues from all 5 groups of mice and conduct gene expression analysis using Applied Biosystems technologies for Dopamine receptor 1 (DRD1), Dopamine receptor 2 (DRD2), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The 5 treatments of the mice from last summer were as follows: 1. Caloric Restriction (CR) (20% weight loss), divided into three subgroups: a. Sedentary (no wheels), b. Wheel Running, and c. Wheel running matched to the wheel running levels of the ad libitum wheel running group. 2. Ad libitum standard chow, divided into two subgroups: a. Sedentary (no wheels), and b. Wheel running. I have successfully used TaqMan chemistry for PCR analysis in two previous studies and have full confidence in my ability produce high quality expression data.

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273. Trends in Health Messages: A Content Analysis of Men’s Health and Women’s Health Magazines

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Amanda Pepper Psychology Doris Bazzini Arts and Sciences Psychology May 17, 2012
Project Description: Research examining different sources of mainstream media has shown notable differences in how men and women are portrayed, and these differences play a role in perpetuating societal norms. These societal norms often refer to one’s appearance, and these standards are often unattainable for most individuals. Exposure to this type of media can lead to preoccupation with achieving these standards, which has been shown to have negative consequences such as disordered eating and negative body image. Magazine covers contain both visual images and textual information directed towards men and women in order to attract consumers’ attention. Therefore, it is arguable that these covers accurately represent societal norms that are promoted for men and women. Researchers have explored the content of magazines in the past, comparing popular men’s and women’s magazines to uncover gender differences in content and how men and women are represented. Though previous research has compared both photographic depictions and message content of men’s and women’s magazines, they failed to control for overall magazine content (e.g., Good Housekeeping versus Sports Illustrated). The purpose of this study was to control for magazine content by examining newsstand covers of Men’s Health (MH) and Women’s Health (WH) magazines (from 2006 to 2010) for gender differences in messages and images. Four coders (one male, three females) were used in examining physical characteristics of the cover models (e.g., was the cover model fully clothed or not, which body parts were exposed, etc.) and the content of word captions. Every caption contained in cover statements was coded into content categories: emphasis on love/relationship, sex, dieting, weight loss, exercise, physical health, psychological well being, appearance, leisure, and finances. Data analysis will then performed to determine if any differences exist between MH and WH magazines among the specified categories. It is predicted that female cover models will be depicted in more sexually objectified ways than male cover models. Furthermore, textual messages on the covers of WH were predicted to focus on dieting and weight loss more so than MH. By contrast, MH messages were expected to focus more on exercise and gaining muscle mass compared to WH. Cover messages for WH are expected to focus more on love and relationships compared to MH, but the latter were expected to focus more so on finances and improving sexual satisfaction relative to the former. Findings will be displayed on a poster presentation at the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues’ 2012 Biennial Conference in Charlotte, NC. Handouts displaying the poster will also be available.

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274. Nourish and Enrich: The Importance of Gathering

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Meagan O'Connor Art Lisa Stinson Fine and Applied Arts Art Apr 24, 2012
Project Description: My Senior Show is a representation of how we can nourish our daily lives through the gathering of friends and family. Nourishment, technically defined as the substances necessary for growth, health, and good condition, encompasses more than just a physical need. Communal nourishment is just as essential. There is something so captivating about the natural ‘mix and match’ quality of the potluck meal; a large group of unique people coming together with food to share and everyone gathers and enjoys that rich moment. The act of gathering together at a table for a meal is a memorable experience, one that is often times overlooked in our hurried society. The table is a historical place for gathering and celebrating that sense of togetherness. I will be creating an installation that embodies all of the things that make potluck gatherings memorable experiences. This installation will include a dining table and chairs, set for eight people. Each place setting will be made with the ability to mix and match, no two being completely alike. There will be a buffet table with the larger serving platters, pitchers, and bowls. These dishes will be made to appear as if contributed by different people, as most potlucks include the hodge-podge of serving dishes owned by those who attend. One wall in the gallery will showcase a multitude of photos; these will be captured moments from gatherings I have with friends and family, those who have inspired the concept of my show. There will be audio played throughout the installation that is of recorded events I have had with friends in which we all gather for a meal together. It is my intent that these components showcase the importance of our individual friends gathering together to create a larger community that enriches all of our lives. I will be purchasing two tables and chairs to setup the handmade ceramic dishes. I have been recording audio anytime I gather with my friends for a meal. I have been documenting these gatherings with photographs to choose from when it is time to install the work in the gallery space. I am throwing each of the components for the place settings and serving dishes on a potter’s wheel in the university’s clay studio. Each piece is made from either porcelain or an orange stoneware clay body. They will then be trimmed; some will be altered, and then allowed to dry. The work will be bisque fired in the studio’s electric kilns, after which I will decorate and glaze their surfaces and fire them a final time in the studio’s high temperature gas fired kiln. The budget includes purchasing the furniture needed to properly display the works in the intended context—two tables and eight chairs. The purchase of fine details such as silverware, napkins, and tablecloths will add to the atmosphere within the space. The photos will need to be printed and framed for hanging. I am in need of high quality bats and more precise trimming tools that will facilitate my ability to throw and alter my forms.

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275. Religion and Its Effects on Organ Donation Intentions: Diversity within Non-Catholic Christians

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Chelsea Beccue Psychology Courtney Rocheleau Arts and Sciences Psychology Apr 24, 2012
Project Description: Christians in the U.S. vary greatly in their beliefs. The current study aimed to distinguish non-Catholic Fundamentalist Christians (i.e., those high on Christian Absolutism) from non-Catholic Progressive Christians (i.e., those low on Christian Absolutism). The effect of Christian Absolutism (CA) on the dependent variable of intentions to donate was examined and no association was found, r=.00, p>.99. The main effect of religious orientation (i.e., Intrinsic, Extrinsic, or Quest) on donation intentions was assessed, and Intrinsic orientation and intentions were found to be positively correlated, r=.20, p=.01. Neither Quest nor Extrinsic orientation was correlated to intentions, ps>.35. In a series of multiple regressions, donation intentions were regressed onto CA, each orientation, and their interactions. When controlling for Intrinsic orientation, CA was significantly associated with intentions, t(138)=-2.08, p=.04; those higher on CA reported less intention to donate organs. The effect of Extrinsic orientation depended on the level of CA, t(142)=-3.46, p=.001; CA had a stronger negative effect on donation intentions when Extrinsic orientation was high. The effect of Quest depended on the level of CA; there was a trend for those higher on Quest to report more intentions to donate when lower on CA, t(144)=1.67, p=.10. These findings help to clarify the role of religion and suggest additional targets for interventions to promote organ donation behaviors in the future.

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276. The effects of sodium bicarbonate and lactate ingestion on high-intensity exercise performance

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Jennifer Arms Exercise Science Dave Morris Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Apr 24, 2012
Project Description: High-intensity exercise is limited by metabolic acidosis. Raising blood pH and blood bicarbonate levels via lactate supplementation and sodium bicarbonate supplementation has been shown to delay the onset of acidosis and increase time to exhaustion during high-intensity exercise. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high doses of lactate and combined does of lactate and sodium bicarbonate on blood bicarbonate levels and performance on a high-intensity exercise test to exhaustion (ETE). During the study, subjects had difficulty tolerating the combined dose of lactate and bicarbonate, therefore, this treatment was discontinued and only the effects of two different doses of lactate were compared: 120mg/kg bm (L-120) and 300 mg/kg bm (L-300) with a bleached flour placebo (PL) in a crossover design. Seven male and one female competitive cyclists underwent an ETE consisting of four work intervals with a fifth final work interval performed to exhaustion. Blood samples were analyzed for pH, bicarbonate, and lactate before supplementation, seventy minutes post supplementation, after a ten minute warm-up, and thirty seconds prior to the start of the final work period of the ETE. Time to exhaustion during the final work interval was recorded. TTE was significantly greater for L-120 (213 ± 60s) vs PL (195 ± 63s) (P= 0.04), but was not significantly different when comparing L-300 (212 ± 76s) to PL (P=0.51) or L-120 (P = 0.99). Blood pH remained unchanged over time and across treatments; however, blood bicarbonate levels increased by 2.5 mmol/L in L-120 (P= 0.09), 2.6 mmol/L in L-300 (P= 0.02) and by less than 0.1 mmol/L in PL (P=0.98). The L-120 dose appeared to have an ergogenic effect on high intensity exercise to exhaustion; however the L-300 dose did not reach significance possibly due to large variations and low statistical power. In conjunction with previous studies, these results show that lactate supplementation of 120 mg/kg bm increased blood bicarbonate levels and improved ETE with no added benefit with larger doses.

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277. Physical Activity, Anxiety and Anxiety Sensitivity

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
James Weston Psychology Joshua Broman-Fulks Arts and Sciences Psychology Apr 24, 2012
Project Description: The poster will be presented at the Anxiety Disorders Association of America in Arlington Virgina and will discuss the implications of sedentary vs. active lifestyles on anxiety and anxiety sensitivity levels. Research has already been gathered, the expense will be printing the poster.

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278. Christian Absolutism: Validation of a New Scale

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Erin Dobbins Psychology Courtney Rocheleau Arts and Sciences Psychology Apr 24, 2012
Project Description: A new scale measuring Religious Absolutism has been created to quantify religious differences between Non-Catholic Christians. This is an important contribution as the scales that are currently available to researchers are either out of date or measure multiple constructs, not just religious orientation. We are pleased to be presenting this research at Appalachian State's own Rural Mental Health Conference because this scale could prove a valuable resource for researchers in the mental health field. Much of the rural southern population identifies as Non-Catholic christian; religion and spiritual beliefs are an important consideration in mental health treatment. This new Absolutism scale will allow researchers to more clearly describe and investigate the relationship between religious orientation and mental health needs. We hope you will consider funding our poster so that we can share this exciting new measure.

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279. Media Effects on Body Image and Fat Talk

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Amanda Driver Psychology Denise Martz Arts and Sciences Psychology Apr 24, 2012
Project Description: This honors thesis examined the relationship between media such as television, movies, magazines, etc. in pressuring people to be a different size and how this affects the likelihood of hearing fat talk as well as pressure to engage in fat talk. Fat talk is a term coined by Mimi Nichter as conversations with family or friends pertaining to negative comments about appearance, dieting, and the need to lose weight. Relative size is a body image construct that measures the discrepancy between a participant’s current and ideal clothing size and this measure was proposed as a mediating variable between pressure from the media and fat talk measures. Archival data from a national survey was used with 1,707 participants. A meditational analysis was conducted with media pressure as the predictor, likelihood of hearing fat talk and pressure to engage in fat talk were run separately and both were the dependent variables, and relative size was the mediator. Results were not significant and did not suggest that relative size acts as a mediator between the pressure someone feels from the media and their reported likelihood of hearing, or pressure to engage, in fat talk. Further research is needed to better understand how relative size may affect other body image variables and how media affects the prevalence of fat talk. The money asked for above will be used to help allieviate the costs of printing the poster within the psychology department. This poster will be presented at the Annual Celebration of Student Research and Creative Endeavors as well the Honors Day for the Psychology Department, where departmental honors students will present their poster and thesis to members within the department. This thesis is also being written with the intention to publish in a journal as well.

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280. Proteomics and Western Blot Analysis of Cervical Remodeling in Early and Late Pregnancy in Mice.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
John Schwabe Biology, Pre-professional Nathan Mowa Arts and Sciences Biology Apr 24, 2012
Project Description: Parturition is dependent on complex changes in the composition and strength of the cervix via cervical remodeling. Collagen types I and III comprise nearly 85% of the dry weight of the cervix and are responsible for the tensile strength of the cervix during pregnancy. Changes in the rate of production and degradation of collagen, as well as changes in their extracellular organization, have been identified in late pregnancy and implicated in the changing integrity of the cervix. Understanding these highly complex changes is central to understanding the processes that control cervical remodeling and the mechanisms of natural birth. We have previously used DNA microarray analysis to delineate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-regulated genes in the cervix of pregnant rats. However, no studies, thus far, have examined the full breadth of the signature proteins in the remodeling cervix during early and late pregnancy compared to baseline, i.e., non-pregnant. Most recently, we have used Proteomics Analysis to identify 63 variably-expressed signature proteins in non-pregnant and pregnant mice at day 11 and 17 of gestation. The purpose of this present (proposed) study is to verify the patterns of protein expression in the cervices of non-pregnant and pregnant mouse, as previously profiled in our lab using proteomics analysis and to further characterize the levels of target proteins in the pregnant cervix. Target proteins include Collagen I and III, Biglycan, Olfactomedin V, Lumican, IL-6 and peptidoglycan recognition protein using western blot and qRT-PCR techniques. It is our hypothesis that these target proteins play critical roles in linking the structural remodeling of the cervix, including the increase in collagen synthesis and breakdown, and the inflammatory processes that induce labor. This funding is necessary to cover the cost of purchasing the needed mice to create a full protein profile of the pregnant for day 11-17 of gestation. Purchasing mice and harvesting tissues at the correct time points is the first step to profiling protein expression. Without properly timed pregnant animals, the results of any study on the pregnant cervix will be unsound.

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281. Echinacea down regulates LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory factors in the cervix

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Jordan Estes Biology Nathan Mowa Arts and Sciences Biology Apr 24, 2012
Project Description: Echinacea has been used to treat the cold and minor infections for many years. In addition to treating the common cold, Echinacea is also known for its well documented anti-inflammatory activity. Using nonpregnant ovariectomized mice cervices treated in an ex vivo manner in RPMI 1640 media supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), Echinacea’s ability to downregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) when stimulated with lipopolysachharide (LPS) was evaluated in a dose dependent manner – low (0.01 mg/well), medium (0.1 mg/well), and high (1 mg/well) – using real time-PCR, histology and confocal microscopy. Gene expression studies revealed that the highest dose of Echinacea (1 mg/well) showed the most dramatic decrease in IL-6 when stimulated with LPS, while histological analysis using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) as well as confocal staining with TNF? confirmed the results of the gene expression studies. While Echinacea at all three doses showed a decrease in inflammation compared to the positive control (LPS only), the highest dose was the most effective at combating LPS-induced inflammation. As of right now, we are still trouble shooting western blot, and in the process have started running low on western blot supplies. Therefore, the funding from this grant would go towards the purchase of western blot supplies, as well as the printing of my research poster for presentation purposes.

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282. VEGF agents alter expression of pro-inflammatory factors in the cervix of mice.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Bao-Tran Nguyen Biology Chishimba Mowa Arts and Sciences Biology Apr 24, 2012
Project Description: One of the key characteristics of a remodeling cervix includes vascular events, such as angiogenesis, vasodilation, and vascular permeability. Although the exact significance of these events are unclear, we know that in other body tissue types, these vascular events are normally associated with inflammation, which is known to play a critical role in cervical remodeling. A major inducer of vascular remodeling is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Here, we sought to examine whether VEGF induces inflammation in the cervix and elucidate its relationship with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses (IL-6 and TNF? mRNA expression) in the cervix. Twelve mice (n=3) were divided into 4 treatment groups: a) negative control (vehicle only), b) positive control (lipopolysaccharide; LPS), c) recombinant VEGF-164 protein (two doses prior to harvesting), and d) VEGF blocker (1 hr prior to LPS administration). The cervices were harvested and analyzed using real-time PCR and confocal immunofluorescence. Results showed that VEGF up-regulates expression of IL-6 mRNA expression whereas mice treated with VEGF blocker + LPS had levels approximately 3,000-fold lower than those of positive control. We conclude that there is a positive feed forward relationship between VEGF and inflammation.

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283. The Effects of Flavokavain B and Curcumin on the Oncolytic Activity of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Dylan Fehl Biology Maryam Ahmed Arts and Sciences Biology Apr 24, 2012
Project Description: Currently, Dr. Maryam Ahmed in the Department of Biology and I are researching ways to increase the efficiency of oncolytic virus therapy. Oncolytic viruses are viruses that selectively target and kill cancer cells. The virus that we developing as an oncolytic agent, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), has been shown to inhibit the transcription of host cell genes however, a matrix (M) protein mutant strain of VSV, rM51R-M virus, lacks this ability, and thus is avirulent in vivo. rM51R-M virus is capable of infecting certain cancer cells but cannot effectively kill normal, healthy cells. However, not all cancer types are susceptible to infection by this virus. The goal of this project is to elucidate what role the use of natural compounds may have as an adjunct to oncolytic virus therapy. To accomplish this we will screen two compounds to determine if they increase the ability of VSV to kill PC-3 prostate cancer cells which have previously been shown to be resistant to infection. The compounds we will test are flavokavain B and curcumin. These compounds are derived from plant secondary metabolites and have been shown to down-regulate NF-kB, a transcription factor implicated in the proliferation and robust antiviral response of PC-3 cancer cells. In particular NF-?B regulates the antiviral response by controlling the transcription of type 1 interferons (IFN), which are cytokines that regulate the antiviral response in cells. We hypothesize that the inhibition of NF-?B activity by these natural compounds will promote VSV oncolytic activity due to suppression of host anti-viral responses in cancer cells. Currently my initial data indicates that curcumin reduces cancer cell viability when infected by VSV in a time and concentration dependent manner. Additionally, my preliminary results indicate that neither one of these compounds inhibit viral replication nor viral protein synthesis, however they do reduce host protein synthesis perhaps including antiviral proteins. From here I will determine if these compounds affect proteins in the innate antiviral response, specifically the IFN and NF-kB pathway, and apoptotic factors by Western blotting. For this I will need reagents, specifically precast polyacrylamide gels. I will also determine relative viral replication in the presence of these compounds by utilizing flow cytometry with green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged virus and assess cancer cell death with the 7AAD antibody. Upon the completion of this study we hope to elucidate what effects using natural compounds in conjunction with oncolytic viruses will have on tumors that have previously been shown to be resistant to conventional treatment and oncolytic virus therapy.

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284. Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor [VEGF] in the Postpartum Cervix of Mice

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Robert Stanley Biology Chishimba Mowa Arts and Sciences Biology Apr 24, 2012
Project Description: The goal of this project is two fold. First to disseminate my current results and research in the form of a poster entitled "Expression Profile of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor [VEGF] and its Receptors in the Postpartum Cervix of Mice". I plan on presenting this poster at two conferences, Molecules in the Mountains (WCU, 4-12-12) and The Celebration of Student Research and Creative Endeavors (ASU, 4-19-12). The $75 requested is to pay for my poster to be printed. Second, I plan to investigate the regulation of VEGF expression in the murine postpartum cervix by hypoxia and a protein termed Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 Alpha [HIF-1a]. HIF-1a is ubiquitously expressed in cells of the mammalian body, and serves as an oxygen sensor. Under normal oxygen conditions HIF-1a is readily degraded and has the shortest half-life of any protein. While under low oxygen conditions (hypoxia) HIF-1a accumulates and is the main promoter of VEGF. This is the signaling pathway that is involved in normal wound healing, for example a laceration will cause tissue and vascular damage, thus blood flow to the surrounding tissue is compromised and oxygen concentrations in the cells drastically drop. When this happens HIF-1a is not degraded and will accumulate inside the cell. HIF-1a will activate the transcription and translation of VEGF, which will stimulate new blood vessel growth into the area of hypoxia. Once adequate blood supply is restored, oxygen concentration goes back up, and HIF-1a/VEGF pathway is turned off. I propose that HIF-1a is involved in the regulation of VEGF expression during the postpartum cervical repair in mice. Data that I have generated has shown that the HIF-1a gene is readily expressed in the murine cervix throughout the first two days postpartum, however, protein expression analysis of HIF-1a still needs to be performed. Using western blot I plan to determine the protein expression profile of HIF-1a in the murine postpartum cervix, as well as determine whether HIF-1a is involved in the regulation of VEGF postpartum. Using whole protein extracts previously obtained from postpartum murine cervical tissue at 0hrs, 15hrs, and 2 days postpartum I will perform western blots to determine presence and relative amount of HIF-1a. In order to perform the western blots under denaturing and reducing conditions Nupage antioxidant, and reducing agents are required. Also, western blot's involve a chemiluminescent reaction and that is recorded using chemiluminescent hyperfilm. Without these products results regarding HIF-1a protein expression cannot be determined.

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285. Elevational Diversity Shifts of Ericoid Mycorrhizal Fungi that Colonize Rhododendron Maximum in the Southern Appalachian Temperate Forrest

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Daniel Parker Biology John Walker Arts and Sciences Biology Apr 24, 2012
Project Description: Our laboratory at Appalachian State University studies Ericoid Mycorrhizal fungal diversity. Mycorrhizal associations are a symbiotic relationship between fungus and a plant host. In this symbiosis the fungi take photosynthetic sugars from the plant and in return provide the plant with essential nutrients from the soil. Mycorrhizal fungi increase the surface area of the host roots that comes into contact with the soil allowing greater access to nutrients. In some cases Mycorrhizal fungi will also produce saprobic enzymes to assist the plant in the uptake of nutrients from organic sources of nitrogen. Ericoid Mycorrhizal associations are a specific type of mycorrhizae that that only associate with plants in the family Ericaceae. One Ericoid plant of interest in the Southern Appalachian Mountains is Rhododendron maximum. This is an understory plant that grows in thick patches called thickets. These thickets are found to inhibit the recruitment of canopy trees by shading out the young saplings and by allelopathic inhibition. Inhibition is also facilitated by a closed nitrogen feedback loop created by the tannin rich leaf litter of R. maximum that only ErM fungi can efficiently break down and take up nutrients that they give back to the host plant. We have identified that R. maximum have increased colonization at higher elevations. We hypothesize that ErM diversity will also change along an elevational gradient. With an increase in elevation there is a decrease in nutrient availability and we predict that the host plants will show an inclination towards fungi that will increase their ability to uptake nutrients. Three transects were set up along an elevational gradient from north facing slopes and numerous root sections were collected at each transect from the host plants. The fungi are cultured onto plates and DNA extractions are carried out. We achieve amplification by PCR using primers for fungal specific ITS regions in the fungi. We will sequence the amplified DNA and compare them to a BLAST database. This will give contribute to our knowledge of the diversity of Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and how the diversity here in the Southern Appalachian Mountains differs from heathlands that has had similar studies performed. To my knowledge this will be the first study to look at elevational differences in Ericoid Mycorrhizal diversity. It is important to understand the dynamics of this association for the possible control of Rhododendron to increase recruitment of canopy trees. It is also important to understand this relationship because of Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi’s saprobic abilities. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi are known to break down lignin and tannins and other phenolic compounds. The enzymes Mn peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, and lignase that these fungi possess are all of interest in bioremediation projects and with ongoing research these plants may be of importance to this field as well.

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286. Who are the men who fat talk?

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Delvon Blue Psychology Denise Martz Arts and Sciences Psychology Apr 24, 2012
Project Description: I am requesting funds to help with the cost of printing my poster for the annual research day on April 19, 2012

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287. Gaze behavior during videotaped sequences

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Klaire Roberson Psychology Kurt Michael Arts and Sciences Psychology Apr 24, 2012
Project Description: The study of eye-gaze behavior has important diagnostic and clinical implications. For instance, individuals with autism spectrum disorders often exhibit irregular patterns of facial processing and a lower frequency of direct eye-to-eye gaze (e.g., Pelphrey et al., 2002). Additionally, the measurement of eye gaze by mental health practitioners as they interact with clients has important clinical implications. Little research (if any) has examined patterns of eye gaze generated while people view dynamic images of faces. The current study explored whether patterns of eye gaze and eye contact would differ as a function of clinical training. The sample consisted of 15 graduate students enrolled in one of several clinical training programs, and 20 clinically naïve undergraduates. Within this study, participants viewed two videotaped interviews of confederates discussing concerns that are commonly presented during an initial clinical interview. The videos were designed to simulate a face-to-face interview, allowing us to record the participant's eye gaze behavior while viewing the vignettes. We examined the frequency and duration of fixations on the eyes, nose, mouth, other face regions, and the areas outside of the face. Following initial analysis, proportion of gaze behavior is predicted to be influenced by level of clinical training, while differential fixation patterns over time will also be discussed. The novelty of this study addresses the dearth of real-time eye-tracking studies and the relationship with other variables (e.g., degree of clinical training). Overall, it is hoped that the findings will inform treatment methods and diagnostic techniques, promoting increased efficacy within the clinical milieu.

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288. “All the Pretty Little Jars: Home Canning as an Expression of Rural and Suburban Spaces”

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kristen Dearmin Appalachian Studies Pat Beaver University College Appalachian Studies Apr 24, 2012
Project Description: Home canning is often seen as a quaint expression of traditional, rural, American life. As such, is it given slight coverage in academic research, despite its applicability in the fields of foodways research, women’s and rural studies, or economic and technological histories. This project demonstrates that home canning can be used as a lens through which to view gender, economies, food security, as well as issues of rural, suburban, and urban spaces. Interviews conducted previously for this project have revealed that home food preservation is a productive framework for scholarly study that emphasizes the agentic powers of women as they become providers for their families via home canning. During continued interviews, I hope to assess three main themes: how the knowledge of canning is transmitted, the function and value of canning within the group, and why the participants continue to can despite the availability of commercially canned goods. As an historian, I am also interested in how, or if, these issues have changed over time. This project is an outgrowth of an assignment for Dr. Lynn Sanders’ Advanced Folklore course, ENG 5710. Dr. Sanders is on leave this semester and has encouraged me to work with Dr. Patricia Beaver, until she returns. I am the principal, and only, investigator in this project and it is no longer affiliated with any coursework or product-of-learning requirements. My goal is to interview at least 18 more home canners to establish whether or not the trends I observed in the initial interviews will bear true with a larger data pool. I am currently planning to present my initial research at the Annual Celebration of Student Research and Creative Endeavors. Further, I hope to publish my findings in the Journal of American Folklore or the North Carolina Folklore Journal. The equipment I used to tape record and transcribe the initial interviews was borrowed and I would like to invest in my own equipment for the remaining interviews and future projects. Lastly, I would like to expand the project to include home canning recipes, as another lens through which to view the canner’s relationship with food. For this, I need a computer that is portable. My laptop is seven years old and the battery will no longer hold a charge. The tip on the battery cable is broken, held together with masking tape, and the slightest movement causes it to disconnect. Since the battery can no longer be charged, this disconnection turns off the computer immediately, causing a loss of any unsaved work. This renders the computer immobile and an untrustworthy data collection tool, since it can turn off at any moment. As such, I am asking for recording and transcribing equipment, as well as a laptop battery and adapter. [Please note that on 10/18/2011, this project was deemed exempt from further IRB review under category 45.CFR46.10 (b)]

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289. Determining Accuracy of Solar Trackers

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Muhammad Sabry Renewable Energy Engineering Brian Raichle Fine and Applied Arts Technology Mar 30, 2012
Project Description: One way to increase energy production of a photovoltaic array is to mount the panels on a sun-following tracker. Tracker manufacturers routinely claim a 30% increase in energy output over a fixed-mounted array. Residential-scale tracking technology tends to be imprecise and passive; relying on differential heating or an imbalance in light intensity to provide a control signal. The magnitude and extent of tracking errors due to low or diffuse light conditions have yet to be published. There are two types of solar trackers. A one axis, or elevation, tracker follows the sun from east to west. A two axes, or azimuth/altitude, tracker additionally follows the sun’s position above the horizon. An ongoing research project at the ASU Solar Research Laboratory is comparing real-time power output of identical fixed, one axis, and two axis PV systems. Further, direct-beam and diffuse radiation are being independently measured using Hukseflux DR-1 pyranometers and a Minitrak II research-grade tracker, allowing PV system outputs to be compared under well quantified solar conditions. This information will allow a potential adopter of solar technology to make a decision concerning the purchase of a solar tracker based on expected performance in their climate. This proposal seeks funding to expand the ongoing research efforts to include the measurement of tracker angles. Angle measurements allow a direct comparison of tracker accuracy. Specifically, the one axis ZomeWorks UTR-020 tracker will be instrumented with a 6” long linear potentiometer to determine the azimuth, and the WattSun AZ-225 tracker will be instrumented with a 1 meter long linear potentiometer to measure elevation and a 10:1 gearbox adapted to a rotary potentiometer to measure azimuth. The output of all three instruments will be an analog voltage that will be recorded by the existing Campbell Scientific CR-1000 data logger. Tracker accuracy will be calculated by comparing the measured tracker angles to the sun’s calculated position. This accuracy will be investigated as a function of various solar conditions including total irradiance and direct beam fraction. The hypothesis is that trackers will perform well under high direct beam fractions, but not as well with low direct beam fractions, thus suggesting a low return on investment in this region. Specifically, this proposal is requesting funds to purchase a six inches linear potentiometer, and miscellaneous mounting hardware to allow the azimuth angle measurement of the one axis tracker. A separate proposal was submitted to GSAS requesting support for the gearbox needed to measure the two axis tracker’s azimuth angle. Acknowledgements: The ASU Solar Research Lab is funded by the ASU Energy Center and the Department of Technology and Environmental Design. The WattSun two-axis tracker is funded by the ASU Renewable Energy Initiative.

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290. Helicopter Parenting and College Student Anxiety

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kathryn Theall Psychology Lisa Curtin Arts and Sciences Psychology Mar 27, 2012
Project Description: Abstract Parenting perspectives have shifted from viewing children as sturdy and resilient to vulnerable and under constant threat from peers, schools, and society. College administrators, the media, and researchers frequently believe that helicopter parenting is detrimental for college student development. Experts suggest that viewing college students as “emerging adults,” rather than adolescences or adults, may increase understanding regarding parental involvement in higher education (Arnett, 2006, Wartman & Savage, 2008). Though terms “helicopter parenting,” and “parental overinvolvement” have become commonplace in the realm of higher education, little research has been conducted on the relationship between this type of parenting and college student outcomes. Using a sample of college students at a Southeastern university in the United States (N=200,) the current study hypothesizes that helicopter parenting will relate to self-reported anxiety in college students. Students are recruited using the Psychology Subject Pool and register to complete the study online via the SONA system. The online survey consists of 105 questions containing items related to self-reports of past parenting style exposure and self-reports of anxiety.

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291. The physiological correlation between wisdom teeth extraction and relevance of health status

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Christina Martin Exercise Science Gregory Anoufriev Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Mar 27, 2012
Project Description: Our project is research - survey, based on 22 specific questions about status of the wisdom teeth and health issues. Our main goal was to collect information about relationship between wisdom teeth removal and health issues like sinus infections, allergies, headaches and uper respiratory problems. Wisdom teeth removal was the inderect sign of undeveloped maxillar and mandibular bones. Most of the responses named main reason for the removal - no room for the wisdom teeth. Most of the 394 responses indicated orthodontic issues required corrections (braces) starting from 12 years old till 32 years old. Because our project involved skull, sagittal cut will be very illustrating in addition to the survey information.This is the only item we will need to conclude our project.

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292. Sanitation Tests on University's Indoor Climbing Gyms

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Casey White Recreation Management Erik Rabinowitz Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Mar 27, 2012
Project Description: The purpose of this study is to examine the health related conditions/procedures/policies at university climbing walls. We are planning to do sanitation tests at 9 different university climbing walls for MRSA. In order to do these tests will need funding for the swab tests. The plan for this study is to have 5 swab tests taken at each climbing wall, which is a total of 45 swabs. These swab tests are $8 each for a total of $360 and are going to be provided by the lab at the Watauga Medical Center. The lab has agreed to grow the cultures to test for MRSA. This study will also require fedEx clinical mailing packets so that the various universities can mail their swabs to us after they swab the designated areas on their university's climbing wall. We have estimated that these clinical mailing packs to cost approximately $15 each, which comes to a total of $140. This study is important to Appalachian State University because there is a need for stronger sanitation protocols in indoor climbing gyms. At high use climbing walls, such as Appalachian State University's, there is a high risk for contamination. Universities and climbing walls nation wide could benefit from this study because they could learn how to test for MRSA in their gym as well as improve their sanitation policies. With this study we aim to find out if MRSA is a common occurrence on university climbing walls and what indoor climbing gyms can do to improve the condition of sanitation.

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293. Phytoestrogen Sources in the American Diet: Results From the 2003-2004 NHANES

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Katrina West Nutrition and Healthcare Management Martin Root Health Sciences Nutrition and Healthcare Management Mar 27, 2012
Project Description: Phytoestrogen consumption is of recent interest in response to research findings of their potential benefits on various health disparities. Little information on the phytoestrogen content of foods is known, leading to underestimation of intake. This study investigated the dietary sources contributing to the most prominent phytoestrogen intake among Americans using urinary excretion levels of phytoestrogen metabolites as biomarkers of intake. Subjects (n=1222) included were adults aged 19 years and older who completed the NHANES Food Questionnaire (FFQ) and had urinary phytoestrogen metabolite data in the 2003-2004 NHANES. A list of food items was gathered and categorized to make up six food groups: fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, meat, and legumes. Urinary metabolites measured included genistein, daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA), equol, enterodiol, and enterolactone. Statistics included testing the presence of linear trends between dietary consumption and urinary metabolites. The proposed budget is for the printing of a poster to present my research findings at ASU's annual Research Day and the North Carolina Dietetic Association's annual meeting and research expo. Presenting my research at these two events are required for graduation from the graduate program in the Department of Nutrition and Health Care Management.

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294. A Test of the Adaptive Significance of Geographical Differences in Personality type in Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia Sialis)

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Morgan Harris Biology Lynn Siefferman Arts and Sciences Biology Mar 27, 2012
Project Description: Animal “personalities” are behavioral traits that vary across populations but are consistent within individuals. For example, some individual Eastern Bluebirds are very bold, aggressive, and explore novel stimuli quickly (‘proactive’) while others are quite risk-adverse (‘reactive’). Personality traits can be puzzling because, if an individual is consistent in its behavior over time, over different contexts, it may appear to behave ‘‘maladaptively’’ in many situations. Consequently, researchers question what is the evolutionary origin of personality differences and how is this variation maintained? Natural selection is likely acting on personality because personality has been shown to influence adult survival and to be genetically based. To date, no studies have focused on how geographically distinct populations vary in personality type. However, there is some evidence that particular personalities are better fit to certain environments. Individuals that are slower to explore may be better fit to unstable environments and those quicker to explore better suited to living in stable environments. Studying the differences between personalities of geographically distinct populations (that vary in environmental stability) of the same species will show how different environments can affect the evolution of personality traits within a species. My undergraduate research project focuses on the adaptive significance of geographical differences in personality of the eastern bluebird. Preliminary evidence suggests that bluebirds breeding in at the Alabama fieldsite are more aggressive, bolder, and quicker to explore novel stimuli (‘more proactive’) compared to bluebirds breeding in the mountains of North Carolina. This spring, I will 1) verify that the mean personality score of birds in the two populations differ, and 2) measure stability of the environment by comparing variability of weather patterns, and 3) determine how the personality of individuals interacts with environmental stability to influence fitness in both populations by measuring reproductive success in wild birds. I will travel to Auburn, AL (March 9-18) with Dr. Siefferman and her graduate student (Tina Morris) and measure personality traits (aggressive and exploratory behavior) of bluebirds. In April, I will repeat the behavioral assays on breeding birds at the local field site (Meat Camp, NC). Using simulated territorial intrusions, I will measure aggression by introducing a caged, same-sex bluebird and quantify: (1) latency to attack the intruder and (2) attack rate in 10 min. I will assess exploratory behavior by placing a novel feeding station near the nestbox and measuring latency to use the food source. I (and collaborators in AL) will monitor each population for reproductive output. I will analyze data and prepare a research paper for peer-reviewed publication. This research will prepare me well for my ultimate goals of enrolling in graduate school and studying behavioral ecology.

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295. Monitoring the occurrence of the chytrid fungus in Plethodontid salamanders in the southern Appalachians

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Desiree Moffitt Biology Lynn Siefferman Arts and Sciences Biology Mar 27, 2012
Project Description: Amphibians worldwide are in a state of decline and are one of the most threatened classes of vertebrates. Approximately 32.5% of the > 6,000 of described species are considered at risk of extinction. While the evidence of decline is undeniable, the significance of the factors that threaten amphibian populations is controversial. Threats to amphibians include: habitat destruction, chemical pollution, exotic species introductions, over-exploitation, climate change, and disease. Chytridiomycosis (chytrid) is a disease that affects amphibians worldwide; however, data on the occurrence of chytrid in the diverse Southern Appalachian salamanders is lacking. Chytrid is caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Populations infected with Bd have a range of responses from no impact to decline without recovery. Bd infects the keratinized skin cells, which contain high amounts of protein. This causes a thickening of skin, called hyperkeratosis. Amphibians naturally uptake nutrients, water, and in the case of the plethodontid salamanders, obtain all of their oxygen through their skin. As a result of hyperkeratosis, amphibians die because they are unable to carry out their normal physiological functions. While Bd has been found all over the world, studies conducted in the southeastern United States are incomplete at best. Most often, salamanders are obtained opportunistically during a study of frog populations. These studies have not tested for the presence of Bd in salamanders over time to determine if the disease is impacting these populations. For my Master’s thesis project, I am testing for the presence of Bd in Plethodontid salamander populations on Grandfather Mountain, which will include examining trends in infection over time. Grandfather Mountain is a location with an incredibly diverse array of salamanders including Plethodon welleri, a species of special concern in North Carolina. During the summers of 2010/2011, I sampled salamander populations within plots placed along transects at Grandfather Mountain. The transects (100 m long) occur along an elevation gradient with five plots evenly spaced along each transect. Within the plots are nine cover boards, an unobtrusive method of sampling salamanders. I visited these plots and captured salamanders weekly, individually marked them and collected a skin swab for later analysis. I have marked and swabbed hundreds of salamanders. With this protocol, I will examine trends in the presence of Bd over time. With your financial support, I will purchase the necessary molecular chemicals needed to run Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) tests. Detection of Bd is done through extraction of DNA from the swab and then analysis with PCR. I can then determine if local salamander populations are in decline due to chytridiomycosis and examine trends in the presence of the disease causing fungus.

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296. An experimental test of avian mate choice for personality

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Tina Morris Biology Lynn Siefferman Arts and Sciences Biology Mar 27, 2012
Project Description: Personality is behavioral traits that vary within the population but are consistent within individuals. Birds are described from proactive to reactive. In socially monogamous birds with biparental care of young, the personalities of both parents can influence reproductive success; pair-seeking individuals may use clues about the partner’s parental abilities when choosing mates. Pairs that mate assortatively may cooperate better and experience reproductive benefits. Thus, I propose that personality should influence mate choice decisions. Previous work has shown that Zebra Finch females chose males with similar personalities to their own and pairs that mated assortatively experienced higher fitness. My research will focus on whether female Eastern Bluebirds use male personality type to choose mates and whether the personality of the female influences her choice. I will study wild eastern bluebirds in Auburn, AL and conduct mate choice trials in an aviary. In the field, I will use a simulated territorial intrusion of a caged same-sex conspecific and quantify: 1-latency to attack and 2-attack rate in 10 min. Next, I will record latency to use a novel feeding station placed near the nestbox. I will capture birds with mist nets, band them, and bring them into captivity. After an acclimation period, I will reassess personality using a novel feeding station. By measuring personality in the wild and in captivity, I can verify that personality is consistent over time and environment. Birds will be housed in an outdoor aviary and fed mealworms ad lib. Mate choice trials will be video recorded for 3 hrs. Males and females will be from different capture sites; reducing the chance of familiarity. Male birds will be matched for size and paired with an opposing personality. The set-up allows auditory and visual, but not physical contact. Males will be placed in adjacent cages, unable to interact. A female will be placed in a third cage spanning the length of the two male cages. Perches in front of each male enclosure will be used to calculate association time. Nestboxes with two entrances will be in each cage to mimic natural mate choice and breeding conditions. No two males will be together in more than one trial. Choice will be determined if females spend >60% of her time with a male. I will analyze the results by dividing the females into two groups: 1-proactive and 2-reactive. I will use ?2 tests to determine if females mate assortatively. This study will improve our understanding of the processes that maintain behavioral differences within the population. I predict that female bluebirds will prefer to mate assortatively. Eastern bluebirds are an appropriate species to study because individuals display consistent behavioral responses over time and past research on this species suggests that females show consistent and repeatable preferences, but the criteria that females use has not been determined.

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297. FLAVONOIDS; FLAVONOLS, FLAVAN-3-OLS, FLAVONONES, AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH VASCULAR HEALTH

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Heather Davis Nutrition and Healthcare Management Martin Root Health Sciences Nutrition and Healthcare Management Mar 27, 2012
Project Description: Created a poster based on research results from analyzing 2003-2006 NHANES data investigating whether flavonoid intake had a positive impact on vascular health. After the presentation, participants will be able to determine the relationship between daily flavonoid intake; pertaining specifically to flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and flavonones, and vascular health markers. METHODS: Daily flavonoid intake was determined for individuals ages 19 and older (n=5228), based on food frequency questionnaire data from NHANES 2003-2006. Individual’s daily flavonoid consumption was estimated based on the USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods, primarily from fruit, vegetable, coffee, and tea intakes. Linear regression analysis was used to determine whether or not flavonoid subclass intake was associated with higher measures of vascular health. Specific outcomes analyzed included systolic blood pressure (SBP), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and C-reactive protein (CRP), controlling for key co-variates. The grant money will be used to print my poster and register for the annual NCDA meeting. Attending the meeting will allow me to present my research. This event is part of the nutrition curriculum and is required.

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298. Effects of Azadirachtin on Larval and Embryonic Palaemonetes pugio

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Derek Chamberlin Biology Shea Tuberty Arts and Sciences Biology Mar 27, 2012
Project Description: Introduction: Azadirachtin is a chemical compound derived from the seeds of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, which is utilized in some pesticides due to its effectiveness in repelling a wide variety of insects.1 Azadirachtin has been shown to be effective in controlling many phytophagous insects.2 This is due to its documented insecticidal, feeding and oviposition-deterring, growth inhibitory, antihormonal, and antifertility properties against a broad spectrum of insects.3 The antifertility aspects of Azadirachtin completely inhibit ovarian development in females and have also been shown to cause severe brain strain and inhibition of neural activity during growth and development in some species of insects.4 Azadirachtin has become popular in many pesticides because it is a natural product and is often used in organic agriculture as an alternative to synthetic pesticides5, and many Neem based products containing Azadirachtin are often used in developing countries due to their affordability.6 The wide spread usage of Azadirachtin based pesticides has raised concerns of possible unintended effects. The antifeedant and hormone disruption properties of Azadirachtin may pose a threat to other arthropods such as commercially important shrimp.3 Marine and freshwater arthropods may be exposed to toxic levels of Azadirachtin through runoff from usage in agriculture. Studies have been conducted to determine the effects of Azadirachtin on fully matured grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, and have shown little risk.7 However Azadirachtin has been shown to affect growth hormones in target species3, therefore the embryonic and larval stages will be exposed and the concentrations of ecdysteroid hormone will be measured in in order to determine if there is any link between hormone levels and any adverse effects of Azadirachtin. If hormone levels are elevated or reduced in larval stages, Azadirachtin will have a much higher toxicity to larval arthropods than fully matured specimens. Palaemonetes pugio is among the most abundant epibenthic arthropods in the world and plays an extremely important role, both economically and ecologically.8 Therefore further research is desperately needed in order to ascertain whether Azadirachtin is adversely affecting important marine or freshwater arthropods. Objectives: The purpose of this experiment is to record the effects of pure Azadirachtin on larval grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, collected from healthy estuaries near Charleston by NOAA. The effects will be measured by determining the 24, 48, 72, and 96h LD?? of Azadirachtin and quantify its effects on both the time of the molting process and molting hormone levels. This data will be used to determine whether concentrations of Azadirachtin found in the environment have an effect on the grass shrimp, which will allow us to better understand how Azadirachtin affects nontarget species of ecological or economic importance.

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299. Correlation between Yeast Pitch Rate and Beer Flavor Compounds Production

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Dennis Alcorn Finance and Banking Eric Allain Arts and Sciences Chemistry Mar 27, 2012
Project Description: There is a vast amount of information in zymurgy journals and books about proper yeast pitching rates. ?The general consensus on pitching rates is that you want to pitch around 1 million cells of viable yeast, for every milliliter of wort, for every degree plato; a little less for an ale, a little more for a lager. Although, the amount of various flavorful compounds produced from yeast fermentation has not been precisely correlated to a wide variety of yeast pitch rates. A low pitch rate has been shown to lead to excess levels of diacetyl, increases in fusel alcohol formation, increases in ester formation, and increases in volatile sulfur compounds. High pitch rates have been shown to lead to very low ester production and very fast fermentations. Esters are considered the most important aroma compounds in beer. They make up the largest family of beer aroma compounds and in general impart a "fruity character to beer. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, classified as ketones, are important contributions to beer flavor and aroma. Fusel alcohols, a group of byproducts, contribute directly to beer flavor. The most important organic acids found in beer are acetic, citric, lactic, malic, pyruvic and succinic. Entire mass spectra of beer samples fermented under various yeast quantities will be compared for differentiation. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection offers a powerful tool to identify and quantify volatile beer compounds. Pattern recognition methods are often applied to the GC-MS results in order to elucidate the flavor characteristics. We will be performing analytical separations with the Agilent 6890 GC with 5973 MS Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC?MS) instrument. The Agilent GC-MS has a 70 eV electron ionization with extensive library of compounds, autosampler w/ 100 sample carousel, purrge and trap sample introduction with 70?vial autosampler. The size of the worts to be analyzed by the GC-MS will be 5 mL. A pale ale recipe will be used to prepare the worts. The amounts of yeast added to the wort samples will be 10 ?L, 50 ?L, 100 ?L, 500 ?L, and 1mL. The yeast will be allowed to ferment at room temperature for 7 days. Different compounds present in fermented samples, such as ketones, fusel alcohols, esters, and organic acids will be identified and quantified using the GC-MS. Then, data analysis will be performed to analyze differences between amounts of yeast used in the fermentation process. We expect to observe a quantifiable correlation between diacetyl, volatile sulfur compounds, ester formation, fusel alcohol formation and yeast pitch rate. The different ingredient batches purchased will allow us to run many 5 ml fermentation experiments with each recipe and follow it up with three 1 gallon batches of each beer pitched with varying levels of yeast (based on what we learn from the 5ml fermentations). The 1-gallon batches will allow us to do a limited sensory evaluation also.

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300. Effect of Differential Physiochemical Habitat Parameters on a Population of Hellbender Salamanders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) in the Watauga Drainage

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Manley Pugh Biology Lynn Siefferman Arts and Sciences Biology Mar 27, 2012
Project Description: Hellbenders are the large aquatic salamanders endemic to clean fast flowing mountain streams of Eastern and Central U.S. Over the past few decades researchers report dramatic population declines throughout the species’ range which is concerning to wildlife managers. In addition to conservation concerns, hellbenders have long been associated with pristine upland streams so declines and eventual extirpation of this species from freshwater systems may have serious implications with regard to regional water quality. As propagation projects begin to show success, a comprehensive understanding what specific habitat parameters can support hellbenders becomes a greater conservation priority. The Watauga drainage in northwestern NC and northeastern TN appears to support a viable population of hellbenders; however, there are few sites within the drainage where hellbenders are abundant. The contrast of hellbender abundance in the Watauga drainage provides a unique opportunity to study how differential habitat parameters affect hellbender populations. My study is the first which associates hellbender occurrence with comprehensive physiochemical habitat parameters in an effort to understand what specific habitats support hellbenders. I predict that hellbender presence and abundance will strongly correlate with amount of available habitat and exceptional water quality. This study is a multi-year project which is currently in progress and will continue in 2012 and 2013. I will search for hellbenders at 20 sites in the Watauga River drainage. Sites consist of a 150m stretch of stream. I will search for hellbenders by systematically turning large rocks (>30cm max diameter) and capture them either by hand or allowing the animal to drift into a dip net. I will record presence and absence at all sites searched and mark all hellbender captures with a handheld GPS. To characterize substrate I will lay transects across stream channels in 10m increments. At 5 1m2 quadrats I will grub the substrate with my hands characterizing the substrate as measurable stream particles (2.0mm<), boulder (particle 2m<), bedrock, silt, sand, organic matter, and woody debris. Water depth and current velocity will be recorded from the center of each quadrat. I will assess local water quality by measuring DO, pH, water temperature, and conductivity bi-annually (summer and winter) at each site using a YSI model 55 DO meter and a YSI model 63 conductivity-pH meter. I will quantify stream NO4+ and NO3- concentrations by taking 3 water samples bi-annually and freezing them prior to processing. NO3- concentration will be quantified using manual vanadium (III) reduction and NO4+ concentrations will be quantified using an ammonium determination assay. Using these data I will associate site-specific physiochemical habitat parameters with hellbender presence, abundance, and larval recruitment thus elucidating aspects of the relationship(s) between hellbenders and their habitat. ?

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301. Development of an Assay for Monitoring the Hydrolysis of ?-lactam Antibiotics Using the pH-dependence of Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Nicole Reilly Chemistry Libby Puckett Arts and Sciences Chemistry Mar 27, 2012
Project Description: The need to determine the bioavailability of antibiotics is an important goal for the pharmaceutical industry. Previously, an in vitro assay utilizing a fusion protein between ?-lactamase, the enzyme responsible for antibiotic resistance, and the pH dependence of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), was developed. ?-Lactamase is an enzyme produced by some bacteria that catalyzes the cleavage of the ?-lactam ring (present in penicillin antibiotics), rendering the antibiotic inactive. When the cleavage event happens, a proton is released into the surrounding environment. The hypothesis behind this fusion protein is that the pH change caused by the hydrolysis of the ?-lactam ring is a local pH change and therefore, the EGFP must be attached to the ?-lactamase in order to detect the change. Recombinant DNA technology was used to create unique plasmids containing the individual genes. After expression and purification of these proteins, the local pH theory will be confirmed by expressing the two proteins in equal concentrations and using a spectrofluorometer to measure any fluorescence changes in an in vitro assay. If the pH change caused by the hydrolysis of the ?-lactam ring is local, then the fluorescence of the EGFP should stay approximately the same. A lack of change in the fluorescence of EGFP observed by this assay will prove the local pH theory and validate the need to create a fusion protein between ?-lactamase and EGFP in order to monitor the hydrolysis of ?-lactam antibiotics. This will allow for the development of an in vivo sensing system to determine the bioavailability of ?-lactam antibiotics.

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302. Impact of Multiflavonoid Supplementation on Blood Pressure and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
LEYANIE HERRERA Nutrition and Healthcare Management Lisa McAnulty Health Sciences Nutrition and Healthcare Management Mar 27, 2012
Project Description: The proposed budget is needed in order to print the poster. The poster will be displayed and judged at the North Carolina Dietetic Association Annual Conference. The following is a brief explanation of the project. Numerous studies indicate the benefits of multiflavonoid supplementation. However, the literature is insufficient regarding specific mechanisms for positive health outcomes from multiflavonoid supplementation. This double blind, randomized study evaluated the effects on plasma antioxidant status when acute aerobic exercise is combined with multiflavonoid supplementation in twenty normotensive subjects, aged 40-60. Volunteers reported to the lab for baseline testing and blood sampling. The morning of the second visit, subjects returned for a fasting blood sample and then again that afternoon for resting blood pressure measurements. Subjects exercised for 30 minutes at 65-70% of VO2 peak. Blood sampling was performed post exercise. Beat to beat blood pressure measurements were also taken post exercise through the left arm. Then, each subject randomly received placebo (n=8) or a multiflavonoid supplement (n=10) for two weeks. The multiflavonoid supplement contained 250 mg quercetin, 100 mg iso-quercetin, 30 mg epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), 100 mg n3-polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) [(55 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 45 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)]. After the two week treatment period, subjects returned for a third visit and received the identical procedures performed at visit two for comparison of pre and post supplementation. Outcome variables included descriptive measures (height, weight, BMI, BIA, age, VO2, systolic and diastolic blood pressure), and plasma antioxidant capacity [(ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorptive capacity (ORAC)]. The statistical design was a 2 (treatments) x 5 (times) repeated measures ANOVA. Subject characteristics and dietary intake were compared using Student’s t-test. Nutrient intakes, descriptive measures, and blood pressure were not significantly different between groups. FRAP and ORAC were not affected by supplementation and acute aerobic exercise. The results of this study suggest that consumption of a 580 mg multiflavonoid supplement did not affect blood pressure or plasma antioxidant capacity

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303. Exercise Frequency Moderates the Relationship between Anxiety and Quality of Life

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Mitchell Plemmons Psychology Joshua Broman-Fulks Arts and Sciences Psychology Mar 27, 2012
Project Description: Research has shown that anxiety negatively impacts quality of life. Conversely, exercise frequency has been linked to reports of improved health and mood, which are important measures in determining quality of life. However, there is little research examining exercise frequency as a moderator of the relationship between anxiety and quality of life. My investigation evaluated this relationship in a large (n = 953), community based sample (M age = 46.06; SD = 16.201; 60.2% Female). Exercise frequency was based on self-reports of exercise sessions in the past week. Anxiety was measured by responses on the BSI-Anxiety dimension, and quality of life was based on WHOQOL-BREF scores. Hierarchical linear regression models revealed that, consistent with predictions, the interaction between exercise frequency and anxiety scores accounted for significant additional variance in quality of life beyond the main effects. Individuals who reported higher exercise frequency and higher levels of anxiety also reported a higher quality of life. These findings provide support to the idea that exercise is an effective treatment method for anxiety and improving quality of life. I submitted my findings to the Anxiety Disorders Association of America and they have invited me to present my research at their 32nd annual conference. As part of this presentation, I need to create a poster illustrating my findings.

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304. Catalyzed Reporter Deposition Fluorescent in situ Hybridization of Previously Uncultured Nanoarchaea

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Ashley Hawkins Biology Suzanna Bräuer Arts and Sciences Biology Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: Catalyzed Reporter Deposition Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (CARD-FISH) is used to visualize a specific organism through fluorescently labeled probes whose fluorescence is enhanced by the action of the tyramide/Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) interaction. In the proposed project, an archaea (ARMAN)of interest mainly because of its small size (<500nm in diameter) was detected via molecular methods such as PCR in a wetland study site of the Southern Appalachians. To further support the presence of this "nanoarchaea" CARD-FISH is required in order to provide visual evidence of its presence as the organism is typically found in low abundance. A previously designed 19bp oligonucleotide probe (specific to the desired organism) will be 5' labeled with HRP and incubated with a dilute environmental culture believed to contain ARMAN. Next, a solution of tyramide labeled with Cyanine 3 (a fluorophore) will be added to the mixture allowing a chemical reaction to take place with the HRP that, in short, causes the deposition of numerous fluorophores onto the sample thus increasing the amount of fluorescence able to be visualized. Once labeled, the sample can be viewed under a microscope equipped with the appropriate fluorescent filter and cells may be counted.

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305. Blurring dichotomies: The merging of art, nature and science through jewelry and metalsmithing

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Anna Johnson Art Scott Ludwig Fine and Applied Arts Art Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: Through metalsmithing, my goal is to create a body of work that will explore a multitude of natural forms, mainly focusing on life cycles, structure and natural containment in the plant and animal world. I would like to represent different forms both in literal and abstract ways; in my work I simultaneously incorporate my own artistic interpretations of reality while also displaying specimen in natural, objective forms, thus blurring boundaries between art, nature and science. I interpret and display my work in the precious form of jewelry, honoring them with an array of different semi-precious stones and metals. Some example of the natural and interpreted aspects I would like to display include the development of a chick in its egg; different stages of the life cycle of a butterfly and/or silkworm through metamorphosis; arrangement of different species’ bones and their structure cast in metal; and a variety of plant life from the mature specimen to its spreading of seed. For projects such as these, I would like to collect specimen from the natural world myself, as I have in the past, but unfortunately some of the items and processes I would like to explore require ordering special biological materials. I would also like to work with quality materials, which quickly add up in cost. If selected to receive this grant, I would be able to use the support to explore different life forms that I would otherwise not have access to. I would also have adequate resources for the metalsmithing material needed to push my work and myself to its full potential. I will be less limited in material, allowing myself to really experiment and push my work and ideas further. I will explore different techniques through my work, including casting, fabrication, stone setting, chasing and repousse, die forming, along with other skills. The support from this grant will propel my larger aim, which is to create an interdisciplinary body of work that merges the typically dichotomous fields of art and science, blending the two, pushing boundaries, and illustrating how each exists in the other.

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306. Effects of low volume, high-intensity interval training on TNF-Alpha in young adults.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Matthew Morton Exercise Science Kevin Zwetsloot Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: PROJECT DESCRIPTION High intensity interval training (HIIT) is generally performed on a cycle ergometer and utilizes repeated sessions of relatively brief (~30 - 60 seconds), intermittent exercise, often performed at a beyond maximum effort or at an intensity that produces peak oxygen uptake (i.e., >100% of VO2 max). HIIT has proven to provoke increases in VO2max and certain metabolic adaptations faster than traditional moderate intensity exercise. The early forms of HIIT training consisted of repeated Wingate exercise tests (i.e. 30 second “all out” sprint on a cycle ergometer pedaling against 7.5% of the subject’s body weight), all of which took place over a period of 2 weeks. However, using this style of HIIT training incorporates supramaximal intensities (i.e. >100% VO2 max) which may not be appropriate for all subject populations. A low-volume HIIT protocol has recently been developed as an alternative to the initial HIIT training protocols. The new low-volume HIIT consists of repeated bouts of submaximal (i.e. 90-100% VO2 max) exercise and has shown substantial improvements in VO2max, metabolic systems and power outputs in both healthy and clinical populations. Numerous studies have reported a large systemic inflammatory response due to prolonged exercise (2-3 hrs). However, new research indicates that a single session of high intensity exercise causes an increase in plasma inflammatory cytokines. No studies have been conducted on whether low volume HIIT induces an inflammatory response. PROPOSED RESEARCH Our proposed study incorporates a low volume, HIIT protocol consisting of 6 sessions of HIIT over a 2-week period on a cycle ergometer. Each session includes 8-12 intervals of high intensity exercise (~100% of VO2 max) combined with 75 seconds of very low intensity “rest” between each interval. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines will be conducted through the collecting blood samples from the subjects before, immediately after, and 1 hour after the completion of the 1st HIIT session and on the last (6th) HIIT session. My role in this study is to examine the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) in the blood samples using an ELISA assay. TNF-? is one of the initial phase cytokines released in the inflammatory response. IMPORTANCE OF THIS RESEARCH This will be the first study to measure the inflammatory response of TNF-? in low volume HIIT in any population. I hypothesize that a single session of HIIT will show a significant increase of TNF-? in the blood and that 2 weeks of HIIT will weaken the TNF-? response to a single session of HIIT.

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307. Mobile Environmental Field Data Collection for Landscape Change Analysis and Environmental Monitoring in Southern Appalachia

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Patrick Philyaw Geography Christopher Badurek Arts and Sciences Geography and Planning Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: The mission of this project is to develop a geographic information system (GIS) architecture for supporting In Situ field data for landscape change analysis and environmental impact assessment in the southern Appalachian region. Groups of participating students, both graduate and undergraduate, will conduct site visits using Dell Axim X50v pocket personal computers (pc’s). This group project led by Geography graduate students will enable allow near real-time uploads of environmental data gained from the field to populate the comprehensive New River Watershed and Forested Lands GIS Database. This mobile environmental monitoring technology was used in the Gulf Oil Spill clean-up and restoration efforts and a similar approach will be used for monitoring environmental conditions in our study region such as extent of housing development, agricultural run-off potential, microhydroelectric potential, wind power potential, and verification of land cover classification. Future research with these mobile devices will also support upload of field data from around campus, the Watauga county region, and other environmental projects at ASU. Funding this project will ensure ASU leads the way in pushing the ambitions of future regional conservation efforts. Initially, we expect to build a robust environmental impact database focused upon the New River watershed encompassing a study area of North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. The database will allow the incorporation of real time data via student Wi-Fi upload at the time of site visits. Not only will real time data allow for analysis at finer temporal and spatial scales within the watersheds, but it will also allow ASU students and faculty to better forecast and model natural events happening within the region. Uploaded data will be hosted on a remote database, accessible from a university server, to further integrate scientific investigation and results across a broad audience, including the academic and local communities. At the end of this project, server data will also be viewable on a publicly accessible web mapping application that displays the geographic location of collected data sets and their geographic context. Dylan Philyaw will lead the team and setup the GIS database parameters to support data upload, Brian Wize will manage setting up data upload requirements and tables on the mobile device, and Johnathan Sugg will manage the field data sampling routines and methods for collection. The data will be uploaded to a GIS data server managed by Dr. Badurek of Geography.

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308. Analysis of the works of Shostakovich post Soviet condemnation 1932-1934.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Mary Reidinger Music Performance Jennifer Snodgrass School of Music Music Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: Dimitri Shostakovich is considered by many scholars to be one of the most influential Russian composers of the 20th century. Though clearly a Late Romantic composer, Shostakovich is best known for his use of chromaticism, occasional atonality, and aspects of Neo-Classicism in his compositions. Another compositional technique employed by Shostakovich includes the use of modes and bass movement heavily associated with the traditional music styles in Russia. In the first movement of the “Sonata for Cello and Piano in D minor,” Shostakovich employs elements of chromaticism weaved through functional harmony, polyphony that can sound neo-tonal or bi-tonal, modes commonly used throughout Russia, and a compelling relationship to classical sonata form. This presentation will focus on the analysis of the piece in terms of harmonic expectations, foreshadowing, and polyphony. The unconventional use of functional harmony and polyphony creates discourse for both the performer and the listener. Shostakovich employs foreshadowing of each melody in the piano in such a way that the listener feels that the piano is dissonant and incongruous until the full melodies appear in the cello. This analysis will break down these discordant sections to reveal the truly revolutionary way in which Shostakovich uses functional harmony and polyphony to create interesting harmonic expectations for the listener. This project will compare and contrast both the violin sonata with Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District and The Youth of Maxim. All three works are important pieces to fully understand the political implications and forward-looking compositional techniques of the cello sonata.

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309. Determining the identity of an unknown aquatic microbe: Developing a clone library to assess phylogeny and possible metabolic roles of a dominant bacterium on crayfish gills

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kaitlin Farrell Biology Robert Creed Arts and Sciences Biology Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: Previous research at ASU found that local crayfish are engaged in a cleaning symbiosis with a species of aquatic worm. The worms live on the crayfish exoskeleton, and have been shown to improve crayfish survival and growth rates in the field. The worms may be feeding on microbes and detritus from the crayfish gill chamber and in turn improving the crayfish’s gas exchange efficiency. However, the specific mechanisms through which the worms benefit the crayfish remain unknown. As part of my thesis research, I conducted a field experiment to test whether the worms were reducing microbial fouling on the crayfish gills. I predicted that crayfish with worms would have lower levels of microbial coverage on their gills, due to worms grazing. However, when I imaged the crayfish gills using scanning electron microscopy, I found that microbes were present on all the gills, regardless of worm presence/absence. The microbes appeared to be dominated by a single morphotype, which covered much of the gill surface. This has led me to believe that instead of the gills being covered by a diverse community of fouling microbes, the microbe may be an additional symbiont involved with crayfish. Chemoautotrophic bacteria have been found on the gills of other aquatic organisms, and research indicates that their metabolic activities may help protect the gill from harmful substances in the environment, such as reduced sulfur compounds, by converting them into less toxic forms. As an offshoot of my thesis research, I hope to conduct an independent research project to determine the identity and possible metabolic role of the unknown microbe. As a first step to determine what this dominant microbe is doing on the crayfish gill, I hope to develop a clone library based on microbial DNA harvested from crayfish gills. Cloning and sequencing the DNA would provide information on the phylogenetic relationship of the unknown microbe relative to other known bacteria. This could in turn provide a hint as to the role that the unknown microbe plays on the crayfish gill, based on the metabolic activities and roles of its nearest phylogenetic relatives. For example, if the DNA sequences of the unknown microbe indicate that it is closely related to ammonium oxidizing bacteria, it is likely that the unknown microbe is engaged in similar activities on the gill surface. This in turn would provide a solid basis and jumping-off point for further analyses of the specific structure and function of the bacterium; a project that Dr. Creed is hoping to get funded by the National Science Foundation. I plan to take the lead role in developing the microbial clone library, which will be done with the help of graduate students in Dr. Brauer’s microbiology lab. This collaborative project could pave the way for continuing collaborations between our two labs, since it is becoming increasingly clear that the microbial players in the crayfish/worm interaction affect the outcome of the cleaning symbiosis.

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310. Cervical remodeling: Characterizing the molecular forces of collagen during cervical remodeling using Optic Tweezers

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Jane Bowers Biology Chishimba Mowa Arts and Sciences Biology Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: Cervical remodeling (CR) is a complex biochemical process that occurs during pregnancy. CR involves tissue alterations and the dissociation and disorganization of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Collagen is the primary (~80%) component of the cervical ECM, acting as the “steel” that helps hold the growing fetus in the womb or uterus, while at the same time undergoing structural changes that will allow birth of the fetus. During pregnancy, the cervix is able to withstand the gravitational force exerted upon it by the growing fetus. Failure to withstand this force may cause serious obstetrical complications, such as preterm birth. Although much is known about the overall forces that are exerted on the cervix in general, little is known at the molecular level of the forces collagen is able to withstand during pregnancy. By analyzing collagen at the molecular level, we can gain knowledge of its role in CR, which will in turn increase our understanding of the normal birthing process and associated abnormalities. The long-term goal of my project is to analyze forces exerted on collagen molecules using Optical Tweezer technology, in collaboration with Dr. Brooke Hester of Physics and Dr. Jennifer Cecile of Chemistry. For the short-term goal, we will optimize conditions for binding one end of the pure single collagen molecules to a glass slide using streptavidin and biotin. The other end will be bound to a glass bead for laser trapping and immobilization of the molecules. The laser will then be used to stretch and exert varying forces on the molecule. The experiments will focus on collagen types I and III, the predominant types found in the cervix, before moving to the tissue “threads” of the cervical tissue.

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311. Investigation of New Cobalt(II) Glyoxime Hydrogen Catalysts

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Corbin Ester Chemistry Dale Wheeler Arts and Sciences Chemistry Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: Due to the decreasing levels of fossil fuels, the need for alternate energy sources is increasing. In sustainable development, the focus on solar to chemical energy is one of much interest and research. Molecular hydrogen, which can be produced through the utilization of photochemical water splitting, is a clean, convenient, and promising source of energy. However, the hydrogen catalysis systems that have been reported in the literature can be improved. In my lab (Dr. Dale Wheeler’s Lab) and in Dr. Michael Hambourger’s lab, several research students have been exploring potentially new hydrogen catalysis systems. Currently, we are focusing on the synthesis and characterization of new complexes that could provide advantageous properties to the hydrogen catalysts. Our project is focused on altering the molecular ligands surrounding the cobalt catalytic site (other literature has shown that cobalt derivatives are among the most stable and active hydrogen catalytic systems) by changing the electron donating and accepting groups on the coordinating ligands. My contribution to the project will be to synthesize several new complexes that will then react forming the cobalt catalyst. I have been involved in this research project since October, and currently I am using cxalyl chloride to replace the chlorines and synthesize various ethandione derivatives. This semester, my goal is to create five different derivatives (two of which are near purification) using methoxy, pyrrol, n-hexyl, p-methylphenyl, and pyridine groups; these derivatives will be converted into their analogous glyoxime complexes, and subsequently coordinated with cobalt. To complete these syntheses, several solvents and reagents (for Grignard and Friedel-Craft’s reactions), NMR solvents (in order to analyze our products), and IR spectroscopy materials will be required.

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312. Sex Trafficking: North Carolina’s response to the problems and challenges of sex trafficking.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Charity VerSteeg Criminal Justice Jeff Holcomb Arts and Sciences Government and Justice Studies Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: The research being conducted is to better understand the problems and challenges facing the criminal justice and social service response to sex trafficking in North Carolina. The study will review the NC laws and strategies in the governmental response to this issue. The goal of the study is to compare the North Carolina response to sex trafficking with other jurisdictions and identify challenges and opportunities in reducing the frequency and harm associated with this activity. Interviewing task force members will provide insights by key members of agencies directed with addressing sex trafficking in the state.Information obtained via the interviews can help assess the extent to which North Carolina practice is consistent with effective strategies implemented in other jurisdictions as well as the unique challenges and problems facing efforts to combat sex trafficking in North Carolina. Hopefully, the study will help provide insights that may aid those interested in preventing sex trafficking with viable polices that could be implemented to reduce this problem

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313. Western Blot analysis of cervical remodeling during early and late pregnancy in Mice

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
John Schwabe Biology, Pre-professional Nathan Mowa Arts and Sciences Biology Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: Parturition is dependent on complex changes in the composition and strength of the cervix via cervical remodeling. Collagen types I and III comprise nearly 85% of the dry weight of the cervix and are responsible for the tensile strength of the cervix during pregnancy. Changes in the rate of production and degradation of collagen, as well as changes in their extracellular organization, have been identified in late pregnancy and implicated in the changing integrity of the cervix. Understanding these highly complex changes is central to understanding the processes that control cervical remodeling and the mechanisms of natural birth. We have previously used DNA microarray analysis to delineate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-regulated genes in the cervix of pregnant rats. However, no studies, thus far, have examined the full breadth of the signature proteins in the remodeling cervix during early and late pregnancy compared to baseline, i.e., non-pregnant. Most recently, we have used Proteomics Analysis to identify 63 variably-expressed signature proteins in non-pregnant and pregnant mice at day 11 and 17 of gestation. The purpose of this present (proposed) study is to verify the patterns of protein expression in the cervices of non-pregnant and pregnant mouse, as previously profiled in our lab using proteomics analysis and to further characterize the levels of target proteins in the pregnant cervix. Target proteins include Collagen I and III, Biglycan, Olfactomedin V, Lumican, IL-6 and peptidoglycan recognition protein using western blot and qRT-PCR techniques. It is our hypothesis that these target proteins play critical roles in linking the structural remodeling of the cervix, including the increase in collagen synthesis and breakdown, and the inflammatory processes that induce labor. This funding is necessary to cover the cost of purchasing the needed mice to create a full protein profile of the pregnant for day 11-17 of gestation. Purchasing mice and harvesting tissues at the correct time points is the first step to profiling protein expression. Without properly timed pregnant animals, the results of any study on the pregnant cervix will be unsound.

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314. Scutellaria baicalensis and Regulation of Preterm Birth

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Nicholas Austin Biology Chishimba Mowa Arts and Sciences Biology Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether Scutellaria baicalensis, a very well documented medicinal plant with anti-inflammatory activity and long history of safe use, can attenuate bacterial-induced inflammation in the birth canal, which accounts for about 50% of pre-term labor. The inflammation that causes pre-term birth is typically induced by either acute or systematic bacterial subclinical infections, such as vaginal or dental subclinical infections. In a research setting the use of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin derived from gram negative bacteria, can simulate the effect of a bacterial infection within the body. Current treatments for preterm labor are either inadequate and-or unsafe to both mother and fetus. The bioactive ingredients in S. baicalensis with well documented anti-inflammatory activity include baicalein, baicalin, wogonin, and oroxylin A. They have been shown to possess potent activity in other tissues of the body, other than the birth canal, which has not been studied yet. Thus, we hypothesize that S. baicalensis can attenuate expression of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory factors in the birth canal of a pre-term birth animal model. Experimental Design: a) Animals: We will use non-pregnant mice (ovariectomized = without ovaries) (N=3) of the strain C57BL6/129SvEv in this study, as described under the treatment below. b) Treatments: Our most recent results illustrated the optimal time in which S. baicalensis’s crude extract works best at attenuating LPS-induced cervical remodeling. The optimal time in our previous research was found to be at 6 hours of exposure to S. baicalensis administered orally (p.o.) as illustrated by gene expression analysis. The herbal dosage as previously described in literature was 25µg/50µl. The LPS dosage administered by injection in the peritoneal cavity was 250µg/50µl. In this proposal we are asking for funding to purchase non-pregnant mice, as described above. Now that we have the optimal time in which S. baicalensis works within the body we can more accurately determine the optimal dosage in which S. baicalensis works. A low, medium, and high dosage (2.5 mg/50µ; 25mg/50µl; and 250mg/50µl, respectively) will be administered p.o. at hour zero. At hour five LPS will be administered for one hour and then the mice will be sacrificed with a lethal dose of Sleepaway. I will need 35 mice for the following treatments: Positive control (only LPS), Negative control (50% ethanol), and Low, Medium, and High dosages. We will need to perform gene expression analysis (N=3), Protein expression analysis (N=3), and determine basic Histology (N=1). c) Tissue processing and analysis: Cervical tissues will be harvested from the appropriate animal and immediately stored in -80°C. At the appropriate time tissues will be processed for either Real-Time PCR (gene expression), Western Blot analysis (protein expression), as well as confocal microscopy to determine basic histology.

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315. Modulation of Parturition by Echinacea

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Jordan Estes Biology Nathan Mowa Arts and Sciences Biology Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: Because medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activities, such as Echinacea, have been used to modulate inflammation-related disorders, they could also be used to modulate inflammation-induced preterm labor, which accounts for 50% of preterm labor. Therefore, the purpose of my study is to test whether whole ethanolic extracts of Echinacea can attenuate infection-induced inflammation in the cervices of mice. Here, we will use a recently developed model in our lab, namely an ex vivo (whole cervix cultured in a tube) of non-pregnant ovariectomized mice. In the initial studies, we will optimize conditions for dose using three different doses of a whole ethanolic extract of Echinacea to determine the most effective dose that attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced preterm labor. This proposed study builds on our earlier In vivo preliminary data which showed that 1 mg of Echinacea is the most effective in blocking the gene expression of pro-inflammatory factors. In this study, I will use real time PCR to screen for the pro-inflammatory factor, inter-leukin-6. To perform this study I will need random hexamers and dNTP reagents for reverse transcription, as well as PCR master mix so that I may analyze gene expression in the tissues I have treated. The tissues used in this study were acquired using previous OSR funding.

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316. Characterization of the Gene Expression Profile of VEGF During Postpartum Reconstruction of the Cervix

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Robert Stanley Biology Chishimba Mowa Arts and Sciences Biology Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: Background The goal of this study is to elucidate the role that vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] has on remodeling the cervix during the postpartum period. The cervix undergoes drastic changes during and after the course of pregnancy; these changes are collectively referred to as cervical remodeling. There are three distinct phases of cervical remodeling: 1) softening, 2) ripening/dilation, and 3) postpartum repair. Extensive studies have shown a variety of modifications that occur in the cervix leading up to and during birth, and our lab has proposed that VEGF may play an important part in the remodeling of the cervix leading up to labor. Few studies however, delve into the reconstruction and repair of the cervix postpartum. The postpartum repair phase has been previously characterized as a general physiological inflammatory and healing process, and VEGF is a known to be produced by both the epithelial cells at the site of tissue injury, as well as immune cells involved in wound healing. Based on this, and the fact that VEGF plays a role in the remodeling of the cervix throughout pregnancy, I propose that VEGF must play a role in the repair of the cervix postpartum. Experimental Design Timed pregnant WT mice (C57BL6/129SvEv) will be treated with VEGF recombinant protein (200ng/mouse), VEGF blocker (5mg/kg body weight), or PBS (as a control), injected IP at the emergence of the first pup. Mothers will be sacrificed with a lethal injection of sodium pentobarbital (150mg/kg bw) at 0hrs, 15hrs and 2 days postpartum. The cervix was harvested and stored at -80oC for gene/protein expression analysis. In order to understand the role that VEGF has during postpartum cervical healing, it is crucial to understand the expression profile of the VEGF gene when the protein is over-expressed (Treatment with VEGF rec. protein) or when the protein is silenced (VEGF blocker) postpartum. This study builds on the previous work of Dr. Mowa, my graduate advisor. Dr. Mowa’s lab has done extensive research on the role that VEGF has on cervical remodeling pre-partum. My study, however, is unique in that no known study to date has examined VEGF’s role in the repair of the cervix after birth, and data generated here will provide a more complete picture of the dynamic changes happening in the postpartum cervix.

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317. VEGF Regulates Proliferation of Cervical Epithelial Cells

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Siobhan Donnelly Biology Chishimba Mowa Arts and Sciences Biology Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: The main research focus of our lab is the study of birth canal remodeling during pregnancy and how the vasculature influences this process, and it relates to premature birth. Cervical remodeling is broken down into three main stages: softening, ripening, and repair. One of the prominent changes that occur during CR is increase in tissue size and cervical epithelial cells account for 50% of this growth. Although we know some of the factors that regulate the growth of the cervix in general, we do not know specifically which factors regulates cervical epithelial growth. My research examines the effects of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) on the cervical epithelial cell proliferation of non-pregnant mice. Data generated thus far using non-pregnant mice clearly demonstrates VEGF’s proliferative effects on this cell type. At the current stage of my project I need to extend this study to pregnant mice using timed-pregnant mice to test the effects of VEGF on the epithelial cell layer by using BrdU, the gold standard for cell proliferation and attempt to align molecular data and BrdU data. Using BrdU, I will hopefully show that VEGF is not only causing the upregulation of itself and receptors, but causing proliferation. In order to do this I will need approximately 12 timed-pregnant mice.

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318. Effects of ski slopes and snow production on montane streams

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kathryn Rifenburg Biology Michael Gangloff Arts and Sciences Biology Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: Mountain headwaters play a vital role in providing downstream reaches with nutrients and provide a large portion of the world’s population with freshwater. Ski resorts have been shown to negatively affect aquatic ecosystems in Europe and Western US. The effects have not been thoroughly documented in the Eastern US. My study will be the first to examine the impacts of ski resorts on stream health in the Appalachians. The objectives of this study will be 1) Assess impacts by comparing benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages between winter recreation activity (WRA)-impacted and nearby un-impacted (control) streams and 2) Understand how changes in water temperature, chemistry and habitat quality associated with ski resorts influence stream communities and community function. I will examine streams at 4 northwestern North Carolina ski areas: Appalachian, Beech, Sugar, and Hawksnest mountains. Research will target one 1st –order WRA-impacted and one control stream at each mountain. Impacted streams drain ski slopes and control streams drain adjacent forested catchments. At each stream I will sample invertebrates and measure stream habitat parameters in 3 riffles (n=24) using a 0.09 m2 Surber sampler. Invertebrate abundance and richness will be quantified in March, June and, September to maximize diversity estimates. Invertebrates will be preserved and returned to the lab for processing. Temperature loggers will be placed at each riffle for 1 year to continuously monitor temperature. I will also measure conductivity, salinity, pH, percent saturation and DO monthly. Nitrate and ammonium levels will be measured during October-May. Data will be analyzed using SPSS 19. I will compute invertebrate density, taxa richness, Shannon and Simpson diversity, EPT Richness and other community metrics. I will also utilize data reduction (PCA, NMDS) to compress both dependent (biotic) and independent (abiotic) parameters prior to multivariate analyses. I will test for differences in invertebrate community metrics and habitat parameters between sites using 1-Way ANOVA to assess the degree to which invertebrate communities respond to WRA-related changes With the increased popularity of recreational snow activities, it is important to fully understand the effects of ski areas on alpine environments. By better understanding the mechanisms that cause shifts in invertebrate communities in mountain streams, we can better predict how future growth of the ski industry will alter stream communities and develop ways to conserve invertebrate populations.

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319. Snow cover patterns in the Southern Appalachian Mountains: satellite and field observations.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Johnathan Sugg Geography L. Baker Perry Arts and Sciences Geography and Planning Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: Snow is a critical natural resource with hydrologic and societal implications. This is particularly the case in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, where growth in the NC ski industry and Department of Transportation snow removal operations are part of a winter economy influenced by snowfall. Typically, snowfall totals observed at sparsely located Cooperative (COOP) Observer Stations are not necessarily representative of localized conditions, especially in mountainous terrain where aspect, elevation, and slope can influence snow depths. Relatively little is known about actual snow properties at these high elevation sites. This project will use a mixed method approach to improve snow cover classification methods in the Southern Appalachian Region with a focus upon western NC. The objectives of this project are to 1) use a combination of remote sensing and fieldwork to better quantify snow cover in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, 2) perform analysis of imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), hosted on NASA’s Terra platform, 3) improve classification performance of fractional snow cover in mixed pixel surfaces like forest cover or cloud cover, and 4) find the ideal temporal resolution for snow mapping after a snow event. MODIS products will be downloaded for specific historical and current snow events from the National Snow and Ice Data Center, Distributed Active Archive Center. Image analysis will be conducted using standardized methods in a GIScience environment. By coupling site measurements at high elevation areas with analysis of MODIS products, this project will provide an absolute validation of using imagery to classify snow properties in the Southern Appalachian context. Fieldwork will be conducted in-situ during snow events, weather depending, to collect snow measurements during the spring 2012 season and ongoing into the 2012/2013 winter. Measurements will be taken at both high and lower elevation sites from Elk Knob (1,682.5 m asl), Grandfather Mountain (1,812 m asl), Snake Mountain (1,696 m asl), and Roan Mountain (1,916 m asl) in both NC and TN. Snow depth values will be measured perpendicular to the ground surface using a ruler and probe. Water equivalent values will be measured by weighing a snow sample using a scale and tube kit. Stratified snow density will also be measured by digging a snow pit with a shovel and then using the scale and tube to calculate water equivalent values. Observations will be recorded in a field notebook during site visits. Travel to field sites is critical to obtain measurements that are not available from COOP stations, thus providing a unique opportunity to ground truth satellite imagery at finer scales, a process which has received little attention in scientific literature. This type of study is of importance for advancing the use of remotely sensed data in monitoring earth’s physical properties and providing economic benefits through improved snowfall forecasting.

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320. Feasibility Study for a Community Land Trust in the High Country

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Hana Crouch Sustainable Development Christof den Biggelaar University College Sustainable Development Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: The goal of my thesis project is to assess the possibility of starting a Community Land Trust (CLT) in the High Country of North Carolina. I will gauge interest in and catalog (potential) supporters and (potential) participants for such a project. There are many organizations, locally, regionally and nationally, interested in issues related to access to land for the next generation of American farmers, as land is often prohibitively expensive for new farmers, particularly in tourist driven economies like in the High Country. The CLT model has been used to effectively address this issue elsewhere and I will evaluate whether it could be one means of overcoming barriers to farmland access in the High Country. By drawing on the experiences of and lessons learned from those successes and/or failures of Community Land Trusts elsewhere in the US, and comparing these with conditions we face here, I aim to develop a framework for the establishment of a CLT in the High Country. Through participant-observation, semi-structured interviews; intensive key-informant interviews; collection of data from documents, media sources and historical literatures, I will: • Interface with executive directors and members of existing CLTs. • Explore the different models for land tenure developed by CLTs (leasehold v. ownership) and understand the financial instruments used to achieve them. • Study and be able to articulate the technical and legal aspects of CLTs. • Compile and/or create resources to facilitate communication and comprehension of the CLT model in general and a framework for the High Country specifically. • Recruit involvement from landless stakeholders, in addition to regional experts from the financial, legal, farming and Extension, and land conservation/NGO sectors, to form the basis of a coalition. • Establish initial scale and scope and develop a vision statement for a Farmland Trust in the High Country. • Inventory and tap into resources available to assist new CLTs. This grant will enable me to conduct research in the field, greatly enhancing my ability to understand the challenges faced and tools employed by successful Community Land Trusts on the East Coast. I will visit Lancaster Farmland Trust (http://www.lancasterfarmlandtrust.org/) in Pennsylvania, The Community Land Trust in the Southern Berkshires (http://www.clandtrust.org/) in Massachusetts, Land for Good (http://www.landforgood.org/) in New Hampshire, and Intervale Center in Vermont. These visits will enable face-to-face interviews with executive directors and/or staff/board members working for the organizations, as well as site visits to some of the land they hold in trust and the opportunity to speak directly with the stakeholders who farm the land for their living. I will also network more locally by visiting the CLT in Celo, NC, and attending the National Community Land Trust Network's Southeast CLT Conference in Durham, NC.

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321. Cryptic Species Complexes Contribute to Underestimation of Biodiversity- Is There More Than One Species Of Crayfish Cryptically Hidden Among The Highly Endemic Grandfather Mountain Crayfish Populations?

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Raymond Kessler Biology Michael Gangloff Arts and Sciences Biology Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: With more than 400 species, North America is a global hot spot for crayfish diversity. However, current estimations may underestimate the number of crayfish species by overlooking species complexes that inhabit large geographic regions. In 2005, Dr. Roger Thomas described the Grandfather Mountain crayfish, Cambarus eeseeohensis, previously a part of the Appalachian Mountain crayfish, Cambarus bartonii, complex that inhabits headwater streams throughout the Appalachian Mountains. The Grandfather Mountain crayfish is a highly restricted species endemic to portions of the Linville and Watauga Rivers of North Carolina. Despite its limited range, the Grandfather Mountain crayfish has high morphological variability both within and among populations that potentially represents two distinct species. To better understand this complex, highly endemic species and whether the Grandfather Mountain crayfish is actually two distinct species genetic analyses are warranted. I propose to examine this question by investigating the COI and 16S mitochondrial genes of Grandfather Mountain crayfish and comparing them to topotypic species of other closely related species. Both the COI and 16S genes are regarded as “bar-coding genes” and are highly effective tools for classifying living organisms. The information gathered from these studies will determine if there are more than one species of Grandfather Mountain crayfish and if Federal or State endangered species listing is warranted for conservation of this species. I will collect 20 Grandfather Mountain crayfish specimens from five locations across its current known range (n=100) and compare genetic differences in both the COI and 16S genes to two other closely related species, C. bartonii (n=100) and Cambarus howardi (n=100). DNA extraction will be done using Qiagen DNeasy® kit and animal tissue extraction protocol. The COI and 16S genes will be amplified using standard primers and PCR protocols. PCR products will be sequenced by Retrogen, Inc. (San Diego, CA). Resulting sequences will be compiled and edited in Sequencher (Gene Codes Corp.) and aligned in MEGA5. We will use TCS to construct haplotype networks and DNAsp for population genetic analyses. Currently our biggest financial bottleneck, at $14 per sample for each gene, is the cost of sequencing ($8,400 total). Without these materials and sequencing this project would not be possible nor is it possible to definitely state that C. eeseeohensis is a ligament species. If funded, this project would hold great potential for legitimizing and conserving the Grandfather Mountain crayfish. In total this project will cost around $10,000. Currently the North Carolina Wildlife Resource Commission is interested in partially funding, though an exact figure has yet to be determined, their contribution will not fully cover the enormous cost of DNA sequencing. Therefore, we are requesting $500 to help offset the cost of sequencing.

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322. Protein Based Fad Diets and the Effects on Cardiovascular Risk Factors

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Emily Boland Nutrition and Healthcare Management Melissa Gutschall Health Sciences Nutrition and Healthcare Management Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: There is minimal research on the long term consequences of popular protein based diets, especially pertaining to cardiovascular risk factors. This study aims to review available literature on these regimens and their effects on cardiovascular risk. Diet plans examined in this review include The Atkins Diet by Robert Atkins, The Zone Diet by Barry Sears and The South Beach Diet by Dr. Arthur Agatston. All diets investigated proved to have few advantageous outcomes as well as possible adverse effects from prolonged duration. The major conclusion drawn from the review is that very little is known about the long term effects of protein based diets on cardiovascular disease risk factors. For this reason, for dieters wanting to lower their risk for cardiovascular disease, the safest recommendation is to consume a diet well balanced in the major macronutrients as well as fruits, vegetables and whole grains. This will also lower the risk for other chronic diseases as well as help shed excess weight, both of which will positively impact cardiovascular disease risk factors. This literature review calls to attention the need for more long term scientific research focused on the safety of popular diets before they can be recommended to patients. I would like to present this research at the Annual Celebration of Student Research and Creative Endeavors.

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323. The Effects of Discontinuous vs Continuous Aerobic Exercise on Cardiac Autonomic Modulation in Aging Adults

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kaylee Davis Exercise Science Scott Collier Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: The autonomic nervous system controls the human heart rate through two efferent divisions, the sympathetic and parasympathetic. Cardiac autonomic modulation continually changes outflow to these nervous divisions which in turn derive the variation in our heart rate which can be detected by recording sinus rhythms (Kollee et al. 1993). Heart rate variability is the fluctuation of heart rate over time which is useful to quantify the variability in the heart rate which is ultimately influenced by autonomic input (Task Force of European, 1996). Heart rate variability can be used as a clinical tool to predict cardiac morbidity and mortality (Task Force of European, 1996). Heart rate variability has a negative correlation with age, however most research in this area is completed in diseased populations. Current research has shown that continuous aerobic exercise can increase heart rate variability in healthy and diseased adults by increasing vagal neural traffic. Routine exercise training is thought to balance autonomic function by increasing vagal tone and decreasing sympathetic outflow. However discontinuous exercise is commonly prescribed for older individuals and those that are overweight. Therefore the purpose of our study will be to determine the effects of continuous vs. discontinuous exercise on a younger vs. older population. Subjects will range from ages 18 to 24 and 40-60 years of age and will be unmedicated. All subjects will be required to attend two lab visits, pre and post intervention to assess their status on our test parameters. Subjects will be required to report to the lab after an overnight fast at approximately 0600-0700 hours. Baseline measures will include stature (centimeters), mass (kilograms), percent body fat, and blood pressure. Using a three lead electrocardiogram, (modified CM5), subjects will be laid supine for five minutes to assess baseline cardiovagal activity. They will then be tilted to eighty degrees for five minutes before returning to 180 degrees supine. During this time we will collect blood pressure measurements using a beat-to-beat blood pressure via finger plethysmography. Lastly, we will administer a graded maximal exercise test to assess maximal aerobic capacity. Individuals will be randomly assigned; an eight week discontinuous training exercise group (n=10) and an eight week supervised continuous training activity group (n=10). All subjects will report back to the lab following their training. We hypothesize; 1) Eight weeks of continuous activity will present divergent changes when compared to the discontinuous exercise group (i.e. greater increases in heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity. 2) The older subjects will demonstrate greater HRV increases due to their lower starting point. We will need the monies from the budget to purchase EKG electrodes ($115) and also to pay for information dissemination costs(i.e. poster presentation $125) and subject compensation ($200).

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324. Music Theory and Aural Skills: Creating a Crossroads Between Context and Mastery

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Meredith Anderson Music Education Jennifer Snodgrass School of Music Music Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: Within the typical classroom on both the K-12 and university level, there exists a disconnect in the methods of teaching music theory and aural skills. In the middle and high school music classroom, written music theory is simplified and compressed, giving future music students a skewed and sometimes incorrect view of the subject. Aural skills, on the other hand, could be considered more productive on the K-12 level, being taught completely within context. At the university level, written theory is taught in great depth, dissecting pieces of music that the students would otherwise never see. However, aural skills is dictation-based and rarely put into context. This disconnect causes a vicious cycle in the world of music education. Students start their musical training in the K-12 classroom, “mastering” music theory and aural skills in compressed but contextual ways. Some students then move on to a university music program as music education majors, studying theory and aural skills in great depth, but out-of-context. When these students graduate, most return to the K-12 classroom as teachers. This is problematic because these students do not understand how to integrate their university theory training in a public school classroom. There are many ways that university faculty and public school teachers can work together to provide a smooth transition for students between public school and the university and back, specifically in terms of theory and aural skills instruction. Based on observations of aural skills instruction at both the university and K-12 levels, this presentation will offer qualitative data in terms of concepts being taught on various levels and how each can be more balanced in order to create a collective learning experience between instructor and future music educators. The materials requested in this grant will help me to best understand the classrooms that I will be observing as well as give me the opportunity to best interact with the students.

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325. Identification of MFP1-associated Protein Complexes Via Blue Native PAGE (BN-PAGE).

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Amanda Havighorst Biology Annkatrin Rose Arts and Sciences Biology Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: Photosynthesis, the process by which plants create carbohydrates, takes place inside of the chloroplasts of plants; the sunlight necessary for this process is captured by chlorophyll in proteins found in a structure called the thylakoid membrane. MFP1 is a long coiled-coil protein found in the thylakoid membranes. It is believed to be involved in facilitating protein-protein interactions in the chloroplast, but as of now its exact function remains unknown. Blue Native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) is a technique used to isolate proteins and their associated protein complexes, as they would be found in the cell. Using BN-PAGE, we hope to elucidate which protein complexes MFP1 associates with, in order to further clarify MFP1’s exact function. BN-PAGE requires running two gel electrophoreses; the first gel is run to separate the intact protein complexes, and then the appropriate bands are cut out of that gel and run on a second gel to separate the complexes and detect the sizes and number of proteins found in each complex. In order to isolate the protein complexes, we need to start by isolating the chloroplasts out of plant tissue. The HEPES and the Percoll are needed to isolate the intact chloroplasts; the HEPES is a component of the extraction buffer, and the Percoll will make sure that no other plant material is present that may contaminate our sample. The other compounds listed are used to make various buffers necessary for the procedure; these buffers are used to lyse the chloroplasts to expose the thylakoid membrane, solubilize the proteins, and as solutions to run the electrophoresis in. The data collected from this experiment will help us to determine the function of our protein of interest by allowing us to see which thylakoid protein complexes it interacts with, which cannot be seen via microscopy or by removing the protein from the plant. Since the photosynthetic machinery is located in the thylakoid membrane, this could tell us whether or not MFP1 plays a role in light capture for photosynthesis.

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326. "It is what it is" a series of three paintings for the BFA Art Show in Catherine J. Smith Gallery.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kseniya Du Art Mike Grady Fine and Applied Arts Art Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: I am determined to carry on with the qualitative research of painting as a media for a visual experience. The research is an exploration of the material through application and investigation of the nature of physical gesture through the body. I am committed to create visual events for the viewer where he or she has complete freedom. I have completed an academic research about the nature of paint and the human body functioning as elements of the painting. Now, I am ready to carry on with the process of creating such visual events. Since this subject is current in the professional art world, I see a great potential in such investigation. This body of work will greatly contribute to my professional carrier as an artist. The most important part for me as an artist is to create an actual work which becomes an ultimate investigation of my academic research. The project consists of a series of three paintings. Each painting is 6x8ft. My approach to the surface is unique. The canvas is raw and unstretched. I sew the edges of the canvas and use grommets to secure it on the wall. I believe that only a large format can successfully contain the visual event that I'm intended to create in order for viewers to be able to associate this event with themselves. After investigation of different materials, I use mostly latex paint which allows me to create an incredible texture. This body of work will allow me to cultivate the skill of the material I have chosen to work with. I intend to complete three large paintings by the middle of April. Upon completion, I will have a critique with faculty members. The work will be shown in Catherine J. Smith Gallery in May in the BFA show. This investigation will become an ultimate proof of my commitment to art as a professional.

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327. Detection of Physiological Desensitization to Violent Video Games Using Facial Electromyography

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Glenna Read Psychology Mary Ballard Arts and Sciences Psychology Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: There is substantial evidence that exposure to violent video games decreases physiological arousal in response to violent or negative stimuli (Bartholow, Bushman, & Sestir, 2006; Carnagey, Anderson, & Bushman, 2007). Researchers have demonstrated detrimental effects of both short- and long-term exposure to media violence. Currently, the most popular framework to explain the effects of violent video games is the General Aggression Model (GAM; Anderson & Bushman, 2001; Bushman & Anderson, 2002; Carnagey, Anderson, & Bartholow, 2007). Using the framework of the GAM, the current experimental study will examine physiological desensitization to violent video game play through the use of facial electromyography (EMG). Participants will play a violent or non-violent video game. Afterwards, they will be exposed to pleasant, neutral, and aggressive images chosen from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1999). Facial EMG will be used to assess participants’ reactions to the pleasant, neutral, and aggressive images by measuring the intensity of negative affect indicated by visually imperceptible movements of the brow muscle (i.e., corrugator supercilii; CS). Self-reports of affective valence and arousal elicited by the images will be assessed using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM; Bradley & Lang, 1994). Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) measures will also be gathered. It is hypothesized that participants who play the violent video game will demonstrate significantly less negative affect as measured by CS reactivity and less HR reactivity to violent images than participants who play the nonviolent video game, thus demonstrating physiological desensitization. It is also expected that participants who play the violent video game will not differ from those who play the nonviolent game in their ratings of aggressive images.

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328. Muscle fiber typing with phytoecdysteroid supplementation in aged mice

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Betty Ann Ray Exercise Science Kevin Zwetsloot Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: Aging is associated with a substantial loss of muscle mass, but also a preferential loss of type II muscle fibers (i.e. the fastest/most powerful muscle fiber type). Furthermore, as a consequence of aging, type II muscle fibers transition to smaller and slower subtypes. For example, type IIb (fastest/most powerful fibers) transition into type IIa (slower/less force producing fibers) or type I (slowest/lowest force producing fibers), drastically reducing an older adult’s ability to generate power/force to perform activities of daily living. Phytoecdysteroids, from the plant Ajuga turkestanica (i.e. 20-hydroxyecdysteroid; 20-E), activate the PI3K-Akt pathway to stimulate protein synthesis in C2C12 muscle cells and increases strength in sedentary young rats. It is unknown if these same effects occur in aged skeletal muscle. As part of a larger study, Drs. Zwetsloot and Shanely are currently investigating if 20-E or an extract produced from the plant Ajuga turkestanica (ATE) increases PI3k-Akt signaling and strength in 21-month old (= 65 yr old human) sedentary C57BL/6 male mice. After 28 days of supplementation with either 20-E, ATE, or control (CT) (n=12/each), skeletal muscles were removed for molecular and histochemical analysis. Recently, we discovered that 20-E & ATE supplementation significantly increased muscle fiber cross-sectional area (i.e. muscle mass) in aged mice. These findings led us to hypothesize that the increased cross-sectional area could be explained by two different mechanisms: 1) 20-E & ATE supplementation increases protein synthesis (currently under investigation by graduate student Marcus Lawrence) or 2) 20-E & ATE supplementation induces fiber type transitions from a slower type I or IIa fiber type to a faster IIb fiber type. My proposed project will determine whether the phytoecdysteroid supplement (20-E and ATE) induces fiber type transitions in aged mouse skeletal muscle. Aged mouse muscle cross-sections for plantaris and tricep muscles will be analyzed via immunofluorescence to determine fiber type composition. Three separate antibodies specific for each fiber type (i.e. I, IIa, and IIb) will be used along with fluorescent-tagged secondary antibodies for this technique. After immunofluorescent staining, images will be captured using the confocal microscope at the Microscopy Core Facility located in the Rankin Science Building. Images will be analyzed for the 3 different muscle fiber types and fiber type composition will be expressed as the % of each fiber type within an individual image. A one-way ANOVA will be utilized to determine differences between groups. I hypothesize that 20-E and ATE supplementation will result in an increase in the % of type IIb fibers, compared to CT. This will be the first study to examine the effects of phytoecdysteroid treatment on fiber type composition in aged muscle. My goal is present these findings at the 15th Annual Celebration of Student Research in 2012.

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329. Low volume, high intensity interval training in young adults

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Casey John Exercise Science Kevin Zwetsloot Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Feb 29, 2012
Project Description: High intensity interval training (HIIT) is characterized by repeated sessions of relatively brief (30-60 seconds), intermittent exercise, often performed with an “all out” effort or at an intensity close to that which elicits peak oxygen uptake (i.e. ?100% of VO2 max) and is generally performed on a cycle ergometer. HIIT has proven to be a sufficient stimulus in increasing VO2max and certain metabolic adaptations. While HIIT requires much less time to elicit the same metabolic changes as traditional moderate intensity exercise training, this mode of HIIT utilizes supramaximal intensities that may not be suitable for all subject populations. Recently, a low-volume HIIT protocol has been developed as an alternative to initial supramaximal HIIT training protocols. Low volume HIIT consists of repeated bouts of submaximal (i.e. 90-100% VO2 max) exercise and has shown significant improvements in VO2max, metabolic systems and power outputs in both healthy and clinical populations. It has been well documented that prolonged vigorous exercise (2-3 hrs) induces a large systemic inflammatory response. However, more recently it has been reported that a single bout of high intensity exercise causes an increase in plasma inflammatory cytokines. It is unknown whether low volume HIIT induces an inflammatory response. PROPOSED RESEARCH Our low volume, HIIT protocol consists of 6 sessions of HIIT over a 2-week period on a cycle ergometer. Each HIIT session contains 8-12 intervals of high intensity exercise (~100% of VO2 max) with 75 seconds of very light intensity “rest” between each interval. We will collect blood samples from the subjects before, immediately after, and 1 hour after the completion of the 1st HIIT session and the last (6th) HIIT session for analysis of inflammatory cytokines. My role in this research is to be the study coordinator as well as to examine the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the blood samples using an ELISA assay. IL-6 is one of the initial phase cytokines released in the inflammatory response. IMPORTANCE OF THIS RESEARCH This will be the first study to measure the inflammatory response (IL-6) in low volume HIIT in any population. I hypothesize that a single session of HIIT will increase IL-6 in the blood and that 2 weeks of HIIT will attenuate the IL-6 response to a single session of HIIT. These results would support further investigation of low volume HIITs effect on the inflammatory response in an elderly population, where a reduction may be beneficial.

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330. Learning and Applying Electric Drive Vehicle Principles through Small Scale Application

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Eric Stone Appropriate Technology David Domermuth Fine and Applied Arts Technology Jan 25, 2012
Project Description: First and foremost, the research project would be a great learning tool for all types of electric vehicles. Since all electric powered vehicles operate using similar principles, a small scale vehicle would save time and money while getting me one step closer to a career dealing with electric vehicles (EVs). I wish to construct a custom designed electric driven skateboard. My design will utilize a friction drive propulsion system, quite different from the hub motors used on most electric vehicles. The output shaft from the motor will be directly driving the wheels making the system both simple and effective. The hand operated throttle will be a constructed from a potentiometer and a trigger and, if funds allow, will be wireless. For the last couple years I have been researching EV principles, and I know that knowledge coupled with my critical thinking abilities would produce a polished final product. I require the OSR funding for my project because apart from taking 15 credit hours of senior level classes, I work 30+ hours a week as an assistant manager of a ski shop. This isn't just money in the pocket, I have plenty of bills to pay. But enough with the sob story, if granted the research money, I will happily walk away from my education at Appalachian State with a comprehensive understanding of the basic engineering and design principles regarding electric vehicles.

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331. NAHB Residential Construction Management Competition

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Laura Clark Building Sciences Ok-Youn Yu Fine and Applied Arts Technology Jan 24, 2012
Project Description: Creating a business proposal for investors, the same that is used to obtain financing in order to start a new building & development company and build a residential development. This is a 150 page document that includes; marketing study, financial plan, cost estimates, building schedules, sales strategies, a project management structure, and a green building strategy for our proposed development. The proposed business will be in Huntsville, AL. It is a real plot of land that is being developed with the help of the competition. The proposal is a major multifaceted undertaking. We began working on the proposal at the start of the fall semester and will continue working through the holiday break. Our team members are from Building Science, Appropriate Technology, Finance and Marketing. To put the proposal together we must also work with professionals from across the state and nation. A 15 minute (timed) visually aided oral presentation is given before a board of six judges and a large audience, the judges than have time to ask specific questions about the proposal. The judges are construction industry professionals and building experts, each representing home building companies from across the country. One judge is the President and CEO of the actual company. The presentation has to be a “professional” presentation with visual aids covering all aspects of our development proposal including: marketing and sales, finance, project management and organization, estimating, scheduling and our green building strategy. This year we will be competing against 40 other major universities from across the nation. This will be our fourth year in the competition. Last year our team was proud to place 10th of 39 teams and three years ago placed 4th of 40 teams and was awarded “Rookie of the Year” making it the first time a rookie team had placed in the top 5. Both years our team out placed teams from schools considered to be the best in construction science and management like Michigan State, Texas A&M, Georgia Tech and Purdue.

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332. NAHB-Residential Construction Management Competition

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
John Pritchett Technology Education Ok-Youn Yu Fine and Applied Arts Technology Jan 24, 2012
Project Description: 1. Creating a business proposal for investors, the same that is used to obtain financing in order to start a new building & development company and build a residential development. This is a 150 page document that includes; marketing study, financial plan, cost estimates, building schedules, sales strategies, a project management structure, and a green building strategy for our proposed development. The proposed business will be in Huntsville, AL. It is a real plot of land that is being developed with the help of the competition. The proposal is a major multifaceted undertaking. We began working on the proposal at the start of the fall semester and will continue working through the holiday break. Our team members are from Building Science, Appropriate Technology, Finance and Marketing. To put the proposal together we must also work with professionals from across the state and nation. 2. A 15 minute (timed) visually aided oral presentation is given before a board of six judges and a large audience, the judges than have time to ask specific questions about the proposal. The judges are construction industry professionals and building experts, each representing home building companies from across the country. One judge is the President and CEO of the actual company. The presentation has to be a “professional” presentation with visual aids covering all aspects of our development proposal including: marketing and sales, finance, project management and organization, estimating, scheduling and our green building strategy. This year we will be competing against 40 other major universities from across the nation. This will be our fourth year in the competition. Last year our team was proud to place 10th of 39 teams and three years ago placed 4th of 40 teams and was awarded “Rookie of the Year” making it the first time a rookie team had placed in the top 5. Both years our team out placed teams from schools considered to be the best in construction science and management like Michigan State, Texas A&M, Georgia Tech and Purdue. Thank you for your consideration for our success in the past years is greatly due to the support of Appalachian State University.

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333. Closing the Gap: CMS from a Student’s Perspective

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Meredith Anderson Music Education Jennifer Snodgrass School of Music Music Jan 24, 2012
Project Description: Conferences of the College Music Society are typically geared towards university faculty. As much as it is a necessity for professors to collaborate at these events, there is a great deal of positive perspective that students can bring to the conversation. As undergraduate and graduate students who recently attended the CMS national conference, we feel that although the role of students is valued by the majority, there are still those who overlook our place in the society. At conferences, students represent a view from the opposite side of the classroom. In discussions, professors ask questions about how to reach today’s students, and we are the ones who can best answer those questions. In the classroom, students don’t feel comfortable expressing what they want from a class, whether music theory, aural skills, music history, or a performance-based course. The CMS national conference is the place for those desires and concerns to be voiced without feeling inferior. There is a point where students, especially those exploring careers as college professors, need to be looked at more as a resource and less as a product. Professors should be less focused on filling us with information, and more focused on creating a collaborative learning environment. This panel discussion, lead by undergraduate and graduate members of the College Music Society, will focus on the concerns raised by student members and how faculty members of the society can better address those both within the classroom and through the society as a whole. This is a co-presentation with Drew Griffin, Katherine Burkhalter, and students from the University of Delaware.

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334. Warmth and Structure in the Mother-Child Relationship Relate to Disruptive Behaviors and GPA of College Students

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Dresden Lackey Psychology will canu Arts and Sciences Psychology Dec 16, 2011
Project Description: comparing GPA with maternal behaviors in children with ADHD symptomology. data collection was from a larger database collected by Dr. Canu from students at a midwest college.

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335. Development of a Whole-Cell Biosensing System to Measure the Bioavailability of ?-lactam Antibiotics using Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kaitlin Rzasa Chemistry Libby Puckett Arts and Sciences Chemistry Dec 16, 2011
Project Description: Many bacteria have developed a ?-lactamase gene to catalyze the cleavage of the ?-lactam ring of penicillins. This cleavage event renders the antibiotic inactive, thus serving as a form of antibiotic resistance. In this project, a new fusion protein is being developed with the gene that encodes for ?-lactamase and the gene for enhanced green fluorescent protein. This new fusion protein will be utilized to detect small, local pH changes that are created when a proton is released during the catalysis of the ?-lactam ring. After insertion into a plasmid vector, transformation into a bacterial strain, and expression, this protein will be capable of monitoring pH changes in vivo, which leads to measurements of bioavailability of potential new ?-lactam antibiotics. This whole-cell sensing system will also be capable of screening for potential inhibitors of ?-lactamase that could be used in antibiotic cocktails. This whole-cell approach is more stable and lends itself to field monitoring as well. The proposed budget is necessary, because the DH5? cells are used to uptake the created protein and replicate it. With no DH5? cells, the project cannot continue. Also necessary is Taq polymerase, which is essential in running a polymerase chain reaction, which is how the DNA is amplified. The Luria-Bertani (LB) broth and ampicillin are needed, because that is what is used to grow the bacteria.

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336. Examination of muscle fiber cross-sectional area with phytoecdysteroid supplementation in old mice

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Betty Ann Ray Exercise Science Kevin Zwetsloot Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Dec 16, 2011
Project Description: A substantial amount of skeletal muscle mass is lost (muscle atrophy) when we age and this has huge effects on the quality of life in the elderly population. Recent studies have demonstrated that 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE), a phytoecdysteroid from the plant Ajuga Turkestanica, increases PI3K/Akt signaling, leading to increased protein synthesis, in C2C12 muscle cells and increases strength in sedentary young rats. It is unknown if these same effects happen in aged skeletal muscle. Dr. Zwetsloot is currently performing a study that investigates if 20-HE or an extract made from the plant Ajuga Turkestanica (ATE) increases PI3K/Akt signaling and strength in 20-month old sedentary aged mice (= 65 yr old human). After 28 days of supplementation with either 20-HE, ATE, or placebo, skeletal muscles were removed for molecular and histochemical analysis. The purpose of this research project is to determine if 28 days of phytoecdysteroid supplementation (in the form of 20-HE or ATE) increases muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) in sedentary aged mice. Currently, muscle samples from 36 aged mice (12 per group) are stored in the freezer awaiting analysis. My role in this research will be to stain the triceps (fast-twitch fiber-type) and the plantaris (mixed fiber-type) muscle cross-section samples using Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) staining techniques and measure the muscle fiber CSA (a measurement commonly used to assess muscle mass). I will be blinded to the treatment groups as to not influence the results. The H&E staining is a specific sequence of stains that will ultimately dye the nuclei dark blue and the cytosol pink. After staining the fiber cross-sections, images (10X objective) of the H&E stained muscle cross-sections will be taken on the Olympus IX81 light microscopy system and fiber CSA will be measured with the Olympus MicroSuite Software program in the Microscope Core facility in the Rankin Science Building. Dr. Zwetsloot’s collaborator from UNC-Charlotte, Dr. Susan Arthur, will cut three muscle cross-sections from each muscle, mount them on microscope slides, and then send them to ASU for staining and measuring. Muscle fiber CSA data will be compiled in excel spreadsheets and analyzed using a one-way ANOVA to determine differences between treatments. This will be the first study to examine if phytoecdysteroid treatment increases muscle fiber CSA in aged muscle. I hypothesize that both 20-HE and ATE will increase muscle fiber CSA in aged mouse muscle, compared to placebo. These results would support further investigation of using phytoecdysteroids in the elderly population to help maintain muscle mass with aging. I will be graduating in May and my goal is present these research findings at the 15th Annual Celebration of Student Research in 2012. These data will eventually become part of a manuscript for Dr. Zwetsloot’s larger project.

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337. Characterization of acetate and CO2 utilizing methanogens in local acidic wetlands

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kristen Pate Psychology Suzanna Brauer Arts and Sciences Biology Dec 16, 2011
Project Description: Acidic peatlands are substantial contributors of atmospheric methane, accounting for 5-10% of methane gas emitted into the Earth’s atmosphere (Whalen, 2005). However, many of the methanogens that peatlands contain are poorly characterized (Cadillo-Quiroz, et al., 2006). Of these methanogens, many are capable of capturing C to make methane via CO2, H2, and occasionally, acetate. It is believed that a variety of factors influence the types of methanogens that may be present in peatlands, including: latitude, pH, chemistry, temperature, and climate. To better comprehend the various processes that may lead to an increase in decomposition rates and the release of methane gas a study will be conducted to qualitatively and quantitatively examine the presence and abundance of various groups of methanogens in high elevation, peat-forming wetlands of North Carolina. Methane cycling analyses will be performed via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR (coupled with clone libraries of the cDNA), which in turn will be used to explain changes in abundance and activity of methangenic groups with regard to local environmental conditions. Data obtained on local methanogens will be compared to quantitative and qualitative data gathered on methanogens found in other acidic peatlands worldwide. In order to characterize the methanogen population in Northern North Carolina, cloning and sequence analyses of 16S rRNA will be used and phylogenetic composition of methanogen populations will be analyzed. Substrate samples of the Tater Hill Bog and the Pineola Bog near Boone, North Carolina will be taken and levels of CH4, CO2, and H2 will be measured at various depths.

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338. Dehydration and Acute Weight Gain in Mixed Martial Arts Fighters Prior Competition.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Marcus Lawrence Exercise Science Alan Utter Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Dec 16, 2011
Project Description: Specific Goals: The purpose of this investigation is to characterize the magnitude of acute weight gain, body composition, weight loss methods, and dehydration in mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters. We will also examine any possible relationship between fighting success and acute weight gain. Broader Significance: To our knowledge, this will be the first study to attempt to document the extent of dehydration, weight loss methods, and body weight fluctuations in MMA fighters during competitive events. Results will have direct impact on State Medical Advisory Committees who develop policy and procedures on weigh-ins, body composition, and weight loss guidelines for MMA fighters in their respective states. Project Design: 90 competitive MMA fighters between the ages of 18-40 will serve as subjects. Subjects will be recruited from competitive MMA fights scheduled in the state of Wisconsin. MAA fighters from the State of North and South Carolina will be requested to participate in the voluntary assessment of body composition, weight regain, weight loss methods, and hydration. Body composition will be measured using skinfold analysis (SFA) methods described in the NCAA Guidelines for Assessing Body Composition in Collegiate Wrestlers. Skinfold assessment requires pinches of skin and underlying fat at three locations: the triceps area, subscapular area, and the abdomen near the navel. Weight regain will be determined by having each fighter step on a scale during the official weigh-in which occurs 18-24 h prior to the fight. Body weight will then be re-measured at 18-24 hours after the weigh-in. All re-weighing will take place on the same scale that was used to determine the official weight. Hydration will be measured by asking the fighters to voluntary supply us with a urine sample during each of the body weight measurements. If a fighter volunteers to provide us with a urine sample, he will be asked to urinate in a plastic cup. The specific gravity of these samples will be analyzed utilizing a refractometer to assess hydration level. Weight loss methods will be determined by self-report through a survey instrument.

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339. Memory and Boundary Extension in Artists and Musicians

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Sarah Hinnant Psychology Chris Dickinson Arts and Sciences Psychology Dec 16, 2011
Project Description: The goal of this study is to understand the differences in perception between artists, musicians, and the general population. Previous research demonstrates that artists have better memory for visual details than non-artists. We want to know if the same is true of other visual spatial groups such as musicians. Eye-tracking will be used to measure differences in fixation targets and eye movement patterns between the three groups. Participants will be given a boundary extension test as well as a general memory test at the end of the session. Boundary extension is a memory error which occurs when a person thinks they saw more of a scene than they actually did. An example of this is a view through a window. When we look through a window we know that the view extends beyond the window's edges, so we might remember seeing more of the view than what we actually saw. We are interested in finding out if artists and musicians experience boundary extension more, less, or the same as the general population. Stimuli include five single-object photographs and five multiple-object photographs. A session is held in the following format: participants are instructed to try to remember as much detail from each picture as possible. After viewing each photograph for 15 seconds, participants are given a boundary extension test. They are then given a quick break, and instructed to view each picture again for 20 seconds. After this, participants are given the memory test at the end of the session, followed by a short questionaire concerning artistic and musical background and training. We are also interested in finding out if the complexity of the photograph makes a difference concerning recall of pictorial details and boundary extension between the groups. After two semesters of fervently trying to recruit participants from the Art and Music Departments (for the purposes of this study we are defining artists as current art majors, and musicians as current music majors), we have not been able to get enough participants. It has come to our attention that grant money is necessary to recruit participants for the completion of the study. A final goal is to have the results published in a journal.

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340. Monthly Chemical Evaluation of Boone Creek: Nitrate, Phosphate, and Metals

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Barbara Hobbs Environmental Science Carol Babyak Arts and Sciences Chemistry Dec 16, 2011
Project Description: Since 2006, the quantification and analysis of parameters in Boone Creek has led to an understanding of primary forcing agents responsible for Boone Creek's degradation and has contributed to remediation efforts ongoing today. However, little data on metals in Boone Creek has been regularly collected since 2008, and no recent data has been collected measuring nitrate (NO3-) and phosphate (PO43-) concentrations. The goals of this project are to (1) collect monthly data from Boone Creek on metal concentrations, anions such as sodium (Na-) and chloride (Cl-) concentrations, concentrations of NO3- and PO43-, pH and total suspended solids (TSS); (2) collaborate with students and faculty concerning salt levels, flow, and temperature; (3) and to compare data with previous years to see any significant changes from recent remediation efforts. Chris Thaxton, William Anderson, and Carol Babyak collaborated in 2006 to continuously measure water depth, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pressure, and conductivity (Thaxton et al., 2007). Monthly data on bed sediment samples, TSS, alkalinity, acidity, and metal conduct was collected manually from Boone Creek. In 2007-2008, Derek Routhier measured metals in Boone Creek using six sampling sites: bank emporium on Howard St. (BE), Jimmy Smith Park (JS), waterfall across from Stadium Dr. (SD), steam plant (SP), Durham Park (DP), and a tributary in Durham Park (TR) (Routhier, 2008). Routhier used the ICP-OES to calculate metal concentrations and found similar results to Thaxton et al. (2007), but found manganese was above the action level of 0.2 ppm. Methods This project aims to amend previous work from Thaxton et al. (2007) and Routhier (2008) to compare concentrations of sodium, chloride, iron, manganese, NO3-, and PO43-, and pH and TSS, in an effort to quantify the impact of recent stream remediation efforts. A field meter, calibrated before sampling, will be used to determine conductivity and pH. A syringe with filter paper of 0.45 ?m pore size will be used to collect TSS. Samples will be collected and stored according to established protocols in the following volumes: TSS 0.5 L - 1 L; alkalinity 100 - 250 mL; metals 100 mL; anions 100 mL. The samples will be analyzed using the ICP-OES, and will be taken monthly at each location BE, JS, SD, SP, DP, and TR from February 1, 2012 through August 15, 2012. Results are expected to be presented at the fall 2012 SNURCS conference and the Spring 2012/2013 ASU student research day. The results may also be used in support of future grant proposals. Thaxton, C.S., C.M. Babyak, W. Anderson. J. L. Anderson, W.P. Benner III, J.A. Davis, and C.A. Penders. 2007. Baseline monitoring case study of a high-gradient, urbanized stream-Boone Creek, Boone, NC, 2007 Low Impact Development Conference Proceedings, ASCE. (peer-reviewed-American Society of Civil Engineers, March, 2007) Routhier, Derek. 2008. Chemical Monitoring of Boone Creek, an Urbanized Headwaters Stream

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341. A Comparative Study of Two Antipoverty Organizations in Knox County, Kentucky: The KCEOC and the Lend-A-Hand Center

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Kathryn Engle Appalachian Studies Katherine Ledford University College Appalachian Studies Dec 16, 2011
Project Description: I am planning on taking ten trips from Gray, Kentucky, to Walker, Kentucky, over the winter break and possibly through the end of January 2012 to conduct interviews with people living on Stinking Creek and to look at primary documents to use towards my master’s thesis. In order to save costs, I will be staying at my grandparents’ house in Gray, approximately 30 miles (or 50 minutes) from the Stinking Creek community near Walker, Kentucky, while I am conducting research. I plan on researching between December 16, 2011, and January 31, 2012. I am currently unsure of the exact dates because I have to work out scheduling with several people. The purpose of this research project is to conduct interviews and oral history interviews to learn more about the history of Knox County, Kentucky, and poverty and antipoverty organizations in the county, specifically the Kentucky Communities Economic Opportunity Council (KCEOC) and the Lend-A-Hand Center. My research question broadly includes, what is the history of Knox County, how have different historical events and developments in the history of Knox County impacted poverty in the county, what has poverty been like in the county, what have antipoverty organizations done in the county, what is the history and effectiveness of antipoverty organizations in the county, and what changes have antipoverty organizations gone through. Information gathered in these personal interviews will be coupled with other research and serve as the basis for my master’s thesis. By conducting interviews with the directors of the Lend-A-Hand Center, located on Stinking Creek, near Walker, Kentucky, I will be able to gather primary source material relating to antipoverty organizations in Knox County. Going to the Lend-A-Hand Center will also enable me to look at their organizational documents such as founding documents, annual reports, antipoverty program documents, and other primary materials unavailable anywhere else. The final product of this research will be a master’s thesis which will be presented in the spring of 2013 in order to fulfill the requirements of a Master of Arts degree in Appalachian Studies. This thesis will help further understanding of poverty and antipoverty organizations in Knox County and Appalachia as a whole. The research travel expenses for which I am requesting funding is very important to my experience at ASU and to my future academic work, especially my master’s thesis. This research will give me experience conducting field research and oral history interviews and will help me further understand poverty and antipoverty organizations in Knox County. Funding through the Office of Student Research will enable me to conduct these interviews and gather primary documents in Knox County. Travel money will greatly help me accomplish my research in a timely manner and help me get all the information I need from sources at the Lend-A-Hand Center.

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342. EFFECTS OF ARTIFICIAL SNOWMAKING AND LAND USE BY SKI RESORTS NEAR BOONE, NORTH CAROLINA ON LOCAL STREAM CHEMISTRY

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Michael Flowe Environmental Science Carol Babyak Arts and Sciences Chemistry Dec 16, 2011
Project Description: Ski areas near Boone, North Carolina are a vital part of the local economy as they provide tourism dollars that boost the winter economy. However, land use changes from ski resorts including land clearing, alterations to water runoff channels and streams may decrease the ability of affected watersheds to naturally mitigate the introduction of chemicals to the environment from artificial snow making. As global warming may decrease the length of the natural ski season, ski resorts may need to make more snow to maintain profitability. Herein, we propose to examine the potential change in chemistry in local headwaters at select locations due to artificial snow making relative to baseline. Understanding the influence on stream chemistry from snow making may motivate changes in either the snow making process or the mitigation of contaminants during snowmelt runoff. Five sample sites were chosen in proximity to two ski resorts. Appalachian Ski Mountain (940 Ski Mountain Road, Blowing Rock, NC) has a peak elevation of 4000 feet and 22 acres of more-concentrated snow making. Sugar Mountain Resort (Sugar Mountain Drive, Sugar Mountain, NC) has a peak elevation of 5300 feet and 115 acres of less-concentrated snowmaking. Samples will be taken episodically throughout the 2011-2012 ski season. During each sampling excursion, three samples will be taken at a selected location on two of the streams that run off of Appalachian Ski Mountain and one stream that runs off of Sugar Mountain Resort. Samples will also be taken from an unaffected (baseline) stream. The initial sample set will be taken before the beginning of the ski season and the onset of artificial snow production (Note: initial samples were taken November 11 2011). Sample sets will be taken during the ski season while stable snow mass is present, during periods of rain, and during periods of relatively high temperatures. The final sample set will be taken after the ski season, after artificial snow production has ceased during snowmelt. Each sample will be tested specifically for chloride, sodium, potassium, aluminum and iron. The samples may also be tested for a range of other ions to determine if any other chemical levels are above normal, depending on available time. The streams will also be tested for temperature, dissolved Oxygen (O2), acidity (pH), salinity, and conductivity. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) will be used to test for metal ions present in the solution. Both dissolved and total ion concentrations will be tested. (Note: there were no visable concentrations present on the filter paper for the baseline tests sampled November 11, 2011). Ion Chromatography will be used to test for chloride levels. Results will be disseminated through the ASU Student Research Day (Spring 2012) and possibly the SNCURCS event in 2012. We also expect to publish the results in the Journal of Student Research in Environmental Science at Appalachian in May 2012.

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343. Atomic Force Microscopy of Neanderthal Stone Tools

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Stephen Dellinger Physics Tonya Coffey Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Nov 29, 2011
Project Description: Within the field of archaeology, there are multiple methods used to determine the functionality of a stone tool. Microwear analysis is a technique for studying polishes on the edge of tools. Polish from a tool with unknown function is compared to polish from an experimentally produced tool. By knowing the functions of the experimentally produced tools, predictions can be made of the function of the tool under question. The Keeley Method is a qualitative optical microscopy technique that identifies polishes and wear spots on stone tools based upon their wear morphology. Current microwear research efforts are focused on more quantitative and less subjective techniques. Our group is the only group using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to obtain quantitative data on polishes. In this study, we are examining Neanderthal stone tools found in Weasel Cave. This study is of the third set of tools excavated, building on previous work. The tools studied here are roughly 30,000 to 100,000 years old and were used for wood working, fresh hide working, dry hide working, bone working, and meat cutting. The tools were first examined in an optical microscope, where the polishes were first identified and photographed. These polish locations were then scanned in the AFM, and unworn regions were also scanned to act as controls. We then analyzed the AFM scans to show quantitative roughness and skewness data. Weasel Cave was discovered in 1981 by Dr. Nazim Hidjrati. It is positioned around 1125 meters above mean sea level and is located on the northern slopes of the Central Caucasus. It is thought to contain stratified Medieval, Iron Age, Bronze Age, Chalcolithic, Mesolithic, and Paleolithic occupations. Because of the location, the chemical balance within the cave has allowed for preservation of objects like wood charcoal, nuts, and seeds. Excavation has taken place within the cave ever since its discovery. The poster will be used at SNCURS on November 19 as well as the Annual Celebration of Student Research and Creative Endeavors on April 19. It will also be used for the Appalachian Regional Microscopy Society meeting. The poster displays the current position of the research of the neanderthal stone tools. Previous research is also included as this project is continuing from previous years.

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344. Nanoscience outreach.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Michael Corum Physics Tonya Coffey Arts and Sciences Physics and Astronomy Nov 29, 2011
Project Description: Research over the summer has been conducted using a table-top SEM. The goal of the research was to create an outreach plan. We have been going to schools and seminars and have needed a poster for display purposes.

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345. Perfectionism in India Compared to America: A Cross-Cultural Internet-Based Assessment

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Stephen Semcho Psychology Bob Hill Arts and Sciences Psychology Nov 29, 2011
Project Description: Perfectionism is a concept in the psychological literature that has undergone a multitude of revisions throughout its history. The current conceptualization of perfectionism is multidimensional in nature; that is, the construct of perfectionism depends on a number of sub-factors. Dr. Hill, in the ASU Psychology Department, has developed a relatively new instrument to measure perfectionism, called the Perfectionism Inventory (PI). The PI combines features of 2 of the previously most-often used instruments, and as a result is a more comprehensive, simple, reliable, and valid tool. The PI has shown support for a 2-factor model of perfectionism: Conscientious Perfectionism (consisting of subscales for Organization, Striving for Excellence, High Standards for Others, and Planfulness), and Self-Evaluative Perfectionism (Concern over Mistakes, Need for Approval, Rumination, and Perceived Parental Pressure). Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) service is a unique crowdsourcing tool that allows registered users to complete online tasks for small payments. Research has shown that data collected via MTurk is at least as reliable and truthful as data collected in more conventional ways. Additionally, MTurk respondents are generally more representative of general populations than the usual undergraduate sample on which most perfectionism literature has been based. MTurk also provides a unique opportunity for cross-cultural research; users from the country of India make use of MTurk almost as often as do users from America. The only other study on perfectionism in India used the conventional undergraduate population; our study proposes to collect data from a more representative and generalizable population. The specific goals of this project are to administer the Perfectionism Inventory (PI) over the internet via MTurk to Indian users in order to examine differences between an Indian sample and a previously obtained American sample. Additionally, we plan to examine the construct of perfectionism in India by testing the fit of the 2-factor model through a confirmatory factor analysis; should the 2-factor model prove to be an inappropriate fit for the Indian sample, we will conduct exploratory factor analyses in order to discover the actual nature of perfectionism in India. In order to conduct the appropriate factor analyses, we will need 500-600 respondents. Assuming that we may have to throw out some bad data, we are targeting a minimum of 600 respondents. We will pay each respondent $0.50 for their efforts, a sum that is appropriate considering similar tasks that are available on MTurk. Amazon also charges a 10% commission; therefore, considering everything, we will need at least $330 to collect enough data in order to perform the necessary factor analyses for this unique cross-cultural personality assessment. The project has not yet been submitted for IRB approval, but will be in the future.

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346. Recylcable Rubbers: Metal Coordination Polymer Networks

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Miriam Pippin Chemistry Alexander Schwab Arts and Sciences Chemistry Nov 29, 2011
Project Description: The goal of this research was to create cross-links using metal coordination chemistry to create a rubber that would maintain its desirable physical properties and yet be recyclable. The new material called a metal coordination polymer network (MCPN) is predicted to be recyclable because the metal complexes can be broken more easily than covalent bonds. Metal complexes can be strongly colored. Strain on the MCPN can cause metal complexes to break, changing the color of the material, and providing warning that the material is going to break. There is also a possibility for these complexes to be self-healing if they are damaged. The proposed budget is to print a poster that will be presented on November 19th 2011, at East Carolina University at the State of North Carolina Undergraduate Research and Creativity Symposium.

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347. Magnitude of dehydration by Mixed Martial Arts fighters prior to competition.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Adam Jetton Exercise Science Alan Utter Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Nov 29, 2011
Project Description: Specific Goals: The purpose of this investigation is to characterize the magnitude of acute weight gain, body composition, weight loss methods, and dehydration in mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters. We will also examine any possible relationship between fighting success and acute weight gain. Broader Significance: To our knowledge, this will be the first study to attempt to document the extent of dehydration, weight loss methods, and body weight fluctuations in MMA fighters during competitive events. Results will have direct impact on State Medical Advisory Committees who develop policy and procedures on weigh-ins, body composition, and weight loss guidelines for MMA fighters in their respective states. Project Design: 75 competitive MMA fighters between the ages of 18-40 will serve as subjects. Subjects will be recruited from competitive MMA fights scheduled in the state of Wisconsin. IRB approval for this study was granted on 8/23/10. MAA fighters from the State of North and South Carolina will be requested to participate in the voluntary assessment of body composition, weight regain, weight loss methods, and hydration. Body composition will be measured using skinfold analysis (SFA) methods described in the NCAA Guidelines for Assessing Body Composition in Collegiate Wrestlers. Skinfold assessment requires pinches of skin and underlying fat at three locations: the triceps area, subscapular area, and the abdomen near the navel. Weight regain will be determined by having each fighter step on a scale during the official weigh-in which occurs 18-24 h prior to the fight. Body weight will then be re-measured at 18-24 hours after the weigh-in. All re-weighing will take place on the same scale that was used to determine the official weight. Hydration will be measured by asking the fighters to voluntary supply us with a urine sample during each of the body weight measurements. If a fighter volunteers to provide us with a urine sample, he will be asked to urinate in a plastic cup. The specific gravity of these samples will be analyzed utilizing a refractometer to assess hydration level. Weight loss methods will be determined by self-report through a survey instrument. Justification of how and why proposed budget is needed: This is the last round of data collection needed to complete the study. Results of data collected up to this point show significance and we expect that this research will result in a National Presentation at the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Annual Meeting and a publication in ACSM’s Official Research Journal: Medicine & Science in Sports & exercise.

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348. Childhood ADHD Symptoms and Maternal Monitoring and Rejection Independently Predict Problematic Alcohol Use in College. & Associations between Father-Child Relationship Quality and Childhood Disruptive Behavior.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Marie Saxon Psychology Will Canu Arts and Sciences Psychology Nov 29, 2011
Project Description: Our lab analyzed data that we had to construct posters to present at this conference. The posters are already assembled, and printed.

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349. Anxiety Sensitivity as a Moderator of the Association Between Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms and Quality-of-Life Ratings

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Grace Boyers Psychology Joshua Broman-Fulks Arts and Sciences Psychology Nov 29, 2011
Project Description: I will be presenting a research poster accepted for the Poster Session of the Annual Conference of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies. I am the primary investigator on the poster research and will be the only presenter at the conference. In my research, using a previously collected data set, I found that anxiety sensitivity was a significant moderator of the relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptoms and quality of life ratings. In addition, I found that anxiety sensitivity was a significant moderator of the relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptoms and perceived stress ratings. Higher levels of anxiety sensitivity were related to poorer quality of life and perceived stress ratings beyond effects contributed by obsessive-compulsive symptoms or anxiety sensitivity alone.

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350. Expression of the human organic anion transporter isoform 1 in E. Coli

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Shea Comadoll Chemistry Jennifer Cecile Arts and Sciences Chemistry Nov 29, 2011
Project Description: The human OAT1 is expressed in the brain, eyes, smooth muscle, and kidneys. It plays a role in the transport and excretion of xenobiotics in the human body. E. Coli is a widely used host for the production of proteins including those found in eukaryotic cells. Past attempts to express the hOATs in E. Coli and yeast have failed. Resent results of successful expression of MATE (which is within the same family of transporters as hOAT1) gives hope that a knew method for expression of proteins in E. Coli (BL21(DE3) cells with pET-19b vector) will work with hOAT1. Successful use of E. Coli as a vector would allow us to replicate this protein in greater quantities than we are currently able to produce, which would allow for structure function studies using Rama spectroscopy. The budget for using this method includes media to grow the E. Coli, restriction enzymes to clone DNA into the vector, the antibiotic used to screen for resistance, and flasks for culturing of the cells. Results from this project will be presented at the 15th Annual Celebration of Student Research and Endeavors.

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351. “Stepping it up in the High Country”: Assessing Physical Activity and Nutrition Knowledge and Behaviors among University Students

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Blair Collins Exercise Science Lanay Mudd Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Nov 29, 2011
Project Description: North Carolina, with 7% of adults obese, is the 16th highest state for adult obesity in the country. Physical activity and nutrition are two factors for a healthy lifestyle that may combat the rising trend in obesity. As such, the U.S. government has issued guidelines for physical activity and nutrition. The patterns formed in early adulthood (college aged students) set the foundation for future health behaviors, yet it is unclear whether the average young adult is aware of health guidelines or whether they impact daily behavior. The objectives of this study are to: 1. Evaluate knowledge of physical activity and nutrition guidelines of college students across two majors 2. Assess current physical activity and nutrition behavior of these students 3. Identify barriers and facilitators for pursuing a healthy lifestyle in Western NC To accomplish these objectives, 50 Appalachian students will be recruited from one of two majors: Health Promotion and Accounting. The study will be announced in class and interested students will be asked to provide their contact information on a sign-up sheet. Our goal is to recruit 25 students from each major to allow comparisons by major. Interested students will come to a one-time study visit in the Holmes Convocation Center to perform informed consent and complete measures. Participants will agree to complete a survey, have height and weight measured, and wear an accelerometer to measure their physical activity for 3 days. The survey will include questions on knowledge of physical activity and nutritional guidelines, current nutritional intake, participation in outdoor activities, and perceived barriers and facilitators for outdoor activity. Participants will be instructed to wear the accelerometer over the right hip for 3 days, except when sleeping, bathing or swimming. A “Wear Time” log will be provided to record times and reasons when the accelerometer is taken off. Participants will return the accelerometer to a drop box in the Holmes Convocation Center and receive $10.00 in compensation for their time and effort. Descriptive statistics on survey responses and time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity according to accelerometry will be calculated. We will evaluate how major, gender, race, age, and other descriptive characteristics might influence knowledge of physical activity and nutrition guidelines, physical activity and nutrition behaviors, and attitudes towards barriers/facilitators. The results from this study may provide valuable knowledge to take preventive action and build a stronger healthy living foundation at an earlier age. IRB Approval- Pending

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352. Characterization of VEGF and its receptors in Human Cervix

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Takako Ohashi Biology Chishimba Mowa Arts and Sciences Biology Nov 29, 2011
Project Description: Overview: Our lab has extensively studied and characterized the expression and likely role of VEGF in the birth canal of rodents, in order to understand its role in the changes that the birth canal undergoes during pregnancy and birth. The aim of these studies is to better understand the mechanisms of birth canal remodeling and how this relates to preterm labor. In the present study, we begin to compare our previous data in rodents to human, using human cervix from non-pregnant women. In the initial phase, we will characterize the expression pattern of VEGF and its receptors using morphological techniques, namely confocal and H and E. We also plan to use real time and Western blot analysis, when we get more tissues from our collaborator, Dr. Anumba, from Sheffield University Medical School, Sheffield, England.

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353. The Influence of Prenatal Exercise on Labor and Birth Outcomes and Postpartum Health

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Aubrey VanGoethem Health Promotion Lanay Mudd Health Sciences Health, Leisure and Exercise Science Nov 29, 2011
Project Description: Introduction The average woman spends 6-12 hours in labor during childbirth, gives birth to a seven and a half pound baby and spends 2-4 days in post-partum recovery before the real work of raising a child even begins. Unfortunately, with the added stress of having a new baby, women often find it challenging to lose weight gained during pregnancy, leading to postpartum weight retention and an increased risk of obesity. While physical activity is recommended during pregnancy, it is not well understood how physical activity may influence the outcomes of labor and delivery time and postpartum weight loss. In this study, we aim to evaluate the following research questions 1) Does increased maternal prenatal physical activity decrease labor and delivery time? 2) Is maternal prenatal physical activity related to increased physical activity postpartum? 3) Is maternal prenatal physical activity related to lower postpartum weight retention? Methods Staff at the Broyhill Wellness Center in Boone, NC have agreed to assist researchers with implementing this study. We plan to contact 250 women who have participated in prenatal exercise classes at the Wellness Center during a pregnancy that occurred within the last two years. Our goal is to recruit at least 200 of these women (an 80% response rate). The women will be asked to complete a survey and return it to us in the mail in a self-addressed and pre-stamped envelope. This survey will ask questions concerning participation in the prenatal classes, additional physical activity outside of classes during pregnancy, outcomes concerning labor and delivery time, postpartum participation in physical activity, postpartum weight retention, and maternal demographics such as age, race, and socioeconomic status. We will calculated total minutes per week spent in physical activity in each time frame and categorize women as getting < recommended (i.e., <150 min/wk) or > recommended physical activity (i.e., > 150 min/wk). Postpartum weight retention will be calculated as current weight minus self-reported pre-pregnancy weight. Statistics We will conduct descriptive analyses on all variables. We will then compare mean duration of labor based on levels of prenatal physical activity (recommended) using ANOVA and ANCOVA tests. We will compare prenatal and postnatal physical activity participation using Pearson or Spearman correlations depending on the normality of the data. Finally, we will compare mean amounts of postpartum weight retention using ANCOVA tests and controlling for time since delivery. Implications of Results We hope that the results of this research will provide beneficial information about the effectiveness of prenatal exercises classes for the Broyhill Wellness Center. We also aim to provide women with more accurate recommendations concerning exercise and labor and weight retention outcomes, which may provide added motivation for exercise during pregnancy. IRB approval pending

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354. Elevational Diversity Shifts of Ericoid Mycorrhizal Fungi that Colonize Rhododendron Maximum in the Southern Appalachian Temperate Forrest

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Daniel Parker Biology John Walker Arts and Sciences Biology Nov 29, 2011
Project Description: Our lab studies ericoid mycorrhizal fungal diversity. Mycorrhizal associations consist of a fungi and a plant host. In this symbiosis the fungi take photosynthetic sugars from the plant and in return provide the plant with essential nutrients from the soil. Mycorrhizal fungi are better adapted at accessing nutrients from soil organic matter than the plant. This is due to an increased area of contact to the soil provided by massive fungal hyphae networks that the plant roots cannot reach on its own. Some evidence also show ericoid mycorrhizal fungi has a saprobic ability which allows access to nutrients from organic sources that would otherwise not be available to the plant. Ericoid mycorrhizal associations are a specific type of mycorrhizae that that only associate with plants in the family Ericaceae. One Ericoid plant of interest in the Southern Appalachian Mountains is Rhododendron maximum. Rhododendron maximum is an understory plant and grows in dense patches called thickets. These thickets are found to inhibit the recruitment of canopy trees by shading out the young saplings and by allelopathic inhibition. Inhibition is also facilitated by a closed nitrogen feedback loop created by the tannin rich leaf litter of R. maximum that only ericoid mycorrhizal fungi can efficiently break down and take up nutrients that they give back to the host plant. It is important to understand the dynamics of this relationship and the diversity of the fungal partners for R. maximum to better evaluate the implications of this rapidly spreading dominant understory plant in the southern Appalachians. We have identified that R. maximum have increased colonization at higher elevations. We hypothesize that Ericoid Mycorrhizal diversity will also change along an elevational gradient. With an increase in elevation there is a decrease in nutrient availability and we predict that the host plants will show an inclination towards fungi that will increase their ability to uptake nutrients. The first step to characterize the diversity of the fungal symbionts is by setting up three transects along elevational gradient at three different sites and collecting numerous root sections at each transect from the host plants. The fungi are then cultured onto plates. DNA extractions will be performed from the cultures and then amplified by PCR using primers for fungal specific ITS regions in the fungi. We will sequence the amplified DNA and compare them to a BLAST database. Once we have identified the cultures we can show how the diversity of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi shifts according to the elevations and soil quality where they were sampled.

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355. Modulation of Parturition by Echinacea

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Jordan Estes Biology Nathan Mowa Arts and Sciences Biology Nov 29, 2011
Project Description: Medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activities, such as Echinacea, could be used to modulate inflammation-induced preterm labor. Therefore, the purpose of my study is to test whether Echinacea extracts with anti-inflammatory activities can attenuate infection-induced inflammation in the cerrvices of mice and inflammation-induced preterm labor. We will use an ex vivo model of whole cervices of non-pregnant ovariectomized mice in order to screen several isolated bioactive Echinacea compounds (Caffeic acid, Apigenin, Luteolin, and Limonene) with anti-inflammatory properties in order to determine the most potent compounds to modulate lipopolyssacharide (LPS)-induced preterm labor. So far, preliminary screenings have shown Luteolin and Limonene to be effective through Immunohistochemical studies and gene expression studies. At this point in my project, I need animals to extract tissue from for protein analysis via western blot.

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356. Indirect Determination of Enzyme Kinetics Using Capillary Electrophoresis with Chemiluminescence Detection

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Bryan Morse Chemistry Libby Puckett Arts and Sciences Chemistry Nov 29, 2011
Project Description: Electrophorectically mediated microanalysis (EMMA) was used in this research as a method of studying enzyme kinetics in conjunction with chemiluminescence (CL) detection. An instrument that interfaces capillary electrophoresis (CE) with chemiluminescence detection was constructed to carry out these experiments. This CE-CL system was validated by injecting aliquots of luminol onto the column and allowing it to react with hydrogen peroxide in the detection cell. This instrument has also been used for on-column mixing of enzyme and substrate in order to study the kinetics of physiologically significant enzymes that produce hydrogen peroxide. This allows us to measure the enzymatic activity indirectly. Glucose oxidase was used as the model enzyme in this study, and luminol was used to detect the production of hydrogen peroxide by measuring the chemiluminescence with a photon counter in a post-column reactor. The electropherograms produced from the enzyme injection have a plateau shape that is indicative of the rate of the reaction. To date, the concentration of the injected enzyme has been changed in order to determine Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The results of this study will ultimately lead to a faster approach for determining enzyme kinetics. This grant will be used to print a poster I will use at SNCURCS.

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357. The characterization of a novel Meis2 linked gene and protein product

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Zachary Williams Biology Ted Zerucha Arts and Sciences Biology Nov 29, 2011
Project Description: We have identified a novel gene that appears to be utilized during embryonic development. This new gene is genomically linked to the Meis2 gene in all animals we have been able to examine. The Meis2 gene is known to be involved in the embryonic development of the anterior to posterior axis as well as other major roles in brain and eye development. My research project is looking at the characterization of the zgc:154061 gene of which little is currently known. In order to further study and characterize the zgc:154061 gene and its protein product I am currently working on expressing it in bacteria. This will allow me to obtain sufficient quantities of the protein product to perform future biochemical studies on. I am using current bio-molecular technology to insert the coding sequence of the zebrafish zgc:154061 gene into an expression vector called pGEX-3X. This expression construct will then be transformed into bacteria which will follow the zgc:154061 instructions to produce its protein product which I can then purify from the bacteria. With an ample amount of protein produced, we will be able to use modern molecular biology techniques and technologies to biochemically analyze and characterize this novel protein.

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358. Latin American Immigrant Integration in United States Society with a focus on North Carolina.

Student Major Faculty Advisor College Department Award Date
Corey Dodd Interior Design Alex Poorman Fine and Applied Arts Technology Nov 29, 2011
Project Description: To identify the factors that influence the successful integration of Latin Americans into United States society. Following the testing of said factors I will design a community center that will provide immigrant families with transitional resources promoting their successful and healthy integration into their new community. There are normalcies in Latin American Architecture that one does not see displayed in the Architecture here in the United States. The use of color is very important in Latin American Architecture. I will test the use of color by designing three community center lounge areas each of a different color scheme using digital rendering software. The three digital designs will then be presented to Latin American immigrants to discover which colors they respond the most positively and negatively. Architectural forms influence ones comfort level in a space. The use of curvilinear versus geometric forms varies between cultures. Three digital renderings will be produced of a lounge area in the proposed community center without the use of color. One rendering containing a majority of curvilinear forms, one rendering containing a majority of geometric forms, and one rendering containing geometric and curvilinear forms. These digital renderings will then be presented to Latin American immigrants to discover which architectural forms they respond to the positively and negatively. Social structures influence design. The organization of society through its social structures determines how people interact with a space. Three key social structures include population age, population ethnicity and population status. When studying population age the concepts of generational ideals and physical accessibility are to be taken into consideration. When studying population ethnicity although said immigrants being studied are all of Latin America they may be of varying countries within Latin America which will result in varying opinions. And when studying population status whether or not the subjects are married, single, young adults, parents, wealthy or poor make a huge difference on what they believe. The societal views based on these three social structures (age, ethnicity, and status) will be tested through the composition of a survey questioning the immigrants views of cultural barriers between themselves and United States natives including language, transportation-public and private, possession or lack of formal U.S job training, and possession or lack of a U.S. GED or college diploma. A survey tool that meets IRB approval will be used to explore the issues of social structure. The survey is under development and will seek IRB approval before implementation. Final design will include:programming document, architectural renderings and a model. The research and final design will be presented during the Interior Design Senior Portfolio Review in May